Here, belatedly, is part 10, "2.4. The wounds" in my series, The Shroud of Turin My previous post in this series was part 9, "2.3. The man on the Shroud ." See the series' part 1, Contents for more information about this series.
2. WHAT IS THE SHROUD OF TURIN?
2.4. THE WOUNDS
© Stephen E. Jones
Wounds. The man on the Shroud has numerous wounds , to
[Above: The wounds, bloodstains and other marks on the Shroud of Turin]
As will be seen, both the wounds and the bloodstains have an anatomical, scientific and historical  accuracy which was unknown in the 14th century, and therefore represent yet another major problem of the forgery theory[16, §3].
Head and face. The man's scalp, front and back, has numerous puncture wounds which correspond to a crown, or rather cap, of thorns being thrust over the top of the man's head. These puncture wounds match those on the Sudarium of Oviedo[21 ] which has been in Spain since the seventh century. This is evidence that the 13th-14th century radiocarbon date of the Shroud is wrong and is another major problem for the forgery theory[25, §4]. His face has been severely beaten with a broken nose[27, 28], and swelling of both eyebrows, below his right eye, nose, left cheek, and left side of his chin .
Body. The man's shoulders have abrasions consistent with having carried a Roman crossbeam. His chest and back have over a hundred small dumbbell shaped32] which correspond to the pieces of metal attached to the three thongs of a Roman whip called a flagrum. On his right side, just below his heart there is a large wound which corresponds to a thrust of a Roman lance.
Arms and hands. The man has a wound at the wrist of his left hand consistent with a large nail having been driven through it. Unlike traditional depictions of Christ with nails in the palms of his hands, the Shroud is scientifically and historically accurate because nails through ithe palms cannot support a man's body. The man's left hand is crossed over his right so any nail wound in his right hand cannot be seen.
Legs and feet. The man's knees have lacerations consistent with the man having fallen to his knees on hard ground or paving. The back of his calves and front of his thighs also have numerous dumbbell shaped wounds from scourging with a Roman flagrum. The right foot only is visible on the Shroud and then only on the dorsal side. It has a wound consistent with a large nail having been driven through it. The left foot is not visible presumably because it was placed over the right foot, and the two feet affixed to the cross by a single nail. Then rigor mortis would prevent the feet being laid out flat on the cloth.
Most of these wounds are accompanied with bloodstains which will be considered separately in part 11, "2.4. The bloodstains." The wounds correspond with the Gospel's description the suffering and death of Jesus Christ and will be further considered in "3. The Bible and the Shroud."
1. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.21. [return]
2. Brooks, E.H., II., Miller, V.D. & Schwortz, B.M., 1981, "The Turin Shroud: Contemporary Insights to an Ancient Paradox," Worldwide Exhibition: Chicago IL, p.13. [return]
3. Wilson, I. & Miller, V., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, pp.17,20.[return]
4. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.17. [return]
5. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.20. [return]
6. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.22. [return]
7. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.22-23. [return]
8. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.20. [return]
9. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.24. [return]
10. Wilson & Miller, 1986, pp.26,29. [return
11. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.29. [return]
12. Wilson, 1979, p.32. [return]
13. Wilson, 1979, p.36. [return]
14. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.43-48)[return]
15.Wilson, 1998, p.9 [return]
16. Wilson, 1979, p.41. [return]
17. Wilson, 1979, pp.36-37. [return]
18. Wilson, 1979, p.36. [return]
19. Wilson, 1979, p.37. [return]
20. Barbet, P., 1953, "A Doctor at Calvary," Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, Reprinted, 1963, pp.93-94. [return]
21 . Guscin, M., 1998, "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, pp.30,32. [return]
22. Guscin, 1998, pp.13-17. [return]
23. Damon, P.E., et al., "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, 1989, pp.611-615. [return]
24. Adler, A.D., 1998, "Concerning the Side Strip on the Shroud of Turin," in Adler, A.D. & Crispino, D., ed., "The Orphaned Manuscript: A Gathering of Publications on the Shroud of Turin," Effatà Editrice: Cantalupa, Italy, 2002, pp.89-90. [return]
25. Guscin, 1998, pp.84-87. [return]
26. Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.32. [return]
27. Zugibe, F.T., 1988, "The Cross and the Shroud: A Medical Enquiry into the Crucifixion," Paragon House: New York NY, Revised edition, p.28. [return]
28. That is, the nasal cartilage has separated from the bone (Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, pp.2-3). [return]
29. Wilson, 1979, p.36. [return]
30. Wilson, 1979, pp.38-39. [return]
31. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.56. [return]
32. Wilson, 1979, p.38. [return]
33. Wilson, 1979, p.38. [return]
34. Wilson, 1979, pp.47-48. [return]
35. Wilson, 1979, p.30. [return]
36. Barbet, 1953, pp.137-138. [return]
37. Wilson, 1979, pp.48-49. [return]
38. Wilson, 1979, pp.40-41. [return]
39. Wilson, 1979, p.40. [return]
40. Wilson, 1979, pp.40-41. [return]
41. Wilson, 1998, pp.44-48. [return]
42. Wilson & Miller, 1986, pp.22-23. [return]
43. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.165. [return]
44. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.165. [return]
45. Wilson, 1979, p.39. [return]
46. Wilson, 1998, p.33. [return]
47. Wilson, 1979, p.38. [return]
48. Wilson, 1986, p.20. [return]
49. Wilson, 1979, p.42. [return]
50. Wilson, 1979, p.22. [return]
51. Wilson, 1986, p.24. [return]
52. Wilson, 1979, pp.41-42. [return]
53. Wilson, 1979, p.42. [return]
54. Antonacci, 2000, p.32. [return]
55. Wilson, 1979, p.36. return]
56. Wilson, 1979, p.36. [return]
§3, §4. To be further examined under "9. Problems of the forgery theory". [return]
To be continued in part 11, "2.5. The bloodstains."
Last updated: 15 July, 2013.