Sunday, September 16, 2018

Obituary (5): Dr. Alan Duane Whanger (17 July 1930 - 21 October 2017)

© Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is the ninth installment of part #5 of my obituary of Dr. Alan D. Whanger (1930-2017). Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. Previous parts in this series are part #1, part #2, part #3 and part #4. See also 20Apr17 and 10Dec15.

Introduction The image of the man on the Shroud includes under-

[Above[2]: Composite photograph of Dr Alan Whanger's three-dimensional superimposed positive and negative photographs of the Shroud face (left), compared with an x-ray image of a human skull (right)[3]. As can be seen, this part of the Shroudman's image contains teeth and skull bones that are beneath the man's skin, which are only seen in x-ray radiographs or other modern imaging techniques. This alone is proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroudman's image is of Jesus at the moment of His resurrection (see below)!]

the-skin x-ray like images of his finger bones[4], hand bones[5], thumbs[6], teeth[7], skull[8], cheekbones[9], leg bones[10] and spine[11].

Fingers and hand bones In 1992 Whanger superimposed positive and negative photographic slides of the hand area of the Shroud[12]. He was aware of the controversy over why the man's fingers appear to be so long[13]. Whanger found that when the positive and negative photographs of the hand area were aligned one on top of the other, and then one of the photographs was moved slightly upward, it created a three-dimensional effect[14]. Whanger realized that he was seeing the skeletal structures of the hands and the wrist[15] and that the reason the fingers look too long is because the bones in the hand (metacarpals and carpals) were visible, as well as the bones in the fingers (phalanges)[16] (see below). Whanger, who was then a professor of

[Above: Positive (upper-enlarge)[17] and negative (lower-enlarge)[18] photographs of the hand area of the Shroud. As can be seen, like the skull (above), the man's under-the-skin finger and hand bones are visible as in a modern x-ray!]

psychiatry at Duke University[19], photographed the three-dimens-ional image on the screen and showed it to the head of skeletal radiology at the university, who agreed that the photograph did indeed look like an x-ray of hands and wrist[20]. Whanger was evidently then unaware[21] that in 1982, Giles F. Carter (1930-2010), a professor of chemistry at Eastern Michigan University, and a specialist in x-ray fluorescence analysis[22], had proposed that parts of the Shroud man's image were the result of:

"... x-rays emanating from the bones of the man in the Shroud ... absorbed by elements (e.g., sodium, silicon, phosphorus, potassium, calcium) at the surface of the body, which would then fluoresce and emit secondary x-rays of relatively long wavelength"[23].

Skull Whanger next superimposed positive and negative photographs of the Shroudman's head, and again by slightly moving one of the photographs a three-dimensional effect emerged (see above left)[24].

[Above: Positive (upper-enlarge)[25] and negative (lower-enlarge)[26] photographs of the head of the man on the Shroud. As can be seen, the man's under-the-skin skull bones: forehead, eye sockets (supraorbital or brow ridge), cheekbones and teeth (see also below) are visible as in a modern x-ray!]

The under-the-skin bony structures of the orbits of the eyes became apparent, as well as the nasal and sinus cavity bones and and rows of teeth with their roots (see below)[27]!

Teeth As already mentioned (above), under-the-skin x-ray like skull features discovered by Whanger included two rows of teeth with their roots[28] (see below)!

[Above (enlarge)[29]: Extract of a close-up positive photograph of the Shroudman's mouth area. As can be seen, under the skin of the man's lips are at least 4 pairs of upper and lower teeth with a bite line between them.]

The equivalent Shroud Scope negative photograph at maximum enlargement also shows upper and lower rows of under-the-skin teeth with a bite line between them [Above right (enlarge)[30].], but it is too small for a direct comparison.]

From his Polarized Image Overlay work on the sixth-century Christ Pantocrator icon at St Catherine's Monastery, Sinai [see 18Dec17], Whanger realised out these beneath-the-skin x-ray images of the Shroud man's teeth explained why the artist who painted that icon depicted Jesus' lips as chapped[31] (see below). Which is further

[Above (enlarge)[32]: Close-up of the lips of Jesus depicted in the Shroud-like sixth-century Christ Pantocrator icon at St Catherine's Monastery, Sinai. As can be seen the artist depicted Jesus' lips as chapped, which is inexplicable unless the artist saw the x-ray images of Jesus' teeth on the Image of Edessa/Shroud and interpreted them as chapped lips (since x-rays were unknown until 1891/1895).]

evidence that the Shroud existed in the sixth century [see "c.550"], as the Image of Edessa, doubled-in-four (tetradiplon) - seven centuries before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud!

Thumbs It was John P. Jackson and Dr August Accetta who discovered the x-ray images of the man's left and possibly right thumbs flexed under the palms of the hands[33] (see below), but the Whangers agreed with it[34].

[Above: Positive (upper-enlarge)[35] and negative (lower-enlarge)[36] photographs of the hands of the Shroudman. As can be seen (pointed to by red arrows), at least one of the man's thumbs is visible, curved under the skin and bones of the left hand, again as in an x-ray!]

Spine and femur Whanger also did not discover, nor comment on, Giles Carter's discovery[37], confirmed by Accetta and Jackson[38], of x-ray images of the man's spinal column [see 20Apr17a] and his left femur [see 20Apr17b].

Anti-authenticist explanations Anti-authenticists had long claimed it as evidence against the Shroud's authenticity, that the man's fingers and hands were too long:

"The striking resemblance of the image of the man on the shroud to French Gothic art has not gone unnoticed by previous commentators. But none of all the shroud articles or books appearing in recent months has pointed out that the ... fingers on the right hand are unnaturally extended. Was Jesus deformed?"[39].

"And how shall we explain the strange anatomy of the figure on the Shroud? Again, a mere glance indicates that ... the hands and fingers [are] long and spidery"[40].

"In 1982, I was the first to point out that the image of Jesus on the Shroud had a number of physical abnormalities. Jesus' ... fingers were unnaturally thin and elongated ... Either Jesus was ... deformed, or the image of Jesus was characteristic of medieval Gothic art"[41].
But as far as I am aware, anti-authenticists have simply ignored this x-ray evidence, which explains why Jesus' fingers and hands appeared to be too long. Leading Shroud sceptic Joe Nickell in his book, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin" (1987), does consider "X-rays" in the formation of the Shroudman's image:
"The two classes of radiation are electromagnetic and particle. The properties of the former vary with wavelength over a mind-boggling range from gamma rays and X-rays at the short end of the spectrum; through ultraviolet, visible, and infrared in the middle; and to microwaves and radio waves at the long end"[42].
But Nickell then rejects all forms of radiation as an explanation of the image, despite one (Jackson's "cloth collapse" theory) being the best explanation of the evidence, on the grounds that it "necessarily invokes the supernatural":
"There is one last, desperate [sic] conceptual solution: Posit that, as in a laser, the radiation emitted from each element of body (and hair) surface is collimated (that is, emitted only in parallel directions, in this case vertical). Then an image would be formed, independent of distance, without the use of an array of pinholes. In effect, the body surface would be composed of millions of lasers aligned more or less vertically. In principle, the resultant image could be of much better quality than the half-centimeter resolution of the shroud image. The problem is that this conceptual solution necessarily invokes the supernatural"[43].
This is naturalistic (nature is all there is - there is no supernatural) invincible ignorance:
"There does remain, nonetheless, a cast of mind which seems peculiarly closed to evidence. When confronted with such a mind, one feels helpless, for no amount of evidence seems to be clinching. Frequently the facts are simply ignored or brushed aside as somehow deceptive, and the principles [naturalism] are reaffirmed in unshakable conviction. One seems confronted with what has been called `invincible ignorance'"[44].
where a false naturalistic explanation is always preferred to a true supernaturalistic explanation!

Jesus' resurrection As we saw above, chemistry professor Giles Carter proposed that the Shroudman's bones emitted high-energy x-rays, which caused elements near the surface of the body to fluoresce and produce secondary, low-energy x-rays, which projected over the short distance from the body to the cloth and created the image of those bones on the Shroud[45]. To the question:

"But how did a dead body wrapped in a burial cloth emit strong Xrays? Carter suggested three options. Perhaps the person buried in the Shroud had lived in a cave that had radioactive walls due to the effects of certain materials. Or maybe this person had eaten food that was grown in naturally radioactive soil. Or, according to Carter, `There is a possibility of the unknown, a supernatural cause, if in fact this is the burial shroud of Jesus Christ'[46]. Concerning the likelihood of the last option, Carter held that if the Shroud turned out to date from Jesus' time, this would `provide proof of the resurrection,' which would `make some atheists awfully mad'"[47].
Another pro-authenticist chemistry professor, Alan D. Adler (1931-2000), dismissed Carter's x-ray theory as:
"... fine chemically, fine physically, yet bizarre biologically ... the man would have been so radioactive that he glowed in the dark. Not to mention he would have been dead long ago from the radioactivity"[48].
But the latter "radioactive" part of Adler's rejection only applies to Carter's first two options, which Carter himself rejected[49].

To be continued in the tenth installment of this part #5 of my obituary of Dr. Alan D. Whanger.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Prather, J., 2018, "Autoradiography," Council for Study of the Shroud of Turin, 22 July; Whanger, M. & Whanger, A.D., 1998a, "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN, p.117. [return]
3. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.116-117. [return]
4. Carter, G.F., 1982, "Formation of the Image on the Shroud of Turin by x-Rays: A New Hypothesis," in Lambert, J.B., ed., 1984, "Archaeological Chemistry III: ACS Advances in Chemistry, No. 205," American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., pp.425-446, 433; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.29; Accetta, A.D., Lyons, K. & Jackson, J., 1999, "Nuclear Medicine and its Relevance to the Shroud Of Turin," in Walsh, B.J., ed., "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, 2000, pp.3-8, 3; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.151; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.213. [return]
5. Carter, 1982, p.433; Whanger, 1998a, p.112; Whanger, A.D., 1998b, "Radiation in the Formation of the Shroud Image - The Evidence," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.184-189, 187; Wilson, 1998, p.29; Antonacci, 2000, p.213; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.38; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.241. [return]
6. Whanger, 1998b, p.187; Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
7. Carter, 1982, p.433; Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.117; Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, pp.37-38; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
8. Carter, 1982, p.433; Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.117; Wilson, 1998, Antonacci, 2000, pp.213-214; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, pp.38; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
9. Carter, 1982, p.433; Wilson, 1998, p.29; Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3. [return]
10. Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
11. Carter, 1982, p.433; Antonacci, 2000, p.214. [return]
12. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.111-112; Whanger, 1998b, p.187. [return]
13. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.111-112. [return]
14. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.112, 115; Whanger, 1998b, p.187. [return]
15. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.112. [return]
16. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.112. [return]
17. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
18. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical," (flipped horizontally), Sindonology.org. [return]
19. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.144. [return]
20. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.112-113; Whanger, 1998b, p.187. [return]
21. Whanger, 1998b, pp.184-185. [return]
22. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, p.131. [return]
23. Carter, 1982, pp.425, 433; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 42; Ruffin, 1999, p.151; Antonacci, 2000, p.213; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, pp.74-75; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
24. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, pp.116-117. [return]
25. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Face Only Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
26. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
27. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.117; Borkan, 1995, p.42; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.38. [return]
28. Whanger & Whanger, 1998a, p.117; Borkan, 1995, p.42; Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.38. [return]
29. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Face Only Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
30. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical," (flipped horizontally), Sindonology.org. [return]
31. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.117. [return]
32. "Christ Pantocrator (Sinai)," Wikipedia, 12 September 2018. [return]
33. Accetta, Lyons, & Jackson, 1999, p.3; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Oxley, 2010, p.24. [return]
34. Whanger, A.D. & Whanger, M., 1994, "The Shroud of Turin - New Evidence," Shroud News, No 83, June, pp.3-5, 3. [return]
35. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," (flipped horizontally), Sindonology.org. [return]
36. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
37. Carter, 1982, p.433; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.131; Antonacci, 2000, p.214; Oxley, 2010, p.242. [return]
38. Accetta, et al., 1999, p.3; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
39. Schafersman, S.D., 1982, "Science, the public, and the Shroud of Turin," The Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 6, No. 3, Spring, pp.37-56, 44-45 (no longer online). [return]
40. Dutton, D., 1984, "Requiem for the Shroud of Turin," Michigan Quarterly Review, 23, pp.243-55. [return]
41. Schafersman, S.D., 1998, "Unraveling the Shroud of Turin," Approfondimento Sindone, Vol. 2. [return]
42. Nickell, J., 1987, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Prometheus Books: Buffalo NY, Revised, Reprinted, 2000, p.91. [return]
43. Nickell, 1987, pp.91-92. [return]
44. Fearnside, W.W. & Holther, W.B., 1959, "Fallacy the Counterfeit of Argument," Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs NJ, 25th printing, p.113. [return]
45. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.131. [return]
46. Jackson, E., 1983, "Prof Thinks X-Rays Caused Shroud Image," Christian Herald, February, Al, 5, in Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.131. [return]
47.Ibid. [return]
48. Zurer, P., 1983, "Archaeological Chemistry," Chemical & Engineering News, 21 February, p.35, in Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.40-41. [return]
49. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.136. [return]

Posted: 16 September 2018. Updated: 24 September 2018.

Friday, September 14, 2018

Date index 2014: The Shroud of Turin blog

The Shroud of Turin blog
DATE INDEX 2014
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the date index to my 2014 posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog. The posts are listed in reverse date order (more recent uppermost). For further information on this date index series see the Main Date Index.

[Main index] [Previous: 2013] [Next: 2015]


2014
27-Dec-14: Lirey (1): Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #13(1)]

[Right (enlarge)[2]: The Vignon markings. See my post of 14-Apr-14 for the explanation. For more on the Vignon markings, see my posts of: 25Jul07, 11Feb12, 16Feb12, 23Feb12, 18Mar12, 23Apr12, 22Sep12, 14Apr14, 27Apr14, 15Feb16, 13Mar16, 04Aug16, 08Oct16, 07Dec16, 24Jan17, 24Feb17, 21Jun17, 27Jul17, 23Sep17, 29Oct17, 11Nov17 & 18Dec17.]

21-Dec-14: Index "L": Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #12]
20-Dec-14: It is "totally impossible" that the Turin Shroud is authentic yet has a radiocarbon date of 1260-1390 (Prof. Edward Hall)
19-Dec-14: Chronology of the Shroud (1): Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #11]

[Right (enlarge)[3]: The Vignon markings numbers superimposed on the Shroudman's face. Again see my post of 14-Apr-14.]

18-Dec-14: Entry number index: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #10]
13-Dec-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (3)
08-Dec-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (2)
02-Dec-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (1)
01-Dec-14: Does the long hair of the man on the Shroud of Turin contradict 1 Corinthians 11:14?
23-Nov-14: Servant of the priest (3): Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #9(3)]
15-Nov-14: Servant of the priest (2): Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #9(2)]
06-Nov-14: Servant of the priest (1): Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #9(1)]
26-Oct-14: My critique of Charles Freeman's claim that the Turin Shroud was made for a medieval Easter ritual
21-Sep-14: Shroud: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #8]
08-Sep-14: Dimensions of the Shroud: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #7]
03-Sep-14: Index "D": Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #6]
03-Sep-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #9
29-Aug-14: Crispino, Dorothy (1916-2014): Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #5]
28-Aug-14: Index "C": Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #4]
27-Aug-14: Dorothy Crispino (1916-2014)
22-Aug-14: Lynne Milne's "A Grain of Truth: How Pollen Brought a Murderer to Justice" (2005)
19-Aug-14: Is N.T. Wright a Shroud pro-authenticist?
13-Aug-14: My reply to the anti-authenticist editor of the British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, Hugh Farey
04-Aug-14: Shroud of Turin: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #3]
23-Jul-14: Index "S": Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #2]
21-Jul-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #8
20-Jul-14: Main index "A-Z": Turin Shroud Encyclopedia [entry #1]
10-Jul-14: Stephen E. Jones' home page WON'T harm your computer!
05-Jul-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #7
24-Jun-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #6
13-Jun-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #5
08-Jun-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #4
03-Jun-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #3
30-May-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #2
24-May-14: My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #1
18-May-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?: Revised #5
11-May-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?: Revised #4
08-May-14: "The Letter from Alexius Comnenus": My response to Dan Porter
04-May-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?: Revised #3
25-Apr-14: "How Valid are the Vignon Markings?": My response to Dan Porter
25-Apr-14: Some Advice from Stephen Jones: My response to Dan Porter
25-Apr-14: Of Pro-Authenticists and Anti-Authenticists: My response to Dan Porter
18-Apr-14: "Okay, we will need to wait several weeks": My response to Dan Porter
14-Apr-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?: Revised #2 (Vignon markings)
14-Apr-14: Danusha Goska's original essay, "The Shroud of Turin???"
13-Apr-14: Danusha Goska's Shroud of Turin Talk, at the Catholic Campus Ministry Center, WPUNJ, Wayne / Haledon New Jersey, Wednesday, April 30th, Six PM.
12-Apr-14: The Shroud of Turin: A gift to our proof-demanding era?
06-Apr-14: Shroud of Turin depicts a Y-shaped cross?
31-Mar-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?: Further to my replies to Dr. Timothy Jull and Prof. Christopher Ramsey
29-Mar-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?: Revised #1
13-Mar-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?: My replies to Dr. Timothy Jull and Prof. Christopher Ramsey
07-Mar-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?: Summary
01-Mar-14: Holy Shroud to be exhibited April 19-June 24 2015
27-Feb-14: The Shroud of Turin: 3.7. The man on the Shroud and Jesus were buried (2)
22-Feb-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker? (3)
20-Feb-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker? (2)
18-Feb-14: Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker? (1)
14-Feb-14: Shroud of Turin: Could Ancient Earthquake Explain Face of Jesus?
09-Feb-14: Off-topic: Archaeologists Carbon-Date Camel Bones, Discover Major Discrepancy In Bible Story?
05-Feb-14: The Shroud of Turin: 3.7. The man on the Shroud and Jesus were buried (1) [part 25]
09-Jan-14: The case for fraud in the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud #1: Introduction
02-Jan-14: 2013 Favs: New Tests Date the Shroud from the Time of Christ


Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.82e. [return]
3. Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Face Only Horizontal (cropped and rotated right 90°). [return]

Posted: 14 September 2018. Updated: 20 September 2018.

Sunday, September 9, 2018

Obituary: Paul C. Maloney (April 9, 1936 - August 27, 2018)

© Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is my obituary of Paul Maloney, split off from my August 2018 Shroud of Turin News.

Paul C. Maloney (April 9, 1936 - August 27, 2018)[2]. Paul Clifton Maloney[3] [Below (enlarge)[4].] was an archaeologist[5], specialising in the Near East[6]. Maloney was a professor of Anthropology, Archaeology and Near Eastern Studies at Vennard College in Iowa and United Wesleyan College in Allentown, Pennsylvania[7]. He was at one time the Director of Ancient Near Eastern Researchers[8]. Maloney was the founder and Director of ASSIST (Association of Scientists and Scholars International for the Shroud of Turin)[9].

Maloney supported the pollen on the Shroud findings of Max Frei (1913-83). In 1983 Maloney sent Israel's leading pollen expert, Prof. Aharon Horowitz of Tel Aviv University, a copy of Frei's 1982 article in Shroud Spectrum International[10]. Horowitz replied stating that Frei's materials and conclusions lead him to believe that Frei's work was sound, that the spectrum of the pollens on the Shroud as identified by Frei was comparable to those of Israel[11], and he agreed with Frei that the pollen on the Shroud was not contamination by wind transport[12]. Maloney then invited Horowitz to join ASSIST which he did[13]. It was Maloney who first approached Prof. Avinoam Danin (1939–2015) in the early 1980s asking him to evaluate Frei's Shroud pollen findings[14]. This was the first that Danin had heard of the Shroud[15]. Danin agreed on the condition that the pollen grains be determined by a pollen morphology specialist expert in the pollen of the Middle East[16]. But the frequency of correspondence and practical steps along this path decreased until they ended completely and Danin forgot about it[17]. It wasn't until 1995 that Danin heard about the Shroud again when Alan and Mary Whanger visited him in Jerusalem [see 05Jun18] [18].

In 1988 ASSIST acquired from Frei's widow twenty-seven sticky tapes on which were Frei's pollen samples from the Shroud[19] [Below (enlarge)[20].], together with the manuscript of Frei's pollen research which he had been on the point of publishing at the time of his death in 1983[21]. At a workshop on the study of the pollen at the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, leading anti-authenticist Walter McCrone (1916-2002) affirmed that the pollens collected by Frei were indeed from the Shroud[22].

By photographing under a microscope the pollen on one of Frei's Shroud tapes and moving the microscope stage in tenths of a micrometre squares, Maloney discovered that there were hundreds of pollen grains per square centimetre on the Shroud[23]. Dr. A. Orville Dahl (1910–2003), professor emeritus of palynology at the University of Pennsylvania, proposed that the unusually high number of floral pollen types on the Shroud had been laid down on it in a liturgical context[24]. So Maloney, noting that Dr. Alan D. Whanger (1930-2017) had identified the images of 27 Spring flowers on the Shroud [see 06Apr13 and 05Jun18], proposed that the early church had commemorated Jesus' Spring death and burial [see "AD30"] in an Easter ceremony by laying Palestinian Spring flowers on the Shroud[25].

Maloney also pointed out that the high number (more than 275) of pollen grains found on tape 6Bd near the forehead [Left (enlarge)[26].] implies a longer exposure to the air and a liturgical setting[27]. This supports Ian Wilson's theory that as the Image of Edessa (the Shroud "doubled in four" = tetradiplon), the face of the Shroud was exposed while the rest of the cloth was hidden[28].

One discovery alone of Maloney's proved beyond reasonable doubt that Frei's identification of Shroud pollen was non-fraudulent (as alleged by anti-authenticists[29]) and largely correct:

"Carefully examining one of the Frei slides, researcher Paul Maloney discovered a cluster of many pollens from the same plant. These pollens were identified by palynologist Dr. A. Orville Dahl as Cistus creticus [native to Israel and the Mediterranean[30]]. (see below) ... Years earlier, Frei had identified pollens from this same plant on his sticky tape slides. At the time he took the sticky tape samples, he was unaware of the images of flowers on the Shroud, but it so happened that the tape Maloney was observing had been taken over the center of the same Cistus creticus flower that Alan had already identified. Thus Frei, Maloney with Dahl, and Alan, all working separately and at different times and using different methods, found the presence of Cistus creticus on the Shroud"[31]!

[Right (enlarge): Location of flower parts on the Shroud (frontal)[32]. The Cistus creticus flowers are located at "(2)".]

In 1993, due to Maloney's ongoing health problems (chronic fatigue syndrome[33]) the Frei pollen collection was formally handed over by ASSIST to the Whangers' CSST (Council for Study of the Shroud of Turin)[34].

In 1998 at a symposium in Dallas, Texas, Maloney gave a landmark one-hour presentation on the history of Shroud research conducted over the past 100 years[35, 36].

As an archaeologist Maloney was critical of Turin's unilateral decision to reduce the number of radiocarbon dating laboratories from seven, using two different methods, to three using the one AMS method [see 11Dec17] [37].

See also: "Paul C. Maloney - Obituary," Centre Daily Times, Quakertown, PA, 31 August 2018.

Notes:
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "Paul C. Maloney," Visitation & Funeral Information, Naugle Funeral and Cremation Service, Quakertown, PA, 7 September 2018. [return]
3. "Proceedings of the Board of Regents," University of Michigan Ann Arbour, July Meeting, July 14 and 15, 1960, p.1235. [return]
4. Ibid [return]
5. Minor, M., "Paul C. Maloney," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, p.15. [return]
6. "Advisor to the School of Botany: Paul Maloney," Academic Advisors, Shroud University, Shroud of Turin Education Project: Peachtree City, GA, 2014. [return]
7.Ibid. [return]
8. Morgan, R., 1984, "The New Group - ASSIST," Shroud News, July, p.11; Crispino, D.C., 1984, "News & Activities Around the World," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 10, March, pp.43-44, 44; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 48. [return]
9. Wilson, I., 1983, "Overseas News and ACCSST," BSTS Newsletter, No. 6, September/December, p.6; Wilson, I., 1984, "X-Ray Photographs, ASSIST and The Atlanta Center," BSTS Newsletter, No. 7, July , pp.4-5, 5; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.96. [return]
10. Frei, M., 1982, "Nine Years of Palinological Studies on the Shroud," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 3, June, pp.2-7. [return]
11. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.204; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.20; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.77. [return]
12. Wilson, 1983, p.6. [return]
13. Ibid. [return]
14. Danin, A., 2010, "Botany of the Shroud: The Story of Floral Images on the Shroud of Turin," Danin Publishing: Jerusalem, Israel, p.10. [return]
15. Ibid. [return]
16. Ibid. [return]
17. Ibid. [return]
18. Ibid. [return]
19. Dayvault, P.E., 1998, "The Frei Collection Digitization Project," Originally presented at the Third International Congress on the Shroud of Turin, Turin, Italy, June 6, 1998, in Minor, Adler & Piczek, 2002, p.215; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.82; Guerrera, 2001, p.96. [return]
20. Schafersman, S.D., 1998, "Unraveling the Shroud of Turin," Approfondimento Sindone, Vol. 2. [return]
21. Wilson, I., 1989, "Paris - The Symposium Scientifique," BSTS Newsletter, No. 23, September, pp.2-7, 3-4; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.82. [return]
22. Guerrera, 2001, p.96; Maloney, P.C., 2014, "Walter C. McCrone and the Max Frei Sticky Tapes of 1978: A Background Study," July 14. [return]
23. Maloney, P.C., 1999, "A Contribution toward a History of Botanical Research on the Shroud of Turin," in Walsh, B., ed., 2000, Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia, pp.241-266, 250; Guerrera, 2001, p.96; Maloney, 2014. [return]
24. Maloney, P.C., 1990, "The Current Status of Pollen Research and Prospects for the Future," ASSIST Newsletter, Vol. 2., No. 1, June, pp.1-7, 5; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, pp.204-205; Maloney, 1999, p.264; Maloney, 2014. [return]
25. Wilson, 1989, p.4; Maloney, 1990, p.5; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.205; Maloney, 1999, p.264; Maloney, 2014. [return]
26. Baima Bollone, P., and Gagli, A., 1984, "Demonstration of Blood, Aloes and Myrrh on the Holy Shroud with Immunofluorescence Techniques," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 13, December, pp.2-8, 2. [return]
27. Maloney, 1990, p.6. [return]
28. Ibid. [return]
29. Nickell, J., 1994, "Pollens on the 'shroud': a study in deception (Shroud of Turin)," Skeptical Inquirer, June 22 (no longer online); Schafersman, 1998. [return]
30. Danin, A., Whanger, A.D., Baruch, U. & Whanger, M., 1999, "Flora of the Shroud of Turin," Missouri Botanical Garden Press: St. Louis MO, p.16; Danin, 2010, p.54. [return]
31. Whanger, M. & Whanger, A.D., 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN, pp.78-79; Whanger, A., 1996, "Pollens on the Shroud: A Study in Deception," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 97, September, pp.11-18, 17. [return]
32. Danin, A., 2003, "Contribution of the Plants in Determining the Authenticity of the Shroud," Flora of Israel Online. [return]
33. Morgan, R., 1996, "Update from Paul Maloney, USA," Shroud News, No 99, December, pp.18-19, 19. [return]
34. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.128; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.82. [return]
35. Piczek, I., 1998, "Planning for the Shroud of Turin in the 21st Century: Meeting in Dallas, Texas, November 6-8, 1998," BSTS Newsletter, No. 48, December. [return]
36. Maloney, P.C., 1998, "Researching the Shroud of Turin: 1898 to the Present: A Brief Survey of Findings and Views," in Minor, Adler & Piczek, 2002, pp.16-47. [return]
37. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.51. [return]

Posted: 9 September 2018. Updated: 20 September 2018.

Friday, September 7, 2018

"Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, August 2018

Shroud of Turin News - August 2018
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

[Previous: July 2018, part #1] [Next: September 2018, part #1]

This is the "Editorial and Contents," part #1, of the August 2018 issue of my Shroud of Turin News. I have listed below linked news articles about the Shroud in August as a service to readers, without necessarily endorsing any of them.

Contents:
• "Turin shroud isn't a fake, insist experts prior to major Islam convention," Daily Express, 2 August 2018, Ciaran McGrath.
• "Turin Shroud: Believers hit back in almighty row over whether famous piece of cloth really did contain Jesus' body," The Independent, 3 August 2018, Adam Lusher Hampshire
• "Turin Shroud the truth: Jesus Christ or not, the man suffered extreme torture says study," Daily Express, 7 August 2018, Paul Baldwin.
• "Turin Shroud close encounter for 2,500," ANSA, 10 August 2018.

Editorial
Rex Morgan's Shroud News: My scanning and word-processing of the 118 issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, provided by Ian Wilson, and emailing them to Barrie Schwortz, for him to convert to PDFs and add to his online Shroud News archive, continued in August up to issue #108, June 1998 [Right (enlarge).], i.e ~92% completed. Issues in the archive are still up to #100, February 1997.

Obituary Paul C. Maloney (April 9, 1936 - August 27, 2018). I have split off Paul Maloney's obituary to a separate post.

Media release: In August I continued working on a word-processed version of my media release outlining my hacker theory, which I intend to email to news outlets in anticipation of an upsurge of media interest in the Shroud's radiocarbon dating as the 30th anniversary draws near of the announcement on 13 October 1988 [see 23Jul15] that the Shroud's radiocarbon date was "1260-1390". However, it grew too long, so in September I started working on a shorter version on it.

Posts: In August I blogged 7 new posts (latest uppermost): "`Poker holes' #29: Other marks and images: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!" -21st; "Date index 2012: The Shroud of Turin blog" - 20th; "My critique of Borrini, M. & Garlaschelli, L., 2018, "A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin," Journal of Forensic Sciences, 10 July" - 13th; "Date index 2011: The Shroud of Turin blog" - 12th; "3 July 1988: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud" - 6th; "Date index 2010: The Shroud of Turin blog" - and "`Editorial and Contents,' Shroud of Turin News, July 2018" - 4th.

Updates There were no significant updates in the background of past post(s) in August.

Comments: In August, as in July and in June, there were no comments! I have just now (9 September 2018) discovered that Blogger has not been notifying me by email of comments and therefore I have a backlog of 37 of them! I will start publishing those that I consider worth replying to from the most recent backwards. To save commenters the trouble of continually checking if I have answered their comments, I will notify when I have answered a comment under the heading "Comments" in subsequent Shroud of Turin News "Editorial and Contents" posts. I have since deleted my email address, waited several hours, and entered it again, after which I received a message from Blogger that I would start receiving email notifications of comments again. And a few hours later I did receive an email notification of a comment proving Blogger's email notification of comments is working again!

My radiocarbon dating hacker theory: As can be seen above, I blogged only one post about my hacker theory: "3 July 1988: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud."

My book: In August, I continued making good progress in writing a dot-point outline of my book, "Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" (see 09May17, 06Jul17 and 04Aug18).

Pageviews: At midnight on 31 August 2018, Google Analytics [Below (enlarge)] gave this blog's "Pageviews all time history" as 940,492. This compares with 777,560 (up 162,932 or 20.9%) from the same time in August 2017. It also gave the most viewed posts for the month (highest uppermost) as: "Re: Shroud blood ... types as AB ... aged blood always types as AB, so the significance of this ... is unclear," Mar 18, 2011 - 87; "John P. Jackson, `An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image' (1991)," Aug 13, 2017 - 69, Jan 18, 2012 - 74; "My critique of Borrini, M. & Garlaschelli, L., 2018, `A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin,' Journal of Forensic Sciences, 10 July", Aug 13, 2018 - 72; "Introduction to my The Shroud of Turin (TSoT) blog!," Jun 30, 2007 - 69 and "The Shroud of Turin: 3.5. The man on the Shroud and Jesus were crowned with thorns," Sep 8, 2013 - 61

Notes:
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]

Posted: 7 September 2018. Updated: 10 September 2018.

Thursday, September 6, 2018

Date index 2013: The Shroud of Turin blog

The Shroud of Turin blog
DATE INDEX 2013
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the date index to my 2013 posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog. The posts are listed in reverse date order (more recent uppermost). For further information on this date index series see the Main Date Index.

[Main index] [Previous: 2012] [Next: 2014]


2013
20-Dec-13: Why I prefer Barbet's hypotheses over Zugibe's: 3) Crucifixion victims died primarily of asphyxiation

[Right (enlarge): National Geographic photograph of the Shroud[2], showing bloodstains and wounds of the Shroudman, which are consistent with the Gospels' description of Jesus' suffering, crucifixion, death, burial and resurrection! Res ipsa loquitur (L. "it speaks for itself")! How can anyone seriously believe that: 1) an unknown medieval forger; 2) imprinted by some unknown means; 3) as a photographic negative; this 4) extremely superficial; 5) three-dimensional; 6) full-length, front and back, image of Jesus, without first doing a face and/or a frontal image (which being great works of art in their own right would also exist); 7) without paint, pigment, powder or dye, etc; 8) after first applying real clotted human blood; 9) distinguishing between arterial and venous blood (which was unknown until 1593); and then 10) adding the image around it? This is from my post of 15-Jul-13.]

18-Dec-13: Jesus `most significant person ever' in new research study
12-Dec-13: Why I prefer Barbet's hypotheses over Zugibe's: 2) The thumbs are not visible because of damage to the hand's median nerve
07-Dec-13: Why I prefer Barbet's hypotheses over Zugibe's: 1) The nail wound in the hand
02-Dec-13: The Shroud of Turin: 3.6. The man on the Shroud was crucified [part 24]
26-Nov-13: Pope Francis shows St Peter's bones to public for first time
22-Nov-13: Off-topic: NetVibes is better than iGoogle!
21-Nov-13: From St Peter's bones to severed heads: Christian relics on display
08-Nov-13: Off -topic: Anand v Carlsen World Chess Championship 2013 match
01-Nov-13: Proposed Minimally-Invasive, Scientific Testing of the Shroud of Turin Endorsed by Shroud Expert
26-Oct-13: Lecture explores legendary Turin Shroud, which could show the face of Jesus Christ
21-Oct-13: A 9th century depiction of Christ being scourged naked from behind with the scourgers' fingers in the shape of the reversed 3 bloodstain on the Shroud!
06-Oct-13: Shroud of Turin News, October 2013
13-Sep-13: Obituary: Frederick T. Zugibe, Ph.D., M.D. (May 28, 1928-September 6, 2013)
08-Sep-13: The Shroud of Turin: 3.5. The man on the Shroud was crowned with thorns [part 23]
06-Aug-13: The Shroud of Turin: 3.4. The man on the Shroud was beaten [part 22]
15-Jul-13: The Shroud of Turin: 3.3. The man on the Shroud was scourged [part 21]
22-Jun-13: The Shroud of Turin: 3.2. The man on the Shroud [part 20]
15-Jun-13: The Shroud of Turin: 3.1 The Bible and the Shroud: Introduction [part 19]
09-Jun-13: The Shroud of Turin: 3. The Bible and the Shroud [part 18]
04-Jun-13: The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (6): Writing [part 17]
10-May-13: The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (5): Coins over eyes [part 16]
21-Apr-13: Fanti, et al.'s, "Non-destructive dating of ancient flax textiles by means of vibrational spectroscopy" paper (unedited) can be downloaded free!
06-Apr-13: The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (4): Plant images [part 15]
02-Apr-13: New tests by Prof. Giulio Fanti show the Shroud of Turin could date from the time of Christ
27-Mar-13: New experiments on Shroud show it's not medieval
24-Mar-13: Shroud on SBS 1 Australia at 7:30 pm tonight Sunday 24 March
22-Mar-13: The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (3): Dirt on foot and limestone [part 14]
06-Mar-13: The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (2): Poker holes [part 13]
25-Feb-13: The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (1): Burns and water stains [part 12]
17-Feb-13: The Shroud of Turin: 2.5. The bloodstains [part 11]
24-Jan-13: False malware warning


Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Weaver, K.F., 1980, "Science Seeks to Solve ... The Mystery of the Shroud," National Geographic, Vol. 157, June, p.740. [return]

Posted: 6 September 2018. Updated: 14 September 2018.

Tuesday, August 21, 2018

`Poker holes' #29: Other marks and images: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!

`POKER HOLES' #29
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is the sixteenth and final installment of part #29, "Other marks and images: `Poker holes'," of my series, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!" For more information about this series, see the "Main index #1" and "Other marks and images #26." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. See also, "The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (2): Poker holes ."

[Main index #1] [Previous: Water stains #28] [Next: Dirt #30]


    Other marks and images #26
      `Poker holes' #29

Introduction The Shroud has four sets of three small "L"-shaped' burn holes[2]. They are in two parallel groups located on the front image near the hands of the man on the Shroud and on the dorsal (back) image on each side of the man's thighs[3]. They are known (after Wilson[4]) as the "poker holes"[5].

[Right (enlarge)[6]: The poker holes outlined in yellow on the full-length Shroud.]

`Poker holes'. The holes match up exactly at the very centre of the cloth when it is folded in four once lengthwise and once widthwise[7]. Therefore they appear to be the result of a deliberate act[8], although they could have been the result of an accident in a ceremony (or even ceremonies [see below]) over the centre of the folded-in-four cloth[9]. It is not known when the holes were made[10], as there is no historical record of their origin[11].

Origin. Ian Wilson proposed that the holes were caused by repeated thrusts with a red hot poker[12] in a trial by fire[13]. But the holes are not circular (see below). And they also show a gradually diminishing degree of burning over the depth of only four folds[14]. According to Fr. Andre Dubarle (1910-2002) they were caused by burning coal sparks from a censer[15]. Markwardt proposed that the holes were caused by "a pitch-soaked firebrand" thrust four times into the Shroud to lift the 544 siege of Edessa by the Persian king Khosrow I (496-579)[16]. Pitch has been detected near the holes[17] and the charring of the edges of the holes is blacker than the burns from 1532 fire[18]. However STURP's Schwalbe and Rogers in 1982 considered the theory that the holes were burned through with a

[Above (enlarge)[19]: The four sets of `poker holes' on the Shroud in a clockwise descending order of damage. First (dorsal left side) top left; second (dorsal right side) top right; third (frontal right side) bottom right; and fourth (frontal left side) bottom left. Note the steep rate of reduction of hole size between the first and fourth set of holes, even though each hole would have been only about 1.3 mm above its counterpart when the theorised "red hot poker" (Wilson) or "pitch soaked firebrand" (Markwardt) was thrust through all four layers of the folded-in-four Shroud (see above).]

hot poker as "probably incorrect"[20]. It was them who pointed out that a close up inspection (see below) of the "peripheral areas reveals a foreign material there, resembling pitch"[21]. They proposed that the

[Above (enlarge)[22]: Close-up of the left dorsal `poker holes' which was `ground zero' of the proposed burning pitch that fell onto the Shroud from a flaming pitch-soaked torch in a regular (Easter Sunday?) ceremony. The charred edges and burnt spots were removed in the 2002 restoration[23].]

damage was more consistent with "burning pitch that ... fell onto the Shroud from a torch"[24]. I agree with this and that the minor pitch burns indicate that burning pitch from a flaming torch had fallen onto the Shroud at other times as part of a regular (Easter Sunday pre-dawn in the tomb resurrection re-enactment?) ceremony. In support of this, what English-speaking writers see as "L"-shaped in the pattern of the holes, may be the Greek capital letter gamma (Γ) which resembles an inverted "L"[25]. In the Byzantine era around the sixth century, when the Image of Edessa (i.e. the Shroud "doubled in four" = tetradiplon) made its appearance, the gamma marking was used on altar cloths which were known as gammadia to indicate their holiness[26].

Lier copy 1516. There is a painted copy of the Shroud dated 1516[27], attributed to Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528)[28], and kept in the Church of St. Gommaire, Lier, Belgium[29]. This Lier copy pre-dated the 1532 fire by about 16 years[30]. It has four sets of three L-shaped

[Left (enlarge)[31]: Painted copy of the Shroud, dated 1516, kept in the Church of St. Gommaire, Belgium, clearly depicting the four sets of L-shaped `poker holes' on the Shroud.]

`poker holes'[32], which shows that the poker holes damage occurred before 1516[33].

Pray Codex 1192-5. The Pray Codex is dated 1192-95[34]. In the lower half of one of its ink drawings (see 11Jan10) it depicts the scene in Mark 16:1-6 where the three women at the Tomb were told by an angel[35]:

"You seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He has risen; he is not here. See the place where they laid him."
The angel is pointing to an empty sarcophagus and its lid, representing the empty Tomb[36]. The sarcophagus and its lid have two sets of `poker holes' (very similar to those on the Shroud - see below)[37].

[Left (enlarge)[38]: Part of the Pray Codex (1192-95) depicting two set of `poker holes': one inverted "L"-shaped, and the other a five-hole shape, each very similar to one of the two basic shapes of the `poker holes' found on the Shroud (see above upper and lower).]

These are one of at least eight (and by my count twelve [see 27May12), telling correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud[39]. Nobel prize-winning geneticist Jérôme Lejeune (1926-1994) who in 1993 was granted a rare private viewing of the Pray Codex in Budapest's National Széchenyi Library[40], wrote of the Codex in general and the `poker holes' in particular:

"Such precise details are not to be found on any other known [Christ] image - except the Shroud that is in Turin. One is therefore forced to conclude that the artist of the Pray Manuscript had before his eyes ... some model which possessed all the characteristics of the Shroud which is in Turin"[41].
Sceptics' explanations. Leading Shroud sceptic Joe Nickell in his book, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin" (1987), briefly covered the "small, round burn holes, as from a hot poker" without mentioning (dishonestly), either "Pray Codex" or "poker holes," so they don't appear in the book's index:
"Ian Wilson suggests that one of the earliest examinations of the shroud — not a scientific one, to be sure— may have been a `primitive "trial by fire"'1 ["1. Wilson, The Shroud of Turin, 25."] ... But Wilson's notion suffered a setback when the 1978 investigation found what appeared to be traces of pitch at the edges of the holes, suggesting rather that they resulted from burning pitch falling on the cloth from a torch.3 ["3. Schwalbe and Rogers (see note 21, Chapter 3), 47, note 7."]"[42].
Note also that Nickell, by his references "1" and "3" is well aware of the Pray Codex and the `poker holes' which are covered there, but again, (dishonestly), Nickell concealed that from his sceptic readers. Also, a Google search of "Joe Nickell" and "Pray Codex" returned no hits (apart from two of my posts). "impostors... deceiving and being deceived" (2Tim 3:13)!

Wikipedia's article, "Pray Codex," after:

"... the four tiny circles on the lower image, which appear to form a letter L, "perfectly reproduce four apparent "poker holes" on the Turin Shroud", which likewise appear to form a letter L. The Codex Pray illustration may serve as evidence for the existence of the Shroud of Turin prior to 1260–1390 AD, the alleged fabrication date established in the radiocarbon 14 dating of the Shroud of Turin in 1988"[43].
does give the response of leading Italian Shroud sceptic and "CICAP consultant," Gian Marco Rinaldi, to the Pray Codex and its `poker holes':
"Critics of this idea point out, that the item that is sometimes identified as the Shroud is probably a rectangular tombstone as seen on other sacred images. The alleged holes may just be decorative elements, as seen, for example, on the angel's wing. Moreover, the alleged shroud in the Pray codex does not contain any image"[44].
I refuted these sceptics' explanations in my 2012 post, "My critique of `The Pray Codex,' Wikipedia, 1 May 2011," and as can be seen some of them have been withdrawn. Here is my refutation of what remains (bold) in Wikipedia's current, "Pray Codex" of 12 April 2017:

Critics of this idea point out, There is only one critic referenced, Gian Marco Rinaldi. Where are the others?

... that the item that is sometimes identified as the Shroud is probably a rectangular tombstone as seen on other sacred images. In the upper burial scene (Berkovits, 1969, plate III. See below), Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (coloured green by me). So there could not be an image in that.

[Above (enlarge): Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (highlighted green) in the Pray Codex Entombment scene (see 11Jan10 upper ).]

In the lower half (below) of Berkovits, 1969, plate III (see 11Jan10 lower), the visit of the three women disciples, it is a rectangular

[Above (enlarge): Visit of the three women to the empty tomb in Berkovits, 1969, plate III (lower). The scene depicts Mark 16:1-6 where an angel tells the women that "Jesus ... is not here. See the place where they laid him," and points to a sarcophagus and its lid to represent the empty Tomb. As mentioned above The lid has an inverted "L"-shaped pattern of four tiny circles and the sarcophagus itself has a pattern of five tiny circles which are each very similar to one of the two basic shapes of the `poker holes' found on the Shroud (see above).].

sarcophagus and its lid representing, not the Shroud, but the empty Tomb, which the angel is pointing to (as in Mark 16:1-6 above). The Shroud is there, but represented symbolically (see below).

The alleged holes may just be decorative elements, as seen, for example, on the angel's wing. No. The decorative elements on the angel's wings are a simple repeating pattern of circles [Left] which don't resemble anything else. But the inverted "L" four circles and the five hole shaped circles patterns on the sarcophagus lid and the sarcophagus, respectively, are each different and they do resemble something else: the two basic patterns of 'poker holes' on the Shroud. Moreover they are together only one of the eight (and by my count twelve - see again above) telling correspondences between these four ink drawings in the 1192-5 Pray Codex and the Shroud.

Moreover, the alleged shroud in the Pray codex does not contain any image. In the upper drawing of Berkovits plate III (above), the double body length Shroud is depicted before Jesus is wrapped in it, so there would not be any image of Jesus on it. And in the lower drawing the image is depicted symbolically:

"The realization that the Pray Codex contains a depiction of the Shroud begs an obvious question: why did the artist not depict the cloth's figure? There are several likely reasons. As someone privileged to view the relic, the artist may have been bound by the same code of secrecy as Nicholas Mesarites. He may have wanted to provide himself with a vivid portrayal of the events of Good Friday and Easter morning, focusing on the Shroud, but without revealing the secret to others. Knowledge of the 'miraculous' image was not to be divulged to all and sundry. Moreover, he would have found the Shroud figure virtually impossible to draw. It could be defined, as we have seen, by its lack of outline (aperilepton), but, like every other draughtsman of the age, the Pray Codex artist depended on outline. If he had simply ignored this problem and drawn the figure in anyway, it would have looked as if the body of Christ was still lying in the tomb - a heretical idea. Fortunately, he had a much better solution. Instead of representing the Shroud figuratively, he could represent it symbolically"[45].

The image itself is depicted symbolically in the Pray Codex. In Berkovits plate III (upper) (see above), as on the Shroudman's image: 1. Jesus is nude[46]; 2. His hands are crossed awkwardly at the wrists, right over left, covering His genitals[47]; 3. Thumbs are not visible on Jesus' hands[48]; 4. His fingers are unnaturally long (see "X-Rays #22")[49]; 5. Red marks on Jesus' scalp and forehead are in the same position as the bloodstains (including the "reversed 3") on the Shroud (see below)[50].

[Above: The Shroud Man's face (left)[51] compared with that of the Pray Codex (right) (Berkovits plate III upper-see above - rotated right 90 degrees). Note the faintly tinged red mark on the Jesus' right forehead, exactly where the `reversed 3' bloodstain is on the Shroud and, like it, slightly angled in a `northeast-southwest' direction! Note also the crown of thorns bloodstains in Jesus' hair, corresponding with those on the Shroud.]

In the lower half of Berkovits plate III (see above): 6. Red zigzags match the inverted V-shaped blood trickles down the Shroud man's arms[52].

On Berkovits plate IV (below), 7. The nail in the wrist of the right hand (as it appears on the Shroud) is in Jesus' wrist (see below).

[Above (enlarge): Extract of plate IV in Berkovits (1969), showing the nail wound in the wrist of Jesus' right hand [Right] (as it appears on the Shroud-it is actually the left hand because the image is a photographic negative-see Negative #19), while the nail wound in the other hand (which is covered on the Shroud) is shown as traditionally in the palm. So the artist, knowing the traditional, but wrong, view that the nails were in Jesus' palms, deliberately chose to depict the nail in Jesus' wrist because that is what he saw on the Shroud!]

So the "Critics" (Gian Marco Rinaldi) were wrong on every point! If this is the best that sceptics can do in explaining away the `poker holes' in the Pray Codex as not being depictions of the original burn holes in the Shroud (not to mention the other telling correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud!), then they have utterly failed! In which case, what agnostic art historian Thomas de Wesselow, in the context of the Pray Codex, wrote is true:

"The Shroud existed and was already damaged, then, by 1192-5, when the illustrations in the Pray Codex were drawn. Given the close links at the time between Hungary and Byzantium, it can hardly be doubted that the artist saw the relic in Constantinople. The Shroud was the Byzantine Sindon ... Historical records show that the Sindon was kept in the Pharos Chapel as part of the imperial relic collection, being first documented there in 958 [see "958"], 400 years before it was put on show in the small French village of Lirey"[53]!
Radiocarbon dating. The Pray Codex, with its at least eight (and by my count twelve - see above) telling correspondences (including the `poker holes') between it and the Shroud, dating from at least 1195, proves that Shroud existed at least 65 years before[54] its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date[55]. And then conservatively at least 100 years would have to be subtracted from 1195 to allow for the development of a tradition that the cloth portrayed by the artist was in fact the burial cloth of Christ[56]. But then the Shroud would have been in Constantinople when the Pray codex artist saw and drew it[57]. And since the Shroud, as the Image of Edessa "four-doubled" (tetradiplon), came to Constantinople from Edessa in 944 [see "944b"], it must be more than three centuries older than its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date[58]. But then the Image of Edessa/Shroud was continuously in Edessa from 544 to 944[see "544"], so the Shroud must be at least seven centuries older than its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date! Therefore the "poker-hole patterns represented in the Pray Codex drawing ... are the final nail in the coffin of the carbon-dating result"[59]!

Problem for the forgery theory. (see previous three: #25, #27 and #28). Even 65 years (let alone seven centuries) before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date, 1195, would be a total refutation of the claim by a Bishop of Troyes, Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-1395), that the Shroud had been "cunningly painted" by an unnamed artist who had lived in the time of one of his predecessors, Bishop Henri de Poitiers (r. 1354–1370), in about 1355[60]. See also 11Jul16 that the Shroudman's image is not painted, and 03Jul18 that there is no evidence that Bishop de Poitiers had a problem with the Shroud.

Just as the no later than 1195 Pray Codex refutes the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud, so it also further refutes the `Medieval photography' theory of Prof. Nicholas Allen (see 07Aug16). That is because Allen bases his theory on the 1988 radiocarbon dating's 1260-1390 date range of the Shroud's creation[61].

Allen confirmed that the Pray Codex was a problem for his theory. When a Br. Michael Buttigieg (c.1916-99) of Malta challenged a 1994 Times article outlining Allen's `medieval photograph' Shroud theory[62]:

"Prof J Lejeune (who died only a few months ago) when interviewed by the same magazine [30 Days], had shown that 'historically' the Turin Shroud existed before 1192. `This', he emphasised, `is a definite historic certainty. There can be no further discussion on that point"[63].
Allen responded by dismissing Lejeune's Pray codex evidence as merely his "views" and "irrelevant":
"Prof J Le Jeune's views concerning the pedigree of the Shroud are irrelevant to my argument. I have deduced that iconographically the Shroud must date from sometime after the beginning of the 13th century. Due to the documented references of the Shroud's existence by the mid-fourteenth century together with the 1988 carbon-dating, I feel safe in stating that the Shroud was most likely produced sometime between 1280-1320"[64].
But then a Paul R. Smith of Australia responded to Allen:
"Dr Allen states that Prof. J. Lejeune's views concerning the pedigree of the Shroud are irrelevant to his argument. The contrary is true. Lejeune's showed that the Shroud was in existence between 1100 AD and 1200 AD (Shroud News 80). Once this was established it was possible to show that the piece of cloth now housed in Turin was in existence before 944 AD [see above]. Dr Allen gives no reason for dismissing Lejeune's claim, but to admit that Lejeune was right would bring into question the carbon dating tests"[65].

The no later than 1195 Pray Codex also further refutes Picknett and Prince's `Leonardo da Vinci replaced the original Shroud with a photograph in 1492' theory[66]. For starters Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) would not have known about the Pray codex which was written in Old Hungarian and was unknown even in Hungary until it was discovered by György Pray (1723-1801) in 1770, presumably in the archives of the University of Nagy-Szombat in Slovakia (which was then part of Hungary), where Pray was a professor of theology from 1750 to 1777.

Picknett and Prince also confirmed that the Pray Codex was a problem for their theory, by dismissing it on the fallacious grounds that because there are other 12th century artworks which show Jesus naked with his hands crossed awkwardly in front, as on the Shroud (e.g. a 12th century fresco depiction of the martyrdom of St Vincent of Saragossa (d. c.304) (see below) which has those Shroud features in common with the Pray Codex), that therefore means the Pray Codex was depicting St Vincent:

"Other researchers look for characteristics that are different from artistic convention, arguing that these show that the Shroud image was genuine. One such is the nakedness of the man on the Shroud and the unusual and unnatural way in which his hands are crossed. Wilson cites examples to underline this, such as an illustration in a late-twelfth-century manuscript in Budapest — known as the Pray Manuscript ... [which shows] Jesus' hands crossed as on the Shroud, and ... completely naked. The trouble with this argument is that there are also paintings showing people other than Jesus with these characteristics. In a church at Berze-la-Ville in southeast France, for example, a wall painting dating from 1110 shows Saint Vincent naked and in a pose exactly like that on the Shroud. Using Shroudies' logic, this proves that the man on the Shroud is in fact Saint Vincent"[67].
But Picknett and Prince have `shot themselves in the foot' on this one. I hadn't heard of this early 12th century Shroud-like depiction (albeit of a saint instead of Jesus). It is obviously a non sequitur fallacy that just

[Above (enlarge)[68]: Martyrdom of St Vincent of Saragossa in c. 304, depicted in a c. 1100 fresco in the Chapel of the Monks of Berzé-la-Ville, France.]

because a medieval artist depicted the martyrdom of an ancient saint, St Vincent, whose actual appearance is unknown, in terms of the burial scene of Jesus in the Pray Codex, that the artist is thereby claiming "the man on the Shroud is in fact Saint Vincent"!

This fresco joins 11th-12th century Shroud-like depictions of Jesus, naked, with hands crossed awkwardly in front: Nicholas of Verdun's Klosterneuburg Monastery altar panel, an ivory panel in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, and the Pray Codex. It and other frescoes were discovered in 1887 under whitewash in the Chapel of the monks of Berzé-la-Ville[69]. They were painted under the direction of Hugues de Semur, abbot of Cluny (1049-1109), who significantly "was an active diplomat to Germany and Hungary on behalf of the church"[70]. So he could have seen the Pray Codex drawings in Hungary before 1100, which were later incorporated into the Pray Codex in 1192-95. If so, that would date those drawings earlier than 1100! So thank you Picknett and Prince!

Conclusion. As we saw above, there are at least eight (8), and by my count a further four (4), making a total of at least twelve (12), telling correspondences between two ink drawings in the 1192-95 Pray Codex (Berkovitz, 1969, plates III and IV) and the Shroud. Those two ink drawings are therefore at least 65 years older than the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud. And then we saw above that the Shroud original must be at least a 100 years older than the Pray Codex drawings of it. Which means that the Shroud is at least 165 years older than the earliest 1260 radiocarbon dating of it. That is, dated at least 1095. But as we saw, in 1095 the Shroud, as the Image of Edessa "four-doubled" (tetradiplon) was in Constantinople, having arrived there from Edessa in 944. That makes the Shroud at least 316 years older than its earliest 1260 radiocarbon dating. But then the Image of Edessa/Shroud had been continuously in Edessa since 544, that is at least 716 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! So the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud is hopelessly wrong!

In 2008 the Director of the Oxford radiocarbon dating laboratory, Prof. Christopher Bronk Ramsey, admitted that:

"There is a lot of other evidence that suggests to many that the Shroud is older than the radiocarbon dates allow ..."[71].
Prof. Ramsey, who was a member of Oxford's team which radiocarbon dated the Shroud in 1988, and was a signatory to the 1989 Nature paper, must be aware that the Pray Codex is part of that "lot of other evidence."

Archaeologist William Meacham confirmed that it is "common" for archeologists to reject as "rogue" radiocarbon dates which are in conflict with well-established other evidence:

"As an archaeologist, I had used C-14 dating many dozens of times on excavated samples, and found that it does generally but not always give accurate results. Most other archaeologists and geologists that I know have the same view; a few are more skeptical of its reliability ... Rogue results were normally discarded without any follow-up research, when it was abundantly clear that something was amiss ... Such rogue dates are common in archaeology and geology and they are usually not subjected to any further detailed study ... Such has been my experience as an archaeologist: I have excavated, submitted and interpreted around one hundred fifty C-14 samples from Neolithic, Bronze Age and Early Historical sites. Of these dates obtained, about 110 were considered credible, 30 were rejected as unreliable and 10 were problematic. I mention this merely to inform the non-specialist that rogue dates are quite common in the general application of C-14 in archaeology. As fate would have it, I had dealt with more rogue samples than most other archaeologists, and furthermore had been involved with several C-14 labs in investigating why some of these samples yielded results which simply could not be correct in terms of their real calendar date"[72].
Prof. Ramsey must be aware of this, as must Arizona laboratory's Director Dr. Timothy Jull, who also was a member of his laboratory's team which dated the Shroud in 1988 and also was a signatory to the 1989 Nature paper. So Prof. Ramsey and Dr Jull should write to Nature asking that the paper be retracted, due to it being in conflict with well-established other evidence, including the 1192-95 Pray Codex. Their continued failure to do this can only be to avoid the embarrassment of that high-profile paper having been wrong for nearly 30 years and having mislead a very great many.

I will therefore write an open letter to Prof. Ramsey and Dr Jull, posted here and emailed (as well as snail mailed) to them, providing them with the above evidence that the 1192-95 Pray Codex alone proves that the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud was hopelessly wrong and calling on them to write to Nature requesting that the 1989 Nature paper be retracted.

To be continued in the next part #30 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.25; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.78; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.34; Currer-Briggs, N., 1995, "Shroud Mafia: The Creation of a Relic?," Book Guild: Sussex UK, p.13; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.4; Markwardt, J.J., 1998, "The Fire and the Portrait," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.320-334, 320; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.4; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, pp.13, 180. [return]
3. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.162; Markwardt, 1998, p.320; Scavone, D.C., 1998, "A Hundred Years of Historical Studies on the Turin Shroud," in Minor, Adler, & Piczek, 2002, pp.58-70, 64; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.4 [return]
4. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
5. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.66; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.60; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.115; Oxley, 2010, p.5; de Wesselow, 2012, p.13. [return]
6. Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Horizontal: Overlays: Poker Holes" (rotated left 90°), Sindonology.org. [return]
7. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Wilson, 1986, p.78; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.34; Markwardt, 1998, p.320; Wilson, 1998, p.66; Oxley, 2010, pp.4, 24. [return]
8. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Wilson, 1986, p.78; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.34; Markwardt, 1998, p.321. [return]
9. Morgan, R., 1986, "New Information on the 'Poker Marks'," Shroud News, No 36, August, pp.16-19,16-17; Markwardt, 1998, p.321. [return]
10. Wilson, 1986, p.78; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.34; Oxley, 2010, p.25. [return]
11. Wilson, 1998, p.66; Adler, A.D., 2000c, "Chemical and Physical Aspects of the Sindonic Images," in Adler, A.D. & Crispino, D., ed., 2002, "The Orphaned Manuscript: A Gathering of Publications on the Shroud of Turin," Effatà Editrice: Cantalupa, Italy, pp.10-27, 13. [return]
12. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Wilson, 1986, p.78; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.34; Wilson, 1998, p.66; Guerrera, 2001, p.106. [return]
13. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Wilson, 1986, p.78; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.34; Iannone, 1998, p.4; Markwardt, 1998, p.320; Guerrera, 2001, p.106. [return]
14. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Markwardt, 1998, p.320; Wilson, 1998, p.66. [return]
15. Morgan, 1986, pp.16-17; Guerrera, 2001, p.106. [return]
16. Markwardt, 1998, p.324; Oxley, 2010, p.24. [return]
17. Schwalbe, L.A. & Rogers, R.N., 1982, "Physics and Chemistry of the Shroud of Turin: Summary of the 1978 Investigation," Reprinted from Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 135, No. 1, 1982, pp.3-49, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co: Amsterdam, p.46 n.7; Wilson, 1986, pp.78, 128; Guerrera, 2001, p.106; Oxley, 2010, p.4. [return]
18. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.34; Oxley, 2010, p.4. [return]
19. Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
20. Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982, p.46 n.7. [return]
21. Ibid. [return]
22. Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Horizontal" (rotated left 90°), Sindonology.org. [return]
23. Oxley, 2010, p.263. [return]
24. Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982, p.46 n.7. [return]
25. Oxley, 2010, p.25. [return]
26. Oxley, 2010, p.25. [return]
27. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.34; Guerrera, 2001, p.106. [return]
28. Hynek, R.W., 1951, "The True Likeness," [1946], Sheed & Ward: London, p.11; Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, p.37; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.4. [return]
29. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.34; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Wilson, 1998, p.66; Oxley, 2010, pp.4, 76. [return]
30. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Markwardt, 1998, p.320; Guerrera, 2001, p.106; Wilson, 1998, p.66. [return]
31. Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.18. [return]
32. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Scavone, 1998, p.64; Wilson, 1998, p.66. [return]
33. Wilson, 1979, p.25; Wilson, 1986, p.78; Wilson, 1998, p.66. [return]
34. Wilson, 1979, p.160; Wilson, 1986, pp.114-115; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.154; Markwardt, 1998, pp.320-321; Scavone, 1998, p.64; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.115-116; Whiting, 2006, p.92; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.178, 180; "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 12 April 2017. [return]
35. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.160; Iannone, 1998, pp.154-155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.115; Oxley, 2010, p.37; de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
36. Scavone, D., "The Shroud of Turin in Constantinople: The Documentary Evidence," in Sutton, R.F., Jr., 1989, "Daidalikon: Studies in Memory of Raymond V Schoder," Bolchazy Carducci Publishers: Wauconda IL, p.321; Wilson, 1991, pp.160-161; Iannone, 1998, pp.154-155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.116; Oxley, 2010, p.38; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
37. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Oxley, 2010, p.38; de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
38. Extract from Berkovits, I., 1969, "Illuminated Manuscripts in Hungary, XI-XVI Centuries," Irish University Press: Shannon, Ireland, plate III. [return]
39. de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
40. Lejeune, J., in Pacl, S.M., 1993, "All those carbon 14 errors," 30 Days, No 9, 1993, in Shroud News, No 80, December, pp.3-8, 6. [return]
41. Wilson, 1998, p.147; Oxley, 2010, p.38. [return]
42. Nickell, J., 1987, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Prometheus Books: Buffalo NY, Revised, Reprinted, 2000, pp.107, 174. [return]
43. "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 12 April 2017. [return]
44. Ibid. [return]
45. de Wesselow, 2012, pp.180-181. [return]
46. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
47. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.91; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
48. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Scavone, 1998, p.63; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, pp.59-60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
49. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91. [return]
50. Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
51. Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Face Only Vertical". [return]
52. Maloney, P.C., 1998, "Researching the Shroud of Turin: 1898 to the Present: A Brief Survey of Findings and Views," in Minor, Adler, & Piczek, 2002, pp.16-47, 33; Scavone, 1998, p.64. [return]
53. de Wesselow, 2012, pp.180-181. [return]
54. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615, 613. [return]
55. Wilson, 1991, p.161; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.115; Marino, J.G., 2011, "Wrapped up in the Shroud: Chronicle of a Passion," Cradle Press: St. Louis MO, p.53. [return]
56. Maloney, 1998, p.33. [return]
57. Scavone, 1998, pp.63-64; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.178, 180-181. [return]
58. de Wesselow, 2012, p.183. [return]
59. Ibid. [return]
60. Wilson, 1979, p.267; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.17; Wilson, 1998, p.126; Ruffin, 1999, p.65; Wilson, 2010, p.303. [return]
61. Allen, N.P.L., 1993, "Is the Shroud of Turin the first recorded photograph?," The South African Journal of Art History, 11, November, pp.23-32; Allen, N.P.L., 1995, "Verification of the Nature and Causes of the Photonegative Images on the Shroud of Lirey-Chambery-Turin," De Arte, 51, Pretoria, UNISA, pp.21-35; Allen, N.P.L., 1998, "The Turin Shroud and the Crystal Lens: Testament to a Lost Technology," Empowerment Technologies: Port Elizabeth, South Africa, pp.xiii, 33, 40; Allen, N.P.L., 2009, "How Leonardo did not fake the Shroud of Turin," Unisa Press: South Africa. [return]
62. "New findings on Turin shroud," The Times, 16 September, 1994, in Shroud News, No. 87, February 1995, p.14. [return]
63. Buttigieg, M., 1995, "Challenge to Allen's findings," Shroud News, No 87, February, pp.15-17, 16. [return]
64. Allen, N., 1995, "Letter from Dr Nicholas Allen," Shroud News, No. 92, October, pp.20-23, 23. [return]
65. Smith, P.R., 1996, "A scientific appraisal of the Allen hypothesis for the formation of the image on the Shroud of Turin," Shroud News, No. 94, April, pp.10-14, 11. [return]
66. Picknett, L. & Prince, C., 1994, "Turin Shroud: In Whose Image?: The Truth Behind the Centuries-Long Conspiracy of Silence," HarperCollins: New York NY, pp.68, 107, 115, 188; Scavone, D.C., 1996, "Book Review of `The Turin Shroud: In Whose Image?'", Shroud.com; Markwardt, 1998, p.321; Wilson, 1998, p.211; Picknett, L. & Prince, C., 2006, "The Turin Shroud: How da Vinci Fooled History," [1994], Touchstone: New York NY, Second edition, Reprinted, 2007, pp.91, 131, 135, 138, 210; Oxley, 2010, p.75; de Wesselow, 2012, p.139. [return]
67. Picknett & Prince, 2006, p.59. Footnotes omitted. [return]
68. "File:Berze la Ville Maertyrer.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 31 August 2010. [return]
69. "Chapel of the monks of Berzé-la-Ville," Wikipedia, 11 July 2018 (translated by Google). [return]
70. "Hugh of Cluny: Political influence," Wikipedia, 27 November 2017. [return]
71. Ramsey, C.B., 2008, "Shroud of Turin," Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, 23 March, Version 152, Issued 16 June 2015. [return]
72. Meacham, W., 2005, "The Rape of the Turin Shroud: How Christianity's Most Precious Relic was Wrongly Condemned and Violated," Lulu Press: Morrisville NC, pp.53-54. [return]

Posted: 21 August 2018. Updated: 6 September 2018.