Thursday, October 4, 2018

Open letter to Prof. Christopher Ramsey

Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is the fifteenth (which is inserted before the tenth) installment of my promised open letter to Oxford Radiocarbon Laboratory's Prof. Christopher Bronk Ramsey. When completed I will email and also airmail it to Prof. Ramsey. Any response by him I will share on this blog.


Prof Christopher Ramsey
Director of Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit
1 South Parks Road,
Oxford, OX1 3TG

Date

Prof. Ramsey,

My name is Stephen E. Jones and I am the owner of the The Shroud of Turin blog.

As you would be aware, 13 October 2018 was the 30th anniversary of the near-simultaneous announcement in the British Museum, London and in Turin, that three radiocarbon dating laboratories at Arizona, Zurich and Oxford, had dated the Shroud of Turin to 1260-1390[2].

[Above (enlarge): From left to right, Prof. E. Hall (Oxford), Dr M. Tite (British Museum) and Dr R. Hedges (Oxford) announcing on 13 October 1988 in the British Museum, London, that the Shroud of Turin had been radiocarbon dated to "1260-1390!"[3].]

Then on 16 February 1989, a report in the science journal Nature confirmed that the Shroud's radiocarbon date was "mediaeval ... 1260-1390"[4].

You were a member of Oxford's team which dated the Shroud[5] and as "C.R. Bronk" were a signatory to that Nature paper[6]. You subsequently became Director of the Oxford radiocarbon dating laboratory[7].

In 2008 you published an article about the Shroud on the Oxford laboratory's website in which you acknowledged:

"There is a lot of other evidence that suggests to many that the Shroud is older than the radiocarbon dates allow and so further research is certainly needed. It is important that ... experts assess and reinterpret some of the other evidence. Only by doing this will people be able to arrive at a coherent history of the Shroud which takes into account and explains all of the available scientific and historical information" (my emphasis)[8].
As you must know, one of those items of evidence that the Shroud is older than the radiocarbon dates allow is the Pray Codex[9]. The codex was named after Gyorgy Pray (1723-1801) a Hungarian Jesuit professor of theology[10] who discovered it in 1770[11]. The codex, kept in the Budapest National Library[12], contains the oldest written work in the Hungarian language[13], and is dated 1192-95[14].

The codex also contains four large pen and ink drawings[15], which from their style, may be even earlier-the middle of the twelfth century[16]. One of those drawings, fol. 28, depicts two scenes, one above the other: the entombment of Jesus on Easter Friday (upper) and the visit to the Tomb of three of Jesus' women disciples on Easter Sunday (lower)[17] (see below).

[Above (enlarge): "The Entombment" (upper) and "Visit to the Sepulchre" (lower) in fol. 28 of the Hungarian Pray Codex (1192-95)[18].

The upper scene of fol. 28 (above) contains the following seven correspondences with the Shroud:

  1. Jesus is lying in a shroud-like pose[19], which was uncommon in the art of that period[20].
  2. He is completely naked front and back[21] (unique in the 12th century[22]).
  3. He is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud[23].
  4. Jesus' hands are crossed, right over left, awkwardly at the wrists, covering his genitals[24].
  5. His fingers are unnaturally long[25].
  6. Jesus' hands have four fingers each but no thumbs[26].
  7. Red marks in Jesus' scalp and forehead, match the crown of thorns puncture marks and the `reversed 3' bloodstain on the Shroud[27] (see below [28 & 29]).

The lower scene of fol. 28 (above) contains the following further three correspondences with the Shroud:

  1. The sarcophagus lid (which together with the sarcophagus represents the empty tomb (Mk 16:1-6)[30]), has a representation of the Shroud's herringbone weave pattern[31].
  2. Red zig-zag lines in the sarcophagus lid represent the blood trickles down on the Shroudman's arms[32].
  3. Two patterns of four and five tiny circles in the sarcophagus lid and sarcophagus, represent the two basic patterns of four and five `poker holes' on the Shroud[33] (see below [34 & 35]).

Another of the four drawings, fol. 28v (below), has two further

[Above (enlarge): "Christ enthroned with the Angel Holding the Instruments of Torture": fol. 28v of the Pray Codex[36].]

correspondences with the Shroud:

  1. The nail wound in Jesus' right hand (left facing on the Shroud) is in his wrist, while its counterpart in the other hand (hidden on the Shroud) is in Jesus' palm (as per Christian tradition)[37].
  2. A red elliptical mark on Jesus' right chest is about the same size, shape and location (except it is on the left-facing side) as the spear in the side wound on the Shroud)[38].
  3. Jesus is clothed in a long shroud, the ends of which match those in the entombment scene above (see below insets)[39].
  4. An angel is holding a cross in which are three nails, corresponding to the three nail wounds on the Shroud[40)] (one in each wrist and one through both feet[41)].

As can be seen above, there are at least fourteen (14) correspondences between the drawings on two folios of the Pray Codex and the Shroud! Clearly this many `coincidences' cannot be the results of chance[42]. As Nobel prize-winning geneticist Jérôme Lejeune (1926-1994), who in 1993 was granted a rare private viewing of the Pray Codex in Budapest[43] concluded:

"Such precise details are not to be found on any other known [Christ] image - except the Shroud that is in Turin. One is therefore forced to conclude that the artist of the Pray Manuscript had before his eyes ... some model which possessed all the characteristics of the Shroud which is in Turin"[44] (my emphasis).
So these fourteen correspondences between the no later than 1195 Pray Codex and the Shroud alone is proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroud existed at least 65 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud![45]. And then at least 100 years would have to be subtracted from 1195 (i.e. 1095) to allow for the development of a tradition that the cloth portrayed by the artist was the burial shroud of Jesus[46].

Then, as agnostic art historian Thomas de Wesselow, pointed out, given the close links between Hungary's King Bela III (r.1172–1196) and the Byzantine Empire[47], Bela having spent six years (1163–1169) as a young man in the imperial court at Constantinople[48], "it can hardly be doubted that the artist saw the relic in Constantinople"[49].

But then the Shroud in Constantinople was the Image of Edessa[50], doubled four times (see below) and fastened to a board[51], which had arrived from Edessa in 944[52], more than three centuries before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud[53], according to the following evidence:

  • There are historical records of the Image of Edessa arriving in Constantinople from Edessa on 15 August 944, amid great celebrations[54]. But there is no record of the Shroud (sindon), which was in Constantinople (see below), arriving in Constantinople[55]. This can only be plausibly explained by the Image of Edessa and the Shroud being one and the same[56].

  • There is no record of the Image of Edessa/Mandylion leaving Constantinople or ceasing to exist-it just quietly faded away[57]. Again this can only be plausibly explained by the Image of Edessa and the Shroud being one and the same[58].

  • From soon after the Image of Edessa/Mandylion arrived in Constantinople, there began references to what can only be the full-length Shroud. On 16 August 944, the day after the Image of Edessa/Mandylion arrived in Constantinople, Gregory Referendarius, the Archdeacon of Hagia Sophia cathedral, preached a sermon in which he said that the Edessa Cloth bore not only "sweat from the face of the ruler of life, falling like drops of blood" but also "drops from his own side ... [of] blood and water" (my emphasis)[59]. In 958 Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII (r. 913-959) wrote in a letter of encouragement to his army campaigning around Tarsus, that he was sending them holy water consecrated by relics of the Passion, including, "the sindon [shroud - Mt 27:59; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53] which God wore"[60]. In c. 960 the Image of Edessa was called a sindon in the Synaxarion by Symeon Metaphrastes (fl. c.950-c.990)[61]. In 977 a group of refugee monks from Damascus set up in Rome a cult of St Alexis of Rome (d.412), who became a beggar at Edessa after hearing of its cloth bearing, "an image of our Lord Jesus Christ made without human hand on a sindon"[62]. In c. 980 Leo the Deacon (c. 950-992), a Byzantine historian and a deacon in the imperial palace[63], wrote an eyewitness history from the reign of Byzantine Emperor Romanus II (r. 959-963) to the early part of the reign of Basil II (r. 976-1025)[64]. Leo described the Image as being a peplos, which was a full-length robe[65]!

  • In Constantinople's 945 Monthly Lection the Image of Edessa was described as tetradiplon[66]. Edessa's seventh century Acts of Thaddeus also used the same Greek word tetradiplon of the Image of Edessa[67]. Those are the only two places in all known Greek literature where the word tetradiplon occurs and in both it was used of the Image of Edessa[68]. Tetradiplon is a compound of two Greek words, tetra "four" and diplos "doubled," hence "four doubled"[69] (see below [70]). In 1966 Ian Wilson proved experimentally that the Shroud is the Image
    of Edessa, "four-doubled"[71], by taking a full-length photograph of the Shroud, and keeping the man's face uppermost, folding the Shroud photograph in half, then folding it in half again, and folding it in half again[72]. The result is that the man's face is "disembodied, on a landscape-aspect cloth, exactly as it appears on ... Edessa cloth copies"[73]. And when looked at from the side, as it evidently was possible to do with the Image of Edessa fastened to a board, it is indeed four doublings[74]. Raking light photographs of the Shroud taken by STURP in 1978 confirmed that the Shroud had indeed been folded for long periods in eight layers[75]!

  • A tenth-century manuscript, Codex Vossianus Latinus Q 69[76], preserved in the University of Leiden in the Netherlands[77], mentions an eighth-century Syrian report that Jesus had left an imprint of his whole body on a cloth which was in Edessa's Hagia Sophia cathedral[78]. Adding to Jesus' legendary reply to Edessa's King Abgar V (r. 4BC-AD7, 12-40)[79], the codex reads: "...If you really want to see what my face looks like, I am sending you this linen cloth, on which you will be able to see not only the form of my face but the divinely transformed state of my whole body"[80].

  • In c. 1070 John Skylitzes (c.1040s–c.1101)[81], depicted the transfer of the Image from Edessa to Constantinople, as the full-length Shroud behind the face-only Image[82] (see below)!
  • Nicholas Mesarites (c. 1163–aft 1216), a former keeper of the Imperial relic collection in Constantinople's Pharos Chapel[83], recounted his 1201 speech in defence of the chapel's relics against a mob intent on looting them during a palace revolution[84]: "In this chapel Christ rises again, and the sindon with the burial linens is the clear proof ... defying decay, because it wrapped the mysterious [aperilepton [85]], naked dead body after the Passion"[86]. Mesarites' descriptors of this sindon: aperilepton = "without outline"[87] and "naked dead body"[88] can only mean that this was the Shroud[89]!

To be continued in the sixteenth installment of this post.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Garza-Valdes, L.A., "The DNA of God?," Hodder & Stoughton: London, 1998, p.9; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.6-7; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.89; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.167. [return]
3. Wilson, 1998, plate 3b. [return]
4. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615, 611. [return]
5. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, p.188. [return]
6. Damon, et al., 1989, p.611. [return]
7. "Christopher Bronk Ramsey," Wikipedia, 13 October 2017. [return]
8. Ramsey, C.B., 2008, "Shroud of Turin," Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, 23 March. [return]
9. "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 1 September 2018. [return]
10. "György Pray," Wikipedia, 16 January 2018. [return]
11. Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.104; "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 1 September 2018. [return]
12. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.150; Wilson, 1998, pp.145-146; Guerrera, 2001, p.104; Wilson, 2010, p.183; "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 1 September 2018. [return]
13. Wilson, 1991, p.150; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.104; "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 1 September 2018. [return]
14. Berkovits, I., 1969, "Illuminated Manuscripts in Hungary, XI-XVI Centuries," Horn, Z., transl., West, A., rev., Irish University Press: Shannon, Ireland, p.19; Wilson, 1991, p.151; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.104; "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 1 September 2018 [return]
15. Berkovits, 1969, p.19; Wilson, 1991, p.151; Guerrera, 2001, p.104; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.37. [return]
16. Berkovits, 1969, p.19; Wilson, 1991, p.151. [return]
17. Berkovits, 1969, p.19; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.115; Guerrera, 2001, p.104; Oxley, 2010, p.37; de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
18. Berkovits, 1969, pl. III. [return]
19. Wilson, 1998, p.1466; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.116; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, pp.182-183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
20. de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
21. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.116; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
22. Wilson, 1991, p.151. [return]
23. Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Wilson, 2010, p.184; de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
24. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.160; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
25. Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
26. Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
27. Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
28. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Face Only Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
29. Berkovits, 1969, pl. III (rotated right 90 degrees and enlarged). [return]
30. Wilson, 1998, p.146. [return]
31. Iannone, 1998, p.155; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 2010, p.184; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.179-180. [return]
32. Scavone, D.C., 1998, "A Hundred Years of Historical Studies on the Turin Shroud," Paper presented at the Third International Congress on the Shroud of Turin, 6 June 1998, Turin, Italy, in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.58-70, 64. [return]
33. Iannone, 1998, pp.154-155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.115; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 2010, p.184; de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
34. Berkovits, 1969, pl. III (enlarged). [return]
35. Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
36. Berkovits, 1969, pl. IV (cropped). [return]
37. Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
38. I have been unable to find any reference(s) to this. [return]
39. I have been unable to find any reference(s) to this. [return]
40. Wilson, I., 1995, "News From Around The World," BSTS Newsletter, No. 39, January, pp.4-13, 5; Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
41. Barbet, P., "A Doctor at Calvary," [1950a], Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, 1953, Reprinted, 1963, p.128. [return]
42. de Wesselow, 2012, pp.179-180. [return]
43. Lejeune, J., in Pacl, S.M., 1993, "All those carbon 14 errors," 30 Days, No 9, 1993, in Shroud News, No 80, December, pp.3-8, 6. [return]
44. Lejeune, J., 1994, "Unfolding the Shroud," The Catholic World Report, July, pp. 51-52, 52, in Guerrera, 2001, pp.104-105, 169 n.54; Wilson, 1998, p.147; Oxley, 2010, p.38. [return]
45. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.115. [return]
46. Maloney, P.C., 1998, "Researching the Shroud of Turin: 1898 to the Present: A Brief Survey of Findings and Views," in Minor, Adler, & Piczek, 2002, pp.16-47, 33. [return]
47. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
48. Ibid. [return]
49. de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
50. Scavone, 1998, p.64; Scavone, D.C., "Underscoring the Highly Significant Historical Research of the Shroud," in Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.xxvii; de Wesselow, 2012, p.181. [return]
51. Wilson, I., "The Shroud's History Before the 14th Century," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, pp.31-49, 44; Wilson, 1979, pp.120-121; Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, p.35; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.112; Wilson, 1998, p.152; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.131; de Wesselow, 2012, p.383 n.55. [return]
52. Guerrera, 2001, pp.4-5; Tribbe, 2006, pp.24-25. [return]
53. Wilson, 1991, p.3; Wilson, 1998, pp.125, 141; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.113; Wilson, 2010, p.108. [return]
54. Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.92; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.84; Wilson, 2010, p.300. [return]
55. Scavone, 1989, p.87; Wilson, 1991, pp.153, 155. [return]
56. Scavone, 1989, pp.86-87. [return]
57. Maher, 1986, p.93. [return]
58. Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 192. [return]
59. Wilson, 1991, p.143; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.176-177; Wilson, 1998, pp.154, 268; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.58; Guerrera, 2001, p.5; Oxley, 2010, p.36; de Wesselow, 2012, p.185; Fanti, G. & Malfi, P., 2015, "The Shroud of Turin: First Century after Christ!," Pan Stanford: Singapore, p.57. [return]
60. Wilson, 1991, p.153; Wilson, 1998, pp.268-269; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.257; Wilson, 2010, p.169; de Wesselow, 2012, p.177. [return]
61. Wilson, 2010, p.177; de Wesselow, 2012, p.186. [return]
62. Wilson, 1998, p.269; "Alexius of Rome: Veneration," Wikipedia, 25 July 2018. [return]
63. "Leo the Deacon," Wikipedia, 25 July 2018. [return]
64. Ibid. [return]
65. Wilson, 1998, p.152; Antonacci, 2000, p.136; Oxley, 2010, p.36; de Wesselow, 2012, p.383 n.53. [return]
66. Drews, 1984, p.40; Iannone, 1998, pp.105, 115; Antonacci, 2000, p.132. [return]
67. Drews, 1984, p.36; Antonacci, 2000, p.132; Guerrera, 2001, pp.2-3. [return]
68. Drews, 1984, p.36; Antonacci, 2000, pp.132-133. [return]
69. Drews, 1984, p.36; Antonacci, 2000, pp.132-133; Guerrera, 2001, pp.2-3. [return]
70. Jones, S.E., 2012, "Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin," The Shroud of Turin blog, 15 September. [return]
71. de Wesselow, 2012, pp.186-187. [return]
72. Jones, S.E., 2017, "The date of Ian Wilson's tetradiplon = `doubled in four' Shroud experiment," The Shroud of Turin blog, January 20. [return]
73. Wilson, 1991, p.141; Wilson, 1998, p.152. [return]
74. Drews, 1984, p.36. [return]
75. Drews, 1984, p.36; Wilson, 1998, pp.154, 156; Oxley, 2010, p.273. [return]
76. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.54; Guerrera, 2001, p.151; Wilson, 2010, p.177. [return]
77. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.54; Guerrera, 2001, p.151; Wilson, 2010, p.177. [return]
78. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.54. [return]
79. Guscin, M., 2009, "The Image of Edessa," Brill: Leiden, Netherlands & Boston MA, p.207; Wilson, 2010, p.177. [return]
80. Guscin, 2009, p.207; Wilson, 2010, p.177. [return]
81. "Chronography of John Skylitzes, cod. Vitr. 26-2, folio 131a, Madrid National Library, in "File:Surrender of the Mandylion to the Byzantines.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 20 December 2012. [return]
82. Scavone, 1991, pp.193-194; Scavone, in Tribbe, 2006, p.xxvii. [return]
83. Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.27; Scavone, 1989, p.89; Scavone, 1991, p195; Wilson, 1991, p.154; Wilson, 1998, p.145; Ruffin, 1999, p.59; Antonacci, 2000, p.122; Guerrera, 2001, p.7; Tribbe, 2006, p.25; Oxley, 2010, p.40; de Wesselow, 2012, p.176. [return]
84. Hynek, R.W., 1951, "The True Likeness," [1946], Sheed & Ward: London, pp.8,31; Adams, 1982, p.27; Scavone, 1989, p.89; Scavone, 1991, p.195; Wilson, 1991, p.154; Antonacci, 2000, p.122; Guerrera, 2001, p.7; de Wesselow, 2012, p.176. [return]
85. Wilson, 1991, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.145; de Wesselow, 2012, p.176. [return]
86. Hynek, 1951, pp.8,31; Scavone, 1989, p.89; Scavone, 1991, p.195; Wilson, 1991, p.154; Antonacci, 2000, p.122; Guerrera, 2001, p.7; Tribbe, 2006, p.26; Oxley, 2010, p.40. [return]
87. Wilson, 1991, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.145; de Wesselow, 2012, p.176. [return]
88. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.53; de Wesselow, 2012, p.176. [return]
89. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Hynek, 1951, pp.8,31; Scavone, 1989, p.89; Wilson, 1991, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.145; Tribbe, 2006, p.26; de Wesselow, 2012, p.177. [return]

Posted: 4 October 2018. Updated: 19 October 2018.

Tuesday, October 2, 2018

"Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, September 2018

Shroud of Turin News - September 2018
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

[Previous: August 2018, part #1] [Next: October 2018, part #1]

This is the September 2018 issue of my Shroud of Turin News. I have listed below linked news articles about the Shroud in September as a service to readers, without necessarily endorsing any of them.

Contents:
• "Real or fake? The Shroud Center of Southern California launches Kickstarter Campaign," Religion News Service, September 13, 2018.
• "Closed for Nearly 30 Years, the Chapel of the Holy Shroud Reopens in Italy Following Massive Restoration Efforts," Art World, September 28, 2018, Sarah Cascone.

Editorial
Rex Morgan's Shroud News: My scanning and word-processing of the 118 issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, provided by Ian Wilson, and emailing them to Barrie Schwortz, for him to convert to PDFs and add to his online Shroud News archive, continued in September up to issue #110, October 1998 [Right (enlarge).], i.e ~93% completed. Issues in the archive are still up to #100, February 1997.

Media release: In September I continued working on a simplified version of my media release outlining my hacker theory, which I intend to email to news outlets in anticipation of an upsurge of media interest in the Shroud's radiocarbon dating as the 30th anniversary draws near of the announcement on 13 October 1988 [see 23Jul15] that the Shroud's radiocarbon date was "1260-1390".

Posts: In September I blogged 7 new posts (latest uppermost): "`If Jesus had type AB blood it would mean... he had two separate human parents!'," - 29th; "Date index 2015: The Shroud of Turin blog," -27th; "Obituary (5): Dr. Alan Duane Whanger (17 July 1930 - 21 October 2017)," - 16th; "Date index 2014: The Shroud of Turin blog," - 14th; "Obituary: Paul C. Maloney (April 9, 1936 - August 27, 2018)," - 9th; "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, August 2018," - 7th and "Date index 2013: The Shroud of Turin blog," - 6th.

Updates There were no significant updates in the background of past post(s) in September.

Comments: As stated at the tope of my August 2018 Shroud of Turin News, but since removed: "I have just now (9 September 2018) discovered that Blogger has not been notifying me by email of comments and therefore I have a backlog of 37 of them! I will start publishing those that I consider worth replying to from the most recent backwards."

Old comments published and responded to:
09Sep18 under "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, August 2018: Thanks to a reader who will purchase my book (see below) when it finally comes out and who reads this my blog on a near daily basis.
10Sep18 under "`Poker holes' #29: Other marks and images: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!": My explanation why a bioplastic coating might explain why the Shroud would not date 1st century (e.g. 4th century), but it would not explain why the 1st century Shroud's radiocarbon date was shifted 12-13 centuries into the future, let alone to the `bull's eye' date 1325 ±65.

New comments published and responded to:
10Sep18 under "Shroud of Turin depicts a Y-shaped cross?": Correction of my link to "Annie's Simple Life."
13Sep18 under "`I would like to point out an important mistranslation of a French expression in your post'": Advising Mario Latendresse that I will respond to his comment when I have time.
13Sep18 under "My critique of Borrini, M. & Garlaschelli, L., 2018, `A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin,' Journal of Forensic Sciences, 10 July": My thanks for commenter's thanks for my, `great coverage and fundamental focus on CICAP'.
18Sep18 under "Re: Shroud blood ... types as AB ... aged blood always types as AB, so the significance of this ... is unclear": My response to: 1) "getting a blood type on 2000 year old blood would be nearly impossible" by pointing to my post of 14Jul12 where a mummified toe of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaton (c.1353-1336 BC), was tested and found to be "A2." And to 2) "If Jesus had type AB blood it would mean ... he had two separate human parents!" that, "No. Jesus would have received Mary's 22+X chromosomes (including the blood type chromosome 9) and He would have received from God the Holy Spirit (Mt 1:18,20; Lk 1:30-31,34-35) 22+Y chromosomes (also including chromosome 9). I also responded to this in a separate post, "`If Jesus had type AB blood it would mean... he had two separate human parents!'."
18Sep18 under "Re: Shroud: I had a quick question regarding blood evidence": Since this anonymous comment was similar to the above, I which received less than an hour apart, I assumed it was from the same commenter so I responded in the same separate post above.

My radiocarbon dating hacker theory: I didn't post on my hacker theory in September. But I did work offline on my simplified media release, "Were the Turin Shroud radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?" (see above).

My book: In September, I continued making progress in writing a dot-point outline of my book, "Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" (see 09May17 and 06Jul17).

Pageviews: At midnight on 30 September 2018, Google Analytics [Below (enlarge)] gave this blog's "Pageviews all time history" as 959,413. This compares with 798,759 (up 160,654 or 20.1%) from the same time in September 2017. It also gave the most viewed posts for the month (highest uppermost) as: "Shroud News - November 2007," Dec 1, 2007 - 494; Re: Shroud blood ... types as AB ... aged blood always types as AB, so the significance of this ... is unclear," Mar 18, 2011 - 127; "The Shroud of Turin: 3.5. The man on the Shroud and Jesus were crowned with thorns," Sep 8, 2013 - 115; "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, August 2018," - 97 and "John P. Jackson, `An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image' (1991)," Aug 13, 2017 - 75

Again, I presume why my "Shroud News - November 2007" had the highest (494) pageviews in September is because it has a photo of the Jospice mattress imprint, which shows in a Google image search of that topic.

Notes:
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]

Posted: 2 October 2018. Updated: 3 October 2018.

Saturday, September 29, 2018

`If Jesus had type AB blood it would mean... he had two separate human parents!'

© Stephen E. Jones[1]

Anonymous

This is my response in this separate

[Above (enlarge): "The Annunciation" [by the Archangel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary in Luke 1:26-38], by Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859–1937) in 1898[2]. It was shortly after this that Mary, a virgin, conceived in her womb by the Holy Spirit, her first-born son, Jesus (Mt 1:18-20):

"30And the angel said to her, `Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 31And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. ... 34And Mary said to the angel, `How will this be, since I am a virgin?' 35And the angel answered her, `The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy — the Son of God ... 38And Mary said, `Behold, I am the servant of the Lord; let it be to me according to your word.' And the angel departed from her."]

post, to your presumed comments, 18Sep18 at 7:07 AM and 18Sep18 at 7:53 AM on the same topic, less than an hour apart, under my posts, "Re: Shroud blood ... types as AB ... aged blood always types as AB, so the significance of this ... is unclear" and "Re: Shroud: I had a quick question regarding blood evidence." Your words are bold and prefaced by ">" to distinguish them from mine.

>However, it seems that everyone is missing the elephant in the room. You have consulted "everyone" on this? I must have missed your call! Every once in a while a commenter (who is presumably `young enough to know everything'!) on this my blog claims that he/she has discovered something against the Shroud and/or Christianity that no one else had thought of. But these are arguments from ignorance: `I don't know the answer to X, therefore no one else knows the answer to X'!

>If Jesus had type AB blood it would mean, unless he received Mary's complete chromosome makeup-as in two sets of 23, and she was type AB, Then he had two separate human parents!

No. Even if Jesus was merely a man (which He isn't-see above), He could not "have received Mary's complete chromosome makeup-as in two sets of 23." Even an XX male, requires chromosomes from a father and mother:

"XX male syndrome is a rare congenital condition where an individual with a female genotype has phenotypically male characteristics that can vary between cases. In 90% of these individuals the syndrome is caused by unequal crossing over between X and Y chromosomes during meiosis in the father, and results in the X chromosome containing the SRY gene, as opposed to the Y chromosome where it is normally found. When the X with the SRY gene combines with a normal X from the mother during fertilization, the result is an XX male"[3].
Parthenogenesis, where the offspring receive only their mother's chromosomes, is effectively impossible naturally in humans that survive more than a few days:
"Parthenogenesis in humans never produces viable embryos, though, because unfertilized eggs lack specific instructions about gene expression from the sperm. In general, our cells have two functional copies of each gene — one inherited from the mother and one from the father. For some genes, however, only one copy is ever used, while the other remains dormant. Some of the signals for which copies should be turned off come from the sperm cell. So, if there's no sperm, certain genes will be overexpressed, and the `embryo' will die when it is only about five days old"[4].
Even the "closest thing to a human virgin birth that modern science has ever recorded," a boy whose cells contain identical X-chromosomes all from his mother and Y chromosomes from his father, had a father[5].

As I stated in my reply comments of 18Sep18 at 2:55 PM and 18Sep18 at 3:10 PM: Jesus would have received Mary's 22+X chromosomes (including the blood type chromosome 9) and He would have received from God the Holy Spirit [see again above] (Mt 1:18,20; Lk 1:30-31,34-35) 22+Y chromosomes (also including chromosome 9).

See human chromosome map (karyotype) below:

[Above (enlarge): "The 22 autosomes are numbered by size. The other two chromosomes, X and Y, are the sex chromosomes. This picture of the human chromosomes lined up in pairs is called a karyotype"[6].]

>So, the shroud I believe is really the shroud of Jesus, I assume that you are an Internet troll, pretending to hold the pro-authenticist position so that you can attack Christianity. One clue is that pro-authenticists tend to capitalise "Shroud" (which is also good English - the Shroud being a proper noun) but anti-authenticists tend to write "shroud," wrongly uncapitalised.

>but the science here is really bad. No. The problem is the philosophy of Naturalism (`nature is all there is-there is no supernatural'), which rules out in advance supernatural explanations.

>There are three possibilities regarding Jesus' DNA.

1. Jesus DNA consists of 46 chromosomes, two identical pairs of 23 from Mary, which would not produce a viable human You are setting up a strawman and then refuting that:

"A straw man is a common form of argument and is an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent"[7]
This is not even a possibility (see "Parthenogenesis" above).

>unless Mary's DNA was devoid of lethal recessive (the immaculate conception removed a lot more than just original sin!). The Immaculate Conception, that "Mary was sinless, or conceived without original sin" is an un-Biblical Roman Catholic doctrine, which was not even the latter until 1854[8]. As a Protestant I regard it as false.

>Also here Jesus would have been female. Yes. But see above on "strawman"!

>2. Jesus had only 23 chromosomes, again leaving lethal recessive uncovered unless Mary's DNA was devoid of lethal recessive- see #1. Here also, Jesus would have been female. There is no such thing as an "only 23 chromosomes" human. Again see above on "strawman"!

>3. Jesus somehow obtained another set of 23 human chromosomes to join with Mary's 23 chromosomes- human male chromosomes. This is claiming that Jesus was merely human (He is human but not merely human - see below) with a human father. Why all the `beating around the bush'? If you are a philosophical naturalist, then `nature is all there is-there is no supernatural', so that is your only real option. But as well as the Strawman fallacy, you are also committing the fallacy of False dilemma:

"A false dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an `either/or' situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option"[9].
And that additional option is what the Bible (and therefore Christianity teaches) summarised in the doctrine of the Incarnation:
"In Christian theology, the doctrine of the Incarnation holds that Jesus, the preexistent ... second hypostasis [Person] of the Trinity, God the Son ... taking on a human body and human nature, `was made flesh' and conceived in the womb of [the virgin] Mary ... The doctrine of the Incarnation, then, entails that Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human, his two natures joined in hypostatic union. In the Incarnation, as traditionally defined by those Churches that adhere to the Council of Chalcedon, the divine nature of the Son was united but not mixed with human nature in one divine Person, Jesus Christ, who was both `truly God and truly man'"[10].

That is, at the molecular biological level:

4. Jesus received a set of 23 chromosomes (22 + X) from His mother Mary and a set of 23 chromosomes (22 + Y) by God the Holy Spirit (Mt 1:18-20; Lk 1:30-35), from God the Son (Jn 1:1-2,14; Gal 4:4; Php 2:5-7; Col 2:9; 1Tim 3:16; Heb 2:9,14,17).

>The science is available to determine 1, 2, or 3. So, someone is covering it up. No one is covering anything up. See above on your argument from ignorance!

>Yes God can do anything, but, unless the Holy Spirit is a human male, This was in your comment, which shows that all along you knew of Christianity's explanation. See above on you being a troll. But God doesn't have to be a human male to have created a human male sperm cell and inserted it into the womb of the Virgin Mary to form Jesus, the God-man. As you yourself admitted, "God can do anything"!

>something interesting and beyond human science has happened here! Indeed it did! See above.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "File:Henry Ossawa Tanner - The Annunciation.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 7 August 2018. [return]
3. "XX male syndrome," Wikipedia, 11 September 2018. [return]
4. Moyer, M.W., 2007, "Can a Virgin Give Birth?," Slate, 21 December. [return]
5. Cohen, P., 1995, "The boy whose blood has no father," New Scientist, 7 October. [return]
6. "How many chromosomes do people have?," Genetics Home Reference - NIH, 25 September 2018. [return]
7. "Straw man," Wikipedia, 9 September 2018. [return]
8. "Immaculate Conception," Wikipedia, 15 September 2018. [return]
9. "False dilemma," Wikipedia, 13 August 2018. [return]
10. "Incarnation (Christianity)," Wikipedia, 30 September 2018. [return]

Posted: 29 September 2018. Updated: 10 October 2018.

Thursday, September 27, 2018

Date index 2015: The Shroud of Turin blog

The Shroud of Turin blog
DATE INDEX 2015
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the date index to my 2015 posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog. For further information on this date index series see the Main Date Index.

[Main index] [Previous: 2014] [Next: 2016]


2015

[Above (enlarge): Arizona radiocarbon dating laboratory staff and Rochester radiocarbon dating laboratory's Prof. Harry Gove (second from right) around the AMS control console computer terminal[2], just before or after it had, on 6 May 1988 displayed the alleged hacker's bogus radiocarbon age of the Shroud, "640 years"[3], which was then calibrated to "1350 AD"[4]. The alleged hacker, Timothy W. Linick, is the one in a black shirt standing most prominently in the fore-ground[5]. This is from my post of 31-Mar-15. Other posts where I used that photo were: 05Jul14, 13Aug14, 02Dece14, 31Mar15, 27Apr15, 27Aug15, 19Jan16. This latter post was the first in which it occurred to me that it was "presumably significant" that "The alleged leaker and hacker, Timothy W. Linick, is in the black shirt, most prominently in the foreground" but I did not say why. 22Feb16 This latter post was the first in which I stated what was significant about "Linick ... standing ... most prominently in the foreground" was that it showed that Linick was in charge of the AMS dating process of the Shroud at Arizona laboratory:

"That Linick is standing in front of his laboratory leaders and colleagues in the historic group photograph ... of the dating of the Shroud at Arizona laboratory, can only be plausibly explained by Linick having been in charge of the actual AMS computerised dating process, and those present were, by giving Linick the most prominent place in that historic photograph, acknowledging that."
29Mar16, 22Nov16. In footnote 24 of this latter post, I again stated:
"24. The 1989 Nature article in footnote 9 acknowledges that Linick wrote the paper which described in detail the AMS radiocarbon system at Arizona: Linick, T.W., et al., 1986, "Operation of the NSF-Arizona accelerator facility for radioisotope analysis and results from selected collaborative research projects," Radiocarbon, Vol. 28, No. 2a, pp.522-533. That Linick is standing in front of his laboratory leaders and colleagues in this historic group photograph ... of the first dating of the Shroud at Arizona laboratory, is evidence that Linick was in charge of the actual AMS computerised dating process at Arizona laboratory and those present were acknowledging that."
11Apr17, 25Mar18, 23Jun18 and 15Jul18.]

30-Dec-15: The 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Turin Shroud was the result of a computer hacking #5
27-Dec-15: Naked #9: The man on the Shroud: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
26-Dec-15: The man on the Shroud #8: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
10-Dec-15: Shroud of Turin News - November 2015
04-Dec-15: News articles #3: Uncovering the sources of DNA found on the Turin Shroud
24-Nov-15: News articles #2: Uncovering the sources of DNA found on the Turin Shroud
24-Nov-15: News articles #1: Uncovering the sources of DNA found on the Turin Shroud
17-Nov-15: The 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Turin Shroud was the result of a computer hacking #4
17-Nov-15: Carried their cross #7: Bible and the Shroud: Jesus and the man on the Shroud: Shroud of Turin quotes
10-Nov-15: Shroud of Turin News - October 2015
09-Nov-15: Were struck in the face #6: Bible and the Shroud: Jesus and the man on the Shroud: Shroud of Turin quotes
25-Oct-15: "Uncovering the sources of DNA found on the Turin Shroud" #2
20-Oct-15: Yarn #7: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
19-Oct-15: Were crowned with thorns #5: Bible and the Shroud: Jesus and the man on the Shroud: Shroud of Turin quotes
18-Oct-15: "Uncovering the sources of DNA found on the Turin Shroud" #1
15-Oct-15: Shroud of Turin News - September 2015
14-Oct-15: Were scourged #4: Jesus and the man on the Shroud: Bible and the Shroud: Shroud of Turin quotes
13-Oct-15: Jesus and the man on the Shroud #3: Shroud of Turin quotes
12-Oct-15: Bible and the Shroud #2: Shroud of Turin quotes
11-Oct-15: Main index #1: Shroud of Turin quotes
30-Sep-15: "Wasn't Jesus' body washed before putting it in the grave?"
29-Sep-15: "Wasn't Jesus wrapped like a mummy like Lazarus?"
28-Sep-15: "Why would Jesus have violated the 2nd commandment regarding religious images?"
22-Sep-15: The 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Turin Shroud was the result of a computer hacking #3
11-Sep-15: Selvedge #6: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
01-Sep-15: Shroud of Turin News - August 2015
27-Aug-15: "H": Turin Shroud Dictionary
24-Aug-15: Sidestrip #5: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
19-Aug-15: The 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Turin Shroud was the result of a computer hacking #2
18-Aug-15: "... why the radiocarbon date is exactly what one would expect it to be if the Turin Shroud were actually a fraud"? (Tipler, 2007)
11-Aug-15: Shroud of Turin News - July 2015
10-Aug-15: Topic index: The Shroud of Turin blog: "S-Z"
09-Aug-15: Topic index: The Shroud of Turin blog: "H-M"
30-Jul-15: "Gr-Gz": Turin Shroud Dictionary
23-Jul-15: The 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Turin Shroud was the result of a computer hacking #1
22-Jul-15: Topic index: The Shroud of Turin blog: "N-R"
16-Jul-15: Weave #4: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
10-Jul-15: Dimensions #3: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
09-Jul-15: Introduction #2: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
08-Jul-15: Main index #1: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
30-Jun-15: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (10)
29-Jun-15: Topic index: The Shroud of Turin blog: "A-G"
23-Jun-15: Shroud of Turin News - June 2015
12-Jun-15: "Gn-Gq": Turin Shroud Dictionary
03-Jun-15: Locations of the Shroud: Turin 1918-Present: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia (10)
24-May-15: "Ga-Gm": Turin Shroud Dictionary
17-May-15: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (9)
16-May-15: "Fn-Fz": Turin Shroud Dictionary
14-May-15: My Shroud of Turin books and articles
09-May-15: Shroud of Turin News - May 2015
03-May-15: Locations of the Shroud: Turin 1694-1918: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia (9)
27-Apr-15: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (8)
25-Apr-15: "Fa-Fm": Turin Shroud Dictionary
08-Apr-15: Locations of the Shroud: Turin 1578 to the present: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia (8)
07-Apr-15: "E": Turin Shroud Dictionary
31-Mar-15: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (7)
30-Mar-15: "D": Turin Shroud Dictionary
14-Mar-15: Locations of the Shroud: Chambéry 1471 - Turin 1578: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia (7)
12-Mar-15: "C": Turin Shroud Dictionary
10-Mar-15: "B": Turin Shroud Dictionary
05-Mar-15: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (6)
04-Mar-15: "A": Turin Shroud Dictionary
16-Feb-15: Locations of the Shroud: Lirey c.1355 to Chambéry 1471 (6)
11-Feb-15: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (5)
04-Feb-15: Dimensions of the Shroud: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia (5)
30-Jan-15: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (4)
29-Jan-15: Problems of the forgery theory: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia (4)
22-Jan-15: Linen sheet: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia (3)
21-Jan-15: Shroud of Turin: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia (2)
20-Jan-15: Index A-Z: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia (1)
19-Jan-15: My de Charny family tree on Ancestry.com
14-Jan-15: "S": Turin Shroud Dictionary
13-Jan-15: Main index A-Z: Turin Shroud Dictionary


Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, p.176H. [return]
3. Gove, 1996, p.264. [return]
4. Ibid. [return]
5. Jull, A.J.T. & Suess, H.E. , 1989, "Timothy W. Linick," Radiocarbon, Vol 31, No 2. [return]

Posted: 24 September 2018. Updated: 2 October 2018.

Sunday, September 16, 2018

Obituary (5): Dr. Alan Duane Whanger (17 July 1930 - 21 October 2017)

© Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is the final part #5 of my obituary of Dr. Alan D. Whanger (1930-2017). Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. Previous parts in this series are part #1, part #2, part #3 and part #4. See also 20Apr17 and 10Dec15.

Introduction The image of the man on the Shroud includes under-

[Above[2]: Composite photograph of Dr Alan Whanger's three-dimensional superimposed positive and negative photographs of the Shroud face (left), compared with an x-ray image of a human skull (right)[3]. As can be seen, this part of the Shroudman's image contains teeth and skull bones that are beneath the man's skin, which are only seen in x-ray radiographs or other modern imaging techniques. This alone is proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroudman's image is of Jesus at the moment of His resurrection (see below)!]

the-skin x-ray like images of his finger bones[4], hand bones[5], thumbs[6], teeth[7], skull[8], cheekbones[9], leg bones[10] and spine[11].

Fingers and hand bones In 1992 Whanger superimposed positive and negative photographic slides of the hand area of the Shroud[12]. He was aware of the controversy over why the man's fingers appear to be so long[13]. Whanger found that when the positive and negative photographs of the hand area were aligned one on top of the other, and then one of the photographs was moved slightly upward, it created a three-dimensional effect[14]. Whanger realized that he was seeing the skeletal structures of the hands and the wrist[15] and that the reason the fingers look too long is because the bones in the hand (metacarpals and carpals) were visible, as well as the bones in the fingers (phalanges)[16] (see below). Whanger, who was then a professor of

[Above: Positive (upper-enlarge)[17] and negative (lower-enlarge)[18] photographs of the hand area of the Shroud. As can be seen, like the skull (above), the man's under-the-skin finger and hand bones are visible as in a modern x-ray!]

psychiatry at Duke University[19], photographed the three-dimens-ional image on the screen and showed it to the head of skeletal radiology at the university, who agreed that the photograph did indeed look like an x-ray of hands and wrist[20]. Whanger was evidently then unaware[21] that in 1982, Giles F. Carter (1930-2010), a professor of chemistry at Eastern Michigan University, and a specialist in x-ray fluorescence analysis[22], had proposed that parts of the Shroud man's image were the result of:

"... x-rays emanating from the bones of the man in the Shroud ... absorbed by elements (e.g., sodium, silicon, phosphorus, potassium, calcium) at the surface of the body, which would then fluoresce and emit secondary x-rays of relatively long wavelength"[23].

Skull Whanger next superimposed positive and negative photographs of the Shroudman's head, and again by slightly moving one of the photographs a three-dimensional effect emerged (see above left)[24].

[Above: Positive (upper-enlarge)[25] and negative (lower-enlarge)[26] photographs of the head of the man on the Shroud. As can be seen, the man's under-the-skin skull bones: forehead, eye sockets (supraorbital or brow ridge), cheekbones and teeth (see also below) are visible as in a modern x-ray!]

The under-the-skin bony structures of the orbits of the eyes became apparent, as well as the nasal and sinus cavity bones and and rows of teeth with their roots (see below)[27]!

Teeth As already mentioned (above), under-the-skin x-ray like skull features discovered by Whanger included two rows of teeth with their roots[28] (see below)!

[Above (enlarge)[29]: Extract of a close-up positive photograph of the Shroudman's mouth area. As can be seen, under the skin of the man's lips are at least 4 pairs of upper and lower teeth with a bite line between them.]

The equivalent Shroud Scope negative photograph at maximum enlargement also shows upper and lower rows of under-the-skin teeth with a bite line between them [Above right (enlarge)[30].], but it is too small for a direct comparison.]

From his Polarized Image Overlay work on the sixth-century Christ Pantocrator icon at St Catherine's Monastery, Sinai [see 18Dec17], Whanger realised out these beneath-the-skin x-ray images of the Shroud man's teeth explained why the artist who painted that icon depicted Jesus' lips as chapped[31] (see below). Which is further

[Above (enlarge)[32]: Close-up of the lips of Jesus depicted in the Shroud-like sixth-century Christ Pantocrator icon at St Catherine's Monastery, Sinai. As can be seen the artist depicted Jesus' lips as chapped, which is inexplicable unless the artist saw the x-ray images of Jesus' teeth on the Image of Edessa/Shroud and interpreted them as chapped lips (since x-rays were unknown until 1891/1895).]

evidence that the Shroud existed in the sixth century [see "c.550"], as the Image of Edessa, doubled-in-four (tetradiplon) - seven centuries before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud!

Thumbs It was John P. Jackson and Dr August Accetta who discovered the x-ray images of the man's left and possibly right thumbs flexed under the palms of the hands[33] (see below), but the Whangers agreed with it[34].

[Above: Positive (upper-enlarge)[35] and negative (lower-enlarge)[36] photographs of the hands of the Shroudman. As can be seen (pointed to by red arrows), at least one of the man's thumbs is visible, curved under the skin and bones of the left hand, again as in an x-ray!]

Spine and femur Whanger also did not discover, nor comment on, Giles Carter's discovery[37], confirmed by Accetta and Jackson[38], of x-ray images of the man's spinal column [see 20Apr17a] and his left femur [see 20Apr17b].

Anti-authenticist explanations Anti-authenticists had long claimed it as evidence against the Shroud's authenticity, that the man's fingers and hands were too long:

"The striking resemblance of the image of the man on the shroud to French Gothic art has not gone unnoticed by previous commentators. But none of all the shroud articles or books appearing in recent months has pointed out that the ... fingers on the right hand are unnaturally extended. Was Jesus deformed?"[39].

"And how shall we explain the strange anatomy of the figure on the Shroud? Again, a mere glance indicates that ... the hands and fingers [are] long and spidery"[40].

"In 1982, I was the first to point out that the image of Jesus on the Shroud had a number of physical abnormalities. Jesus' ... fingers were unnaturally thin and elongated ... Either Jesus was ... deformed, or the image of Jesus was characteristic of medieval Gothic art"[41].
But as far as I am aware, anti-authenticists have simply ignored this x-ray evidence, which explains why Jesus' fingers and hands appeared to be too long. Leading Shroud sceptic Joe Nickell in his book, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin" (1987), does consider "X-rays" in the formation of the Shroudman's image:
"The two classes of radiation are electromagnetic and particle. The properties of the former vary with wavelength over a mind-boggling range from gamma rays and X-rays at the short end of the spectrum; through ultraviolet, visible, and infrared in the middle; and to microwaves and radio waves at the long end"[42].
But Nickell then rejects all forms of radiation as an explanation of the image, despite one (Jackson's "cloth collapse" theory) being the best explanation of the evidence, on the grounds that it "necessarily invokes the supernatural":
"There is one last, desperate [sic] conceptual solution: Posit that, as in a laser, the radiation emitted from each element of body (and hair) surface is collimated (that is, emitted only in parallel directions, in this case vertical). Then an image would be formed, independent of distance, without the use of an array of pinholes. In effect, the body surface would be composed of millions of lasers aligned more or less vertically. In principle, the resultant image could be of much better quality than the half-centimeter resolution of the shroud image. The problem is that this conceptual solution necessarily invokes the supernatural"[43].
This is naturalistic (nature is all there is - there is no supernatural) invincible ignorance:
"There does remain, nonetheless, a cast of mind which seems peculiarly closed to evidence. When confronted with such a mind, one feels helpless, for no amount of evidence seems to be clinching. Frequently the facts are simply ignored or brushed aside as somehow deceptive, and the principles [naturalism] are reaffirmed in unshakable conviction. One seems confronted with what has been called `invincible ignorance'"[44].
where a false naturalistic explanation is always preferred to a true supernaturalistic explanation!

Jesus' resurrection As we saw above, chemistry professor Giles Carter proposed that the Shroudman's bones emitted high-energy x-rays, which caused elements near the surface of the body to fluoresce and produce secondary, low-energy x-rays, which projected over the short distance from the body to the cloth and created the image of those bones on the Shroud[45]. To the question:

"But how did a dead body wrapped in a burial cloth emit strong Xrays? Carter suggested three options. Perhaps the person buried in the Shroud had lived in a cave that had radioactive walls due to the effects of certain materials. Or maybe this person had eaten food that was grown in naturally radioactive soil. Or, according to Carter, `There is a possibility of the unknown, a supernatural cause, if in fact this is the burial shroud of Jesus Christ'[46]. Concerning the likelihood of the last option, Carter held that if the Shroud turned out to date from Jesus' time, this would `provide proof of the resurrection,' which would `make some atheists awfully mad'"[47].
Another pro-authenticist chemistry professor, Alan D. Adler (1931-2000), dismissed Carter's x-ray theory as:
"... fine chemically, fine physically, yet bizarre biologically ... the man would have been so radioactive that he glowed in the dark. Not to mention he would have been dead long ago from the radioactivity"[48].
But the latter "radioactive" part of Adler's rejection only applies to Carter's first two options, which Carter himself rejected[49].

Nickell confirmed that "corpses do not emit any of these radiations" including "X-rays":

"The two classes of radiation are electromagnetic and particle. The properties of the former vary with wavelength over a mind-boggling range from gamma rays and X-rays at the short end of the spectrum ... However, needless to say, corpses do not emit any of these radiations..."[50].
But the man on the Shroud was a corpse (certified by medical examiners/pathologists Robert Bucklin[51], Frederick Zugibe[52] and James Cameron[53]), and his dead body did emit x-rays (as we saw above).

Then given that: 1) "the odds [are conservatively] ... 1 in 83 million that the man on the shroud is not Jesus Christ" [11Nov16]; 2) Jesus' apostles and over 500 of His disciples saw and heard the Jesus they knew resurrected after His death (1Cor 15:3-8; Mt 28:16-20, etc); and 3) it is evidence for the resurrection of Jesus that the image of the man on the Shroud has no style (05Sep16); is non-directional (29Oct16); is superficial (11Nov16); a negative (22Dec16); is three-dimensional (05Feb17); there was no decomposition (14Mar17); contains X-ray images (20Apr17); its blood clots are intact (04Sep17) and the blood was before the image (05Nov17); the only viable explanation remaining is that the Man on the Shroud is Jesus and His body emitted x-rays at the instant of His resurrection[54]!

Conclusion In part #1 we saw that Dr Alan Whanger invented a technique he called "Polarized Image Overlay" in which he compared a Shroud-like icon, coin or other image with the Shroudman's image. This seems to have been a genuine achievement by Whanger, but it is unclear if anyone else has used that technique.

In part #2 we saw that the Whangers' "Points of Congruence (PC)" claims have major flaws, including: 1) it is subjective; 2) their `14 points of congruence in a court of law' argument is both unsupported and fallacious; 3) their assumption that more is better (e.g. 145 points of congruence is better than 14 Vignon markings) is fallacious. It would have been better if Whanger had identified and published a smaller number of more definite comparative photographs of claimed points of congruence between images (icons, coins, etc) and the Shroudman's image. 4) many of the Whangers' PC claims lack realism and some are self-evidently false.

We saw in part #3 the Whangers' application of their points of congruence argument to the coins over the Shroudman's eyes. While I agree that there are images of coins over the eyes of the man on the Shroud (see 10May13), it is not clear that Whanger added anything of significance to the original findings of Fr. Francis L. Filas (1915-85). In fact, according to pro-authenticist numismatist Mario Moroni (1933-2017) (with whom I agree) both Filas and Whanger misinterpreted which Pontius Pilate lepton it was that they based their findings on. This was a especially a problem for the Whangers because they claimed to have found 74 points of congruence using the wrong coin!

In part #4 we saw Alan Whanger's most original contribution to pro-authenticist Shroud studies, namely his discovery of the images of 28 species of Jerusalem plants on the Shroud. This helped confirm the pollen findings of Max Frei (1913-83). They also built on the initial approach by Paul Maloney (1936-2018) (unacknowledged) to Israel's leading botanist Prof. Avinoam Danin (1939–2015), who confirmed the Whangers' Jerusalem flower identifications and identified many of his own!

Lastly, in this part #5 of Dr Alan Whanger's obituary, we saw Whanger's most important contribution to Shroud pro-authenticist studies, namely his confirming the original proposal of Prof. Giles F. Carter (1930-2010), that the Shroudman's image contains x-rays of some of the man's bones and teeth! The importance of this is that it added to the proofs beyond reasonable doubt that the Man on the Shroud is Jesus and His image is a "a literal `snapshot' of the Resurrection":

"Even from the limited available information, a hypothetical glimpse of the power operating at the moment of creation of the Shroud's image may be ventured. In the darkness of the Jerusalem tomb the dead body of Jesus lay, unwashed, covered in blood, on a stone slab. Suddenly, there is a burst of mysterious power from it. In that instant ... its image ... becomes indelibly fused onto the cloth, preserving for posterity a literal `snapshot' of the Resurrection"[54]!

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Prather, J., 2018, "Autoradiography," Council for Study of the Shroud of Turin, 22 July; Whanger, M. & Whanger, A.D., 1998a, "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN, p.117. [return]
3. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.116-117. [return]
4. Carter, G.F., 1982, "Formation of the Image on the Shroud of Turin by x-Rays: A New Hypothesis," in Lambert, J.B., ed., 1984, "Archaeological Chemistry III: ACS Advances in Chemistry, No. 205," American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., pp.425-446, 433; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.29; Accetta, A.D., Lyons, K. & Jackson, J., 1999, "Nuclear Medicine and its Relevance to the Shroud Of Turin," in Walsh, B.J., ed., "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, 2000, pp.3-8, 3; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.151; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.213. [return]
5. Carter, 1982, p.433; Whanger, 1998a, p.112; Whanger, A.D., 1998b, "Radiation in the Formation of the Shroud Image - The Evidence," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.184-189, 187; Wilson, 1998, p.29; Antonacci, 2000, p.213; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.38; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.241. [return]
6. Whanger, 1998b, p.187; Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
7. Carter, 1982, p.433; Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.117; Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, pp.37-38; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
8. Carter, 1982, p.433; Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.117; Wilson, 1998, Antonacci, 2000, pp.213-214; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, pp.38; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
9. Carter, 1982, p.433; Wilson, 1998, p.29; Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3. [return]
10. Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
11. Carter, 1982, p.433; Antonacci, 2000, p.214. [return]
12. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.111-112; Whanger, 1998b, p.187. [return]
13. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.111-112. [return]
14. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.112, 115; Whanger, 1998b, p.187. [return]
15. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.112. [return]
16. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.112. [return]
17. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
18. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical," (flipped horizontally), Sindonology.org. [return]
19. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.144. [return]
20. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.112-113; Whanger, 1998b, p.187. [return]
21. Whanger, 1998b, pp.184-185. [return]
22. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, p.131. [return]
23. Carter, 1982, pp.425, 433; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 42; Ruffin, 1999, p.151; Antonacci, 2000, p.213; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, pp.74-75; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
24. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.116-117. [return]
25. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Face Only Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
26. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
27. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.117; Borkan, 1995, p.42; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.38. [return]
28. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.117; Borkan, 1995, p.42; Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.38. [return]
29. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Face Only Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
30. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical," (flipped horizontally), Sindonology.org. [return]
31. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.117. [return]
32. "Christ Pantocrator (Sinai)," Wikipedia, 12 September 2018. [return]
33. Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Oxley, 2010, p.24. [return]
34. Whanger, A.D. & Whanger, M., 1994, "The Shroud of Turin - New Evidence," Shroud News, No 83, June, pp.3-5, 3. [return]
35. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," (flipped horizontally), Sindonology.org. [return]
36. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
37. Carter, 1982, p.433; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.131; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Oxley, 2010, p.242. [return]
38. Accetta, et al., 1999, p.3; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
39. Schafersman, S.D., 1982, "Science, the public, and the Shroud of Turin," The Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 6, No. 3, Spring, pp.37-56, 44-45 (no longer online). [return]
40. Dutton, D., 1984, "Requiem for the Shroud of Turin," Michigan Quarterly Review, 23, pp.243-55. [return]
41. Schafersman, S.D., 1998, "Unraveling the Shroud of Turin," Approfondimento Sindone, Vol. 2. [return]
42. Nickell, J., 1987, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Prometheus Books: Buffalo NY, Revised, Reprinted, 2000, p.91. [return]
43. Nickell, 1987, pp.91-92. [return]
44. Fearnside, W.W. & Holther, W.B., 1959, "Fallacy the Counterfeit of Argument," Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs NJ, 25th printing, p.113. [return]
45. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.131. [return]
46. Jackson, E., 1983, "Prof Thinks X-Rays Caused Shroud Image," Christian Herald, February, Al, 5, in Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.131. [return]
47.Ibid. [return]
48. Zurer, P., 1983, "Archaeological Chemistry," Chemical & Engineering News, 21 February, p.35, in Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.40-41. [return]
49. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.136. [return]
50. Nickell, 1987, p.91. [return]
51. Bucklin, R., 1970, "The Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ," Medicine, Science and the Law, January; Bucklin, R., 1997, "An Autopsy on the Man of the Shroud," Third International Scientific Symposium on the Shroud of Turin, Nice, France, 12 May; Bucklin, R., 1982, "The Shroud of Turin: Viewpoint of a Forensic Pathologist," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 5, December, pp.3-10; Bucklin, R, 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: A Pathologist's Viewpoint," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.271-279. [return]
52. Zugibe, F.T., 1988, "The Cross and the Shroud: A Medical Enquiry into the Crucifixion," [1982], Paragon House: New York NY, Revised edition, pp.132-134; Zugibe, F.T., 2005, "The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry," M. Evans & Co.: New York NY, pp.213, 221. [return]
53. Cameron, J. M., "The Pathologist and the Shroud," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud ," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, pp.58-59. [return]
54. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.251; Wilson, 1998, p.234. [return]

Posted: 16 September 2018. Updated: 2 October 2018.