Sunday, July 26, 2020

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Seventeenth century

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the seventh installment of part #22, "Seventeenth century" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see the Index #1. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. This page was initially based on Ian Wilson's 1996, "Highlights of the Undisputed History: 1600."

[Index #1] [Previous: 16th century (2) #21] [Next: 18th century #23]


17th century (1601-1700).

1602 December 11: A surprise attack by forces under the command of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy (r. 1580-1630), and his brother-in-law, Philip III of Spain (r. 1598–1621), is repelled by the citizens of Geneva[2].

1603 Establishment on August 17 by Federico Cesi (1585–1630) of what was to become in 1847 and 1936 the Pontifical Academy of Sciences[3].

1604a The Shroud begins to be kept rolled around a velvet-covered staff in a new silver-gilt wood casket, four feet long by one foot wide, which would remain the Shroud's container until 1998[4].

1604b May 4: Showing of the Shroud in the presence of Duke Charles Emmanuel I and his court[5].

1605 March 25: Church of the Most Holy Shroud is dedicated in Rome[6].

1606a February 14: Private showing of the Shroud to Silvestro da Assisi-Bini, father general of the Capuchin order, an offshoot of the Franciscans[7].

1606b May 9: Public showing of the Shroud before a crowd which included 40,000 visitors[8].

1607a: Account for four columns in black marble being supplied by a stone cutter in conformity with the design of the Chapel of the Holy Shroud in Turin[9].

1608: September 14. The thirtieth anniversary of the Shroud's arrival in Turin in 1578 [see "1578b"]. A print issued to mark the occasion is

[Above (enlarge)[10]: Print in the British Museum depicting the 1608 exposition of the Shroud in Turin. Unusually eleven bishops are depicted holding the Shroud[11].]

preserved in London's British Museum[12].

1613 May 4. Exposition of the Shroud at which St Francis de Sales (1567-1622), as bishop of Geneva, is one of the bishops who holds the cloth up before the populace[13]. An engraving by Antonio Tempesta (1555–1630) depicted this exposition and their immense popularity[14].

[Above (enlarge): "Antonio Tempesta (1555-1630), View of the Piazza del Castello, Turin, during the ostension of the Holy Shroud, 1613"[15].]

1616-17: Six official faithful "tone for tone, blotch for blotch" copies of the Veronica in St Peter's, Rome (which in turn was a copy of the Image of Edessa/Shroud) were commissioned by Pope Paul V (r. 1605-1621) to be painted by an amateur artist who was also a canon of St Peter's, Pietro Strozzi[16]. And at least three of Strozzi's copies have survived: "The Holy Face of Vienna," "The Holy Face of San Silvestro" and "The Holy Face of Genoa" [Right (enlarge)[17]] (see 27Jul17)[18].

1620a: The Shroud is shown in the Turin Castle Piazza to mark the marriage of Victor Amadeus I (1587-1637) to Christine of France (1606–63)[19].

1620b: A missal with a scene of Jesus being laid in the Shroud is made, preserved today in the Royal Library of Turin, is thought to derive from the workshop of Girolamo [sic] della Rovere[20]. This presumably is it:

[Left (enlarge)[21]: "Descent from the Cross with the Holy Shroud," by Giovanni Battista della Rovere (1561-1627).]

1624: Exposition of the Shroud at which Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Austria (1589-1631), asks for a copy of the Shroud to be made for herself[22]. She later gives the copy, which is frontal only, to the Dominican nuns of Rome, who 300 years later, give it to the Dominican nuns of the convent of Our Lady of the Rosary, in Summit, New Jersey, USA[23].

1630: On July 26 Duke Charles Emmanuel I dies and is succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Duke Victor Amadeus I (r. 1630-37)[24].

1633 June 16: Public showing of the Shroud in the Castle Piazza, Turin[25].

1635 May 4: Public showing of the Shroud in the Castle Piazza, Turin[26].

1637: On 7 October Duke Victor Amadeus I dies and is succeeded by his eldest son, 5 year-old Francis Hyacinth (1632–38)[27]. His mother, the widowed Duchess Christine, ruled Savoy as his Regent[28].

1638a Private showing of the Shroud at Turin for St. Jeanne Francoise de Chantal (1572-1641), founder of the Order of the Visitation of Mary[29].

1638b: On 4 October Duke Francis Hyacinth dies, aged 6, and is succeeded by his 4 year-old younger brother Duke Charles Emmanuel II (r. 1638–75)[30]. His mother Duchess Christine continued to rule Savoy as Regent but Victor Amadeus I's younger brothers, Princes of Savoy Maurice (1593-1657) and Thomas (1596-1656) disputed

[Right (enlarge)[31]: Christine, Duchess of Savoy, ruled Savoy for ~26 years]

that and started the Piedmontese Civil War (1639–42), with Spanish support to seize Savoy[32]. But Christine, who was the sister of King Louis XIII of France (r. 1610-43), with French support, was victorious and preserved Savoy for her son until he turned 14 in 1648[33]. But at Duke Charles Emmanuel II's invitation Christine continued as ruler of Savoy until her death in 1663[34].

1640 Shroud is exhibited as an expression of thanks for the release of Turin from the plague[35]

1642 Showing of the Shroud to mark the conclusion of peace between the princes of Savoy [see 1638b], in the presence of Christine of France, Duchess of Savoy, her young son Charles Emmanuel II, and the princes Maurice and Thomas of Savoy[36].

1647 May 4: At a public showing this year, held in the Cathedral, some in the enormous crowd died of suffocation[37].

1655 24 April: Massacre, including rape and torture, of thousands of civilian men, women and children of the proto-Protestant Waldensians

[Left (enlarge)[38]: Print dated 1658 depicting the death by torture in 1655 of a young Waldesian woman, Anna Charboniere of La Torre, by Savoyard troops.]

by Savoyard troops as ordered by Duke Charles Emmanuel II[39].

1657 5 June: Issue of official warrant authorising developed plans by Swiss-Italian architect Bernardino Quadri (c. 1625-95) for a Chapel of the Holy Shroud, raised high above the level of the cathedral presbytery and connected directly through to the royal apartments in the adjoining Royal Palace.[40].

1663a May 16-17: Exposition of the Shroud in the Cathedral of Turin is delayed from the normal May 4 date to coincide with the wedding on 3 April 1663 of Duke Charles Emmanuel II of Savoy with Francesca d'Orleans (1648–1664). She would die 9 months later on 14 January 1664 aged 15[41].

1663b Death on 27 December 1663 of Duchess Christine of Savoy[42].

1665a Showing of the Shroud in the Royal Chapel, in the presence of Archbishop of Turin Michele Beggiano (r. 1662-1689), to mark the coming marriage of Duke Charles Emmanuel II to his distant relative Maria Jeanne de Savoy-Nemours (1644-1724)[43].

1665b May 14: (Feast of the Ascension): Shroud is shown in public before a huge crowd, held up by seven bishops[44].

1665c May 20: Marie Jeanne de Savoy-Nemours marries Charles Emmanuel II[45].

To be continued in the eighth installment of this post.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "1602," Wikipedia, 11 July 2020. [return]
3. Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.132; "About," The Pontifical Academy of Sciences, 2017; "Pontifical Academy of Sciences," Wikipedia, 1 July 2020. [return]
4. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.14, 264. [return]
5. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.293. [return]
6. Ibid. [return]
7. Ibid. [return]
8. Ibid. [return]
9. Ibid. [return]
10. "print; broadside," Museum number 1913,0528.120, British Museum, 2020. [return]
11. Crispino, D.C., 1987, "The Pilgrim Badge of Lirey," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 25, December, pp.13-18, 16-17. [return]
12. Wilson, 1998, p.293. [return]
13. Ibid. [return]
14. Wilson, 2010, p.265. [return]
15. "The Origins of the Shroud of Turin," Medievalists.net, 24 October 2014. [return]
16. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, pp.106-113; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.37. [return]
17. "The Holy Face," Visitgenoa.it, 2020. [return]
18. Wilson, 1991, pp.111-114. [return]
19. Wilson, 1998, p.294. [return]
20. Ibid. [return]
21. "`The Holy Shroud' by Giovanni Battista della Rovere," Wikigallery.org, 30 July 2020. [return]
22. Wilson, 1998, p.294. [return]
23. Ibid. [return]
24. "Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy," Wikipedia, 5 April 2020. [return]
25. Wilson, 1998, p.294. [return]
26. Ibid. [return]
27. "Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy," Wikipedia, 28 December 2019. [return]
28. "Christine of France: Duchess and Regent of Savoy," Wikipedia, 7 April 2020. [return]
29. Wilson, 1998, p.294. [return]
30. "Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy," Wikipedia, 11 April 2020. [return]
31. "File:Portrait of Christine of France, Duchess of Savoy in 1633 by an anonymous artist.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 20 March 2020. [return]
32. "Christine of France: Duchess and Regent of Savoy," Wikipedia, 7 April 2020. [return]
33. Ibid. [return]
34. Ibid. [return]
35. Ibid. [return]
36. Ibid. [return]
37. Wilson, 1998, p.295. [return]
38. "File:AnnaCharboniereTortured.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 6 April 2020. [return]
39. "Piedmontese Easter," Wikipedia, 13 July 2020. [return]
40. Wilson, 1998, p.295. [return]
41. "Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans," Wikipedia, 25 June 2020. [return]
42. "Christine of France: Duchess and Regent of Savoy," Wikipedia, 7 April 2020. [return]
43. Wilson, 1998, p.295. [return]
44. Wilson, 1998, p.296. [return]
45. "Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours," Wikipedia, 27 May 2020. [return]

Posted: 26 July 2020. Updated: 4 August 2020.

Friday, July 24, 2020

"News and Editorial," Shroud of Turin News, June 2020

Shroud of Turin News - June 2020
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

[Previous: May 2020] [Next: July 2020]

This is the second and final installment of the June 2020 issue of my Shroud of Turin News. There were no news articles about the Shroud in June worth mentioning. In their place I will list under news, an old 2007 article about anti-authenticist art historian Gary Vikan's (see the previous month's article) `explanation' of how the Shroud was supposedly forged. My words are bold to distinguish them from the articles and quotes. I now have Vikan's new book, "The Holy Shroud: A Brilliant Hoax in the Time of the Black Death," on which I will begin a series soon.


News:
• "Demonstration calls shroud into question," Washington Examiner, 7 April 2007, Karl Hille ... Could you look upon the face of Christ? Many believe the Shroud of Turin portrays the death mask of Jesus of Nazareth, despite overwhelming historical and contextual evidence suggesting it was created in the 14th century to drive the pilgrimage tourism industry. Chemist Robert Morton explained at a Good Friday seminar at the Walters Art Museum's Graham Auditorium how a realistic shroud could be made using common scribe's chemicals available throughout human history. Morton prepared linen cloth with an iron solution, and then brought the coloration out with tannic acids -- revealing images of his wife, and his daughter's boyfriend similar to the faint negative image on the shroud. "The more pressure you put on it, the tannic acid moves around on the cloth so you get more reaction," Morton said ... He did not, however, make any claim about whether those methods were used in the shroud housed in Turin, Italy. "I'm a chemist, I make observations," Morton said. Morton and Vikan are ignorant of the fact that STURP found in the 1970s that the iron on the Shroud was mixed with strontium and calcium and uniformly distributed, except for the blood areas, and therefore derived from the ancient process of retting flax in natural bodies of water[2]. And that there was no difference in iron content between image and non-image areas, proving that the image was not the result of the iron[3]. Moreover, the tiny amount of iron on the Shroud was too faint to be visible to the naked eye[4]. Only the blood areas showed more iron, but that is because blood's hemoglobin contains iron[5]. So Vikan's "iron gall ink" forgery explanation of the Shroud's image (pp.88-89, 95, 158, 167, 176) is utterly and completely wrong!

Spoiler Alert! [Left [6].] I read ahead Morton and his daughter Rebecca Hoppe's "Scientific Addendum" at pages 165-183 of Vikan's book and I found there is at least one major feature of the Shroud image, x-rays:

"The frontal image of the man on the Shroud includes under-the-skin x-ray images of his skull, cheekbones, teeth, finger bones, hand bones and the dorsal image his spine"[20Apr17]
that they absurdly dismiss as mere "folds in the fabric" (p.171)! So Vikan's iron gall ink explanation of the Shroud image is at least doubly wrong!

"We don't have an opinion, we speak of possibilities." I have been unable to find by Google anything about Morton. And since receiving Vikan's book, I know why. Morton is a "mostly self-taught" (p.86) chemist who worked for Phillips 66. He appears to have held no academic position and may not even be formally qualified!

Measuring just over 14 feet long and 3 1/2 feet wide, the shroud reveals the image of a naked man bearing all the wounds attributed to the crucified Christ in the Gospel narratives, said Gary Vikan [Right[7]], director of the Walters Art Gallery. "The shroud is without a doubt the most powerful and compelling image in Christianity," Vikan said. However, since its appearance in Lirey, France, in 1357, the shroud has been surrounded by controversy, including a letter from Bishop Henri of Poitiers saying a craftsman told him how it was made. This is false. There was no letter from Bishop Henri of Poitiers. [see 03Jul18].

"This is how the shroud appears for the first time in history being denounced as a fake," Vikan said. This is also false. As I also pointed out in a previous post, that the Shroud first appeared in undisputed history, is not the same as "the shroud appears for the first time in history." There is in fact "objective, historical evidence that the Shroud existed in Constantinople in 1201, over a century and a half (154 years) before it was exhibited at Lirey in c. 1355! And 59 years before the earliest possible radiocarbon date of 1260! Therefore the Shroud appeared in the historical record in at least 13th century Constantinople, irrespective of whether anti-authenticists accept it!"[21Jun20].

The event drew a full house, though not everyone was convinced the Shroud of Turin was created using the methods Morton described. Morton is one of "at least a dozen people in the last couple of decades that have created an image in cloth" to explain the shroud, said Bob Lienhardt, who holds a doctoral degree in art history from the Sorbonne University. The tannin ink demonstration did not sway Allen Holden, a self-described scholar of the supernatural with a focus on Catholic Church history and mysteries. "There are hundreds of plant compounds in the shroud," he said, including pollen and plants dating to first century Palestine. Vikan said he did not have expertise in plant compounds but suggested bringing in an expert to discuss those findings at a future date. . I will provide quotes in support of my references above when I get to those points in my review of Vikan's book, which however will probably take a long while!

Editorial
Posts: In June I blogged only 2 new posts (latest uppermost):
"First undisputed appearance was in c.1355: The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus! #13" - 30th & "News and Editorial," Shroud of Turin News, May 2020" - 21st.

Pageviews: At midnight on 30 June 2020, Google Analytics [Below (enlarge)] gave this blog's "Pageviews all time history" as 1,201,965:

This compares with 1,075,326 at the same time in June 2019. That is 126,639 pageviews over the year, or an average of ~347 pageviews per day.

Google Analytics also gave the most viewed posts for June 2020 (highest uppermost) as: "Problems of the Turin Shroud forgery theory: Index A-F," Jan 20, 2016 - 280; "Problems of the Turin Shroud forgery theory: Index G-M," Apr 2, 2016 - 234; "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present: 1st century and Index." Jul 24, 2016 - 126; "Problems of the forgery theory A-Z: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!," May 24, 2020 - 122 & "My critique of Charles Freeman's `The Turin Shroud and the Image of Edessa: A Misguided Journey,' part 4: "The Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo" (2)," July 28, 2012 - 118.

Notes:
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.174; Murphy, C., 1981, "Shreds of evidence: Science confronts the miraculous - the Shroud of Turin," Harper's, Vol. 263, November, pp.42-65, 54; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.91; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.80-81; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.97; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.149. [return]
3. Murphy, 1981, p.54; Wilson, 1986, p.91; Wilson, 1998, p.81; Ruffin, 1999, p.91; Tribbe, 2006, p.149. [return]
4. Heller, 1983, p.142; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 23; Ruffin, 1999, p.91; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.69. [return]
5. Murphy, 1981, p.54; Guerrera, 2001, pp.68-69. [return]
6. Extract from Thompson, C., 2018, "Spoiler Alert!," Eagle Nation News, May 14. [return]
7. Smith, T., 2012, "Walters Art Museum director Gary Vikan to step down," 7 March. [return]

Posted: 24 July 2020. Updated: 26 July 2020.

Saturday, July 18, 2020

Central dilemma of the Shroud: The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus! #18

The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!
CENTRAL DILEMMA OF THE SHROUD
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is "Central dilemma of the Shroud," being part #18 of my online book, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" For more information see the Cover #1, Contents #2 and Preface #3, of this series.

[Contents #2] [Previous: Was radiocarbon dated 1260-1390 #17] [Next: Selvedges #19]


  1. What is the Shroud of Turin? #8
    1. Central dilemma of the Shroud #18
By "dilemma" is meant a situation where realistically there are only two alternatives[2], that either the Shroud is a forgery or it is the very burial sheet of Jesus, bearing His crucified image.

It is possible that the image on the Shroud is a natural imprint of a dead body on a linen sheet, as on the Jospice mattress cover [Right (enlarge)[3].] but the evidence is against it. That image was found imprinted on a synthetic material mattress cover in Liverpool's St. Joseph's Hospice (Jospice) after the removal of the body of a 44 year old West Indian man, Les, who died of pancreatic cancer on it in 1981[4]. The image shows the outline of the patient's hand, buttocks, arm, shoulders, and jaw[5]. The image appears to have been formed through the patient's pyjamas, undersheet and the pillow on which his head rested[6]. The image was presumably caused by Les' abnormal urine reacting with the nylon material of the mattress cover[7]. It may be that the Jospice image was faked[8], although a similar image was reported of a kidney cancer patient in a German hospital[9]. Irrespective of whether the Jospice image is genuine or a fake it bears only a superficial resemblance to the Shroud[10]. After an exhaustive scientific examination, medical examiner Dr Frederick Zugibe (1928–2013) found "many dissimilarities" between the Jospice mattress cover image and that of the Shroud[11]. One obvious dissimilarity is that Jospice image is strongly outlined (see above), whereas one of the major features of the Shroud image is that it uniquely has no outline (see Preface)[12]. Another obvious dissimilarity is that the Shroud image is a photographic negative (see Contents) whereas the Jospice image clearly is not[13].

Roman Catholic writer John Evangelist Walsh (1927-2015) [Left (enlarge)[14]] stated the dilemma that either the Shroud is a "relic of Jesus Christ" or it is a "product... of the human ... hand ... there is no middle ground":

"Only this much is certain: The Shroud of Turin is either the most awesome and instructive relic of Jesus Christ in existence-showing us in its dark simplicity how He appeared to men-or it is one of the most ingenious, most unbelievably clever, products of the human mind and hand on record. It is one or the other; there is no middle ground"[15].
By "relic" Walsh would have meant it in the Roman Catholic sense of "some object, notably part of the body or clothes, remaining as a memorial of a departed saint"[16]. That is, either the Shroud is the actual burial cloth of Jesus or it is a forgery!

Leading Shroud sceptics have affirmed the dilemma. In 1903 Fr. Herbert Thurston (1856–1939), an English Roman Catholic priest, conceded that either the image on the Shroud was "the impression of the Christ" or "it was designed as the counterfeit of that impression":

"As to the identity of the body whose image is seen on the Shroud, no question is possible. The five wounds, the cruel flagellation, the punctures encircling the head, can still be clearly distinguished in spite of the darkening of the whole fabric. If this is not the impression of the Body of Christ, it was designed as the counterfeit of that impression. In no other personage since the world began could these details be verified"[17].
Modern Shroud sceptics Steven Schafersman, and Joe Nickell who quoted him approvingly, agree that, "Either the shroud [was] ... produced by the body of Jesus ... or it is a product of human artifice" and there is no "possible third hypothesis":
"As the (red ochre) dust settles briefly over Sindondom, it becomes clear there are only two choices: Either the shroud is authentic (naturally or supernaturally produced by the body of Jesus) or it is a product of human artifice. Asks Steven Schafersman[18]:
Is there a possible third hypothesis? No, and here's why. Both Wilson[19] and Stevenson and Habermas[20] go to great lengths to demonstrate that the man imaged on the shroud must be Jesus Christ and not someone else. After all, the man on this shroud was flogged, crucified, wore a crown of thorns, did not have his legs broken, was nailed to the cross, had his side pierced, and so on. Stevenson and Habermas[21] even calculate the odds as 1 in 83 million that the man on the shroud is not Jesus Christ (and they consider this a very conservative estimate). I agree with them on all of this. If the shroud is authentic, the image is that of Jesus" (emphasis original)[22].
Since either the Shroud is authentic, the very burial sheet of Jesus, or it is a forgery, with no realistic third alternative, it follows that evidence and arguments against the Shroud being a forgery are evidence and arguments for the Shroud being authentic. Therefore in this book I will point out problems of the forgery theory as we go along and gather them together in chapter 13, "Problems of the forgery theory."

To be continued in the part #19 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "Dilemma," Dictionary.com, 2020. [return]
3. "The Jospice Mattress Cover Image," Shroud.com, 8 March 1981. [return]
4. Wilson, I., 1988, "The Next BSTS Meeting - News of an upcoming lecture by Ian Wilson on the Liverpool Mattress," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 19, April, pp.8-9. [return]
5. Ibid. [return]
6. Ibid. [return]
7. de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, fig. 39. [return]
8. Moon, P., 2016, "The Jospice Mattress in comparison to the Shroud of Turin," The Shroud of Turin Exhibition, 19 March. [return]
9. Morgan, R.H., 1988, "The Lancashire Image," Shroud News, No. 46, April, pp.13-15, 14-15. [return]
10. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.305. [return]
11. Zugibe, F.T., 1981, "The Jospice Mattress Cover Image," 8 March, Shroud.com. [return]
12. Wilson, 1998, p.4. [return]
13. Wilson, 1998, p.209. [return]
14. "Walsh, John Evangelist," Obituaries, Madison.com, 28 March 2015. [return]
15. Walsh, J.E., 1963, "The Shroud," Random House: New York NY, pp.xi-xii. [return]
16. "Relics," New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia, 20 July 2020. [return]
17. Thurston, H., S.J., 1903, "The Holy Shroud and the Verdict of History," The Month, CI, January, pp.17-29, p.19, in Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, p.40. [return]
18. Schafersman, S.D., 1982, "Science, the public, and the Shroud of Turin," The Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 6, No. 3, Spring, pp.37-56, 42. [return]
19. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, pp.51-53. [return]
20. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, pp.121-129. [return]
21. Op cit, p.128. [return]
22. Nickell, J., 1987, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Prometheus Books: Buffalo NY, Revised, Reprinted, 2000, p.141. [return]

Posted: 18 July 2020. Updated: 3 August 2020.

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

Was radiocarbon dated 1260-1390: The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus! #17

The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!
WAS RADIOCARBON DATED 1260-1390
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is, "Was radiocarbon dated 1260-1390," being part #17 of my online book, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" For more information see the Cover #1, Contents #2 and Preface #3, of this series.

[Contents #2] [Previous: Man has wounds matching those of Jesus #16] [Next: Central dilemma of the Shroud #18]


  1. What is the Shroud of Turin? #8
    1. Was radiocarbon dated 1260-1390 #17
On 13 October 1988 at a press conference in the British Museum, and simultaneously in Turin, it was announced that the Shroud had been radiocarbon dated "1260-1390"[2].

[Right (enlarge): From left to right, Prof. E. Hall (Oxford), Dr M. Tite (British Museum) and Dr R. Hedges (Oxford) announcing on 13 October 1988 in the British Museum that the Shroud of Turin had been radiocarbon dated "1260-1390!"[3].]

This was followed on 16 February 1989 by an article, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," in the leading scientific journal Nature, which claimed: "The results provide conclusive evidence that the linen of the Shroud of Turin is mediaeval ... AD 1260-1390 ..."[4].

But as we shall see, this claim that the flax from which the Shroud's linen was woven had been harvested[5] between 1260 and 1390, is not only false, but fraudulent!

Continued in part #18 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.89. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, plate 3b. [return]
4. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615, 611. [return]
5. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, pp.7, 264, 301. [return]

Posted: 14 July 2020. Updated: 18 July 2020.

Sunday, July 12, 2020

Man has wounds matching those of Jesus: The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus! #16

The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!
MAN HAS WOUNDS MATCHING THOSE OF JESUS
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is, "Man has wounds matching those of Jesus," being part #16 of my online book, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" For more information see the Cover #1, Contents #2 and Preface #3, of this series.

[Contents #2] [Previous: Bears image of a naked man #15] [Next: Was radiocarbon dated 1260-1390 #17]


  1. What is the Shroud of Turin? #8
    1. Man has wounds matching those of Jesus #16
The man on the Shroud has wounds and bloodstains which match the Gospels' accounts of the

[Right (enlarge): "Anatomy of the Shroud"[2], showing wounds and bloodstains on the Shroud man's image]

beatings (Mt 26:67-68; 27:30; Lk 22:64; Jn 18:22; 19:3), scourging (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; Lk 23:16; Jn 19:1), crowned with thorns (Mt 27:29; Mk 15:17; Jn 19:2,5), crucifixion (Mt 27:35,38,44; Mk 15:24-27,32; Lk 23:33; Jn 19:16-18), death (Mt 27:50; Mk 15:37,39; Lk 23:46; Jn 19:30), legs not broken (Jn 19:32-33), speared in the side (Jn 19:34) of Jesus[3].

Continued in part #17 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Weaver, K.F., 1980, "Science Seeks to Solve ... The Mystery of the Shroud," National Geographic, Vol. 157, June, pp.736-737. [return]
3. Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.119-120. [return]

Posted: 12 July 2020. Updated: 15 July 2020.

Monday, July 6, 2020

Bears image of a naked man: The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus! #15

The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!
BEARS IMAGE OF A NAKED MAN
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is, "Bears image of a naked man," part #15 of my online book, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" For more information see the Cover #1, Contents #2 and Preface #3, of this series.

[Contents #2] [Previous: Has been in Turin since 1578 #14] [Next: Man has wounds matching those of Jesus #16]


  1. What is the Shroud of Turin? #8
    1. Bears image of a naked man #15
The Shroud bears the faint[2], double image[3], front and back[4], head to head[5], of a naked man[6].

[Right (enlarge)[7]: Full-length image of the Shroud after the 2002 restoration.]

As can be seen, this muscular[8], bearded[9], man on the Shroud is entirely naked[10].

Although his hands are crossed covering his genitals[11], the back image shows that he is completely naked[12].

Jesus was crucified naked, His clothes having been taken off Him and divided between His Roman soldier executioners (Mt 27:35; Mk 15:24; Lk 23:34; Jn 19:23-24)[13].

Continued in part #16 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.5. [return]
3. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.2. [return]
4. de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.12. [return]
5. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.18. [return]
6. Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.22. [return]
7. "Image of Full 2002 Restored Shroud," Shroud University: Peachtree City GA, 2014. [return]
8. Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.266. [return]
9. Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.1. [return]
10. Hynek, R.W., 1951, "The True Likeness," [1946], Sheed & Ward: London, p.31. [return]
11. Bucklin, R., 1997, "An Autopsy on the Man of the Shroud," Third International Scientific Symposium on the Shroud of Turin, Nice, France, 12 May. [return]
12. Beecher, P.A., 1928, "The Holy Shroud: Reply to the Rev. Herbert Thurston, S.J.," M.H. Gill & Son: Dublin, p.17. [return]
13. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.52, 314. [return]

Posted: 6 July 2020. Updated: 13 July 2020.

Sunday, July 5, 2020

Has been in Turin since 1578: The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus! #14

The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!
HAS BEEN IN TURIN SINCE 1578
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is "Has been in Turin since 1578," part #14 of my online book, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" For more information see the Cover #1, Contents #2 and Preface #3, of this series.

[Contents #2] [Previous: First undisputed appearance was in c.1355 #13] [Next: Bears image of a naked man #15]


  1. What is the Shroud of Turin? #8
    1. Has been in Turin since 1578 #14
On 14 September 1578 the Shroud arrived in Turin, Italy from Chambéry, France[2].

[Right (enlarge)[3]: Print published in 1578 based on a copper engraving by Turin's Giovanni Testa[4], depicting the public exposition of the Shroud in Turin on 12 October 1578[5].]

Since then, except for comparatively brief periods in times of war, the Shroud has remained in Turin[6], either in Turin's St John the Baptist Cathedral or the adjoining Chapel of the Holy Shroud[7].

Continued in part #15 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.18. [return]
3. Fossati, L., 1985, "The Souvenir Engraving of the 1578 Exposition," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 15, June, pp.7-11, 9. [return]
4. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.262-263. [return]
5. Wilson, 2010, pp.261-262. [return]
6. Guerrera, 2001, p.20. [return]
7. Cassanelli, A., 2002, "The Holy Shroud," Williams, B., transl., Gracewing: Leominster UK, p.14. [return]

Posted: 5 July 2020. Updated: 10 July 2020.