© Stephen E. Jones
This is the third (and an update of the second) installment of part #8, "Eighth century," of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series See part #1, "First century" and index.
8th century (701-800)
[Above (enlarge): Bust of Christ Pantocrator from the catacomb of Pontianus, Rome. Note in particular the Vignon marking on this 8th century fresco: "(2) three-sided [topless] `square' between brows. See "710" below.]
c. 710 Estimated completion during the reign of Justinian II (668–711) of eighth century Christ Pantocrator fresco (see above), in the style of Byzantine iconography, found in the depths of the catacomb of Pontianus, Rome. That the Shroud ("doubled in four" = tetradiplon as the Image of Edessa) was the original upon which this early eighth century Byzantine icon was a copy, is evident in that it has at least eight, and by my count eleven Vignon markings [18Mar12 & 22Sep12, 27Apr14]:
"(1) Transverse streak across forehead, (2) three-sided [topless] `square' between brows, ... (5) raised right eyebrow, (6) accentuated left cheek, (7) accentuated right cheek, (8) enlarged left nostril, (9) accentuated line between nose and upper lip, ... (12) forked beard, (13) transverse line across throat, (14) heavily accentuated owlish eyes, (15) two strands of hair.out of the fifteen found on the Shroud! In the 1930s French biologist Paul Vignon (1865-1943) was struck by this and other oddities which were unnatural and had no artistic merit, found in Byzantine depictions of Jesus' face, and which are also found in identical positions on the Shroud. These became known as the "Vignon markings". This "topless square" Vignon marking is merely an anomaly in the weave on the Shroud. Since this catacomb was closed in 820 and only opened in 1852, a 14th century forger could not have known of the Vignon markings on this Pontianus fresco. So this is further proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroud existed in the eighth century!
711 Musa ibn Nusayr (640–716), the Muslim governor of North Africa, invaded Spain in 711 and in 718 took Toledo. In 711 the Sudarium of Oviedo [see "616"] was taken from Toledo in its chest to the northern Spanish kingdom of Asturias where it was kept in a cave on a mountain called Monsacro, ten kilometres (6 miles) from what was to become the city of Oviedo.
To be continued in the fourth installment of this part #8 of this series.
1. This post is copyright. Permission is granted to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page[return].
2. "Catacomba di Ponziano," Google Translate, Wikipedia, 25 January 2016. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.105; Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 189, 191; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.153. [return]
4. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.110. [return]
5. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ?," , Image Books: New York NY, Revised, p.102; "Catacomba di Ponziano," Wikipedia, 25 January 2016. [return]
6. Wilson, 1986, pp.105-106; Scavone, 1991, p.189. [return]
7. Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.77. [return]
8. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.193. [return]
9. Wilcox, R.K., 1977, "Shroud," Macmillan: New York NY, p.85; Wilson, 1986, p.107; Scavone, 1991, p.189; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.193; Wilson, & Schwortz, 2000, p.110. [return]
10. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.82E. return]
11. Wilson, 1979, pp.104-105; Maher, 1986, p.77; Iannone, 1998, p.152; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.110. [return]
12. Wilson, 1986, p.105, 107. [return]
13. Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.58. [return]
14. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.166. [return]
15. Wilson, 1991, p.169. [return]
16. Wilson, 1991, p.169; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.110. [return]
17. Guscin, M., 1999, "Recent Historical Investigations on the Sudarium of Oviedo," in Walsh, B.J., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.122-141, 127; Bennett, J., 2001, "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, pp.31, 195. [return]
18. Guscin, M., 1998, "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, p.15; Bennett, 2001, p.32. [return]
19. Bennett, 2001, p.29, 31, 195. [return]
20. Guscin, 1998, p.15; Bennett, 2001, p.32; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.43. [return]
Posted: 24 February 2017. Updated: 27 February 2017.