Thursday, November 29, 2018

Shroud-like Jesus in a stained glass window (c.1150) in Chartres Cathedral, France

© Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is the fourteenth (and a continuation of the thirteenth) installment of my post on the Shroud-like Jesus in stained glass windows (c.1150) in Chartres Cathedral, France.

[Above (enlarge). Photograph "CHARTRES 1.jpg," of "the crucifixion panel," in the Window of the Passion and Resurrection, Chartres Cathedral, emailed to me by Prof. Roberto Falcinelli[2].]

During my scanning early this month of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, issue #114, June 1999 (not yet online), I read the following:

"Aside from the conference [Rome, May 6-8, 1999] itself I met Roberto Falcinelli who has made the astonishing discovery that in one of the windows of Chartres Cathedral (1150 AD) is a head of Christ with Shroud features including the epsilon bloodflow on the forehead [see below]. This could hardly be a product of artistic imagination and so is a further piece of evidence which places the Shroud image well before the now discredited C14 date of 1350 [sic]. I have Falcinelli's telephotographs and hope to bring more of this to you soon"[3].
On page 13 of that issue is a black and white photograph of Prof. Falcinelli, holding a head-only extract of the above photograph.

A check of the remaining two issues of Shroud News revealed that there was nothing further about Chartres Cathedral. So I emailed Rex Morgan and Barrie Schwortz on 13 November, requesting copies of those telephotographs to post on this my blog, but received no response. So on 26 November I emailed Prof. Falcinelli with the same request and on 28 November he replied in an email attaching copies of same. He later emailed me a PDF of his paper: "https://www.academia.edu/872980/Testimonianze_sindoniche_a_Chartres-Torino_1998". The paper is in Italian, so I will use Google Translate to convert it into English to provide context to the photographs.

I have now converted Falcinelli's Italian PDF to English using Google translate. I have omitted Falcinelli's footnotes. There is a problem in that (assuming the Google translation is correct) Falcinelli's paper says the above ogival window is in "the north wall (Portal of the Kings)":

"Above the portals of the north wall (Portal of the Kings) there are more windows ancient: these are three ogival windows and date back to around 1150"[4].
when the online photos and articles I have seen state that, the Portal of the Kings is at the west wall.

But "the window of the Passion and Resurrection" [Right (enlarge)] that Falcinelli focused on (no pun intended!):

"Physically and ideally they form a triptych, proclaiming that the prophecies have come true and that Christ came from the house of David as it was announced, he was sacrificed, and he is resurrected from death. The author of these masterpieces is unknown. They are named: the Jesse window, the Incarnation window and the window of the Passion and Resurrection. The latter highlights, in various details that we will analyze and believe to report for the first time to the attention of the scholars, singular and interesting relational iconographic parallels to the image of the Shroud of Turin"[6].
is indeed, according to the caption of the photo [right], "on the left side the west wall"[7]. I had sent Prof. Falcinelli a link to this post, and he replied that "the north wall" was "a misprint" and that "the Portal of the Kings is at the west wall"[8].

To help identify each panel in this "Passion and Resurrection" window, I will use a grid reference: "L" and "R" for the left and right columns of panels, and 1 to 7 for the seven rows of panels. Thus "the crucifixion panel" above is grid reference L4.

The western stained glass windows are the oldest, dating from "some time between 1145 and 1155"[9]. This is more than a century before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud!

That the cathedral (but not the stained glass windows) exists today, is due to the bravery, beyond the call of duty, of one American army officer, Colonel Welborn Barton Griffith, Jr (1901 – August 16, 1944), "The American hero who saved Chartres Cathedral," in World War II:

"All the glass from the cathedral was removed in 1939 just before the Germans invaded France, and it was cleaned after the War and releaded before replacing. While the city suffered heavy damage by bombing in the course of World War II, the cathedral was spared by an American Army officer who challenged the order to destroy it. Colonel Welborn Barton Griffith, Jr. questioned the strategy of destroying the cathedral and volunteered to go behind enemy lines to find out whether the German Army was occupying the cathedral and using it as an observation post. With a single enlisted soldier to assist, Griffith proceeded to the cathedral and confirmed that the Germans were not using it. After he returned from his reconnaissance, he reported that the cathedral was clear of enemy troops. The order to destroy the cathedral was withdrawn, and the Allies later liberated the area. Griffith was killed in action later that day on 16 August 1944, in the town of Leves, near Chartres"[10].
Under the heading, "Iconographic Resources with the Shroud of

[Above (enlarge). "The Flagellation panel," extracted from the PDF of Prof. Falcinelli's paper above. This is located at grid reference R3 in the Window of the Passion and Resurrection, Chartres Cathedral[11].]

Turin," Falcinelli first considered "the Flagellation panel" above (R3):

"In the Flagellation panel we find the first recall [sic] elements [of the] Shroud. The Gospels narrate that Jesus was scourged by Pontius Pilate as established by ... Rome's law. Here it [he] is depicted bare-chested, bound hands and feet to one column and two executioners strike him with enormous flagrum[s]. To note: the crown of thorns to helmet placed in similitude of the Eastern royal one and the crossed arms like the Man of the Shroud that recall the iconography of the so-called `Imago pietatis' ["Man of Sorrows"]"[12].
Shroud-like features in this "Flagellation panel" mentioned by Falcinelli above include: 1) Jesus' crown of thorns is helmet-like (not wreath-like), as is the pattern of head puncture marks on the Shroud [see 08Sep13a]. This could not be derived from the Gospels' accounts of Jesus' crowning with thorns (Mt 27:27-31; Mk 15:16-20; Jn 19:1-5). 2) Jesus' hands are crossed, right over left, at the wrists, as on the Shroud (see below and 13Apr16 & 27Dec15). I have not included "bare-chested" as presumably all scourge victims were first stripped of at least their upper clothing. Additional Shroud-like features not mentioned by Falcinelli above include: 3) Two scourgers, as evident from the pattern of scourge marks on the Shroud [see 15Jul13], but not mentioned in the Gospels' accounts of Jesus' scourging (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; Lk 23:16; Jn 19:1). 4) Jesus' hands and fingers are abnormally long (as compared with those of the scourgers), as they are on the Shroud, due to them being xray images of the Shroudman's finger and hand bones [see 20Apr17].

Next, Falcinelli in his paper considered "the crucifixion panel" (L4), which is the first photograph above:

"Let's move on to the crucifixion panel. Afflicted by pain, Maria (at right of the son) and John (left), contemplate Jesus crucified. The eyes closed, the head tilted and the body hanging inert show that it [he] is dead. Further Shroud references: Christ presents a hole in the right wrist, which is the only one visible on the Shroud; the wound of the other nail is on the left palm. Both thumbs are in retraction. This same peculiarity of the nails in the wrist and in the palm of the hand is also present in a miniature of the almost coeval Pray manuscript of Budapest which depicts Christ in Majesty. Furthermore, Jesus is represented with the right foot [leg] shorter than the left and this recalls the iconography of the `Byzantine curve'"[13].
Continuing with my count of Shroud-like features, in this "crucifixion panel", as mentioned by Falcinelli: 5) Jesus has a

[Left (enlarge): Extract from "the crucifixion panel" above, showing the nail wound in Jesus' right wrist (see below) and His body bent in a "Byzantine curve" (see below).]

nail wound depiction in his (apparent - because of mirror reversal) right wrist, as on the Shroud [see below]. 6) His thumbs are retracted so they would not be visible from the back of the hand, as on the Shroud [see below]. 7) Jesus' right leg is depicted as shorter than his left, as appears on the Shroud [see below]. This is due to the Shroudman's left leg having been bent at the knee, his left foot placed over his right, and both feet transfixed to the cross by a single nail[14]. And then remaining fixed in that position by rigor mortis[15]. The

[Right (original)[16]: The frontal image of the Shroud (cropped). This is what the Byzantines (including the artist-glazier who made these "Window of the Passion and Resurrection" stained glass windows) would have seen, when the Image of Edessa (the Shroud "four-doubled" - tetradiplon) was unfolded full-length. Note the nail wound in the Shroudman's apparent (because of mirror reversal) right wrist (see above); his hands are crossed, right over left, at the wrist (see above); his thumbs are not visible (see above); his hands and fingers appear to be abnormally long (see above); his abdomen is protruding (see above); and his right leg appears shorter than his left (see above).]

Byzantines thought Jesus was lame[17], not realising that the Shroudman's legs only appear to be different lengths, and so they depicted Jesus' body in a compensatory "Byzantine curve"[18] [See "c.1001b"].

A further Shroud-like feature in "the crucifixion panel" above, not mentioned by Falcinelli, is: 8) Jesus' abdomen is protruding, which was identified by French surgeon Dr Pierre Barbet (1884–1961) as evidence of the man's death by asphyxiation[19].

Falcinelli continues in his consideration of "the crucifixion panel" above (L4), with his telephotograph discovery of "a blood stream in the shape of 3" [see below] where the `reverse 3' bloodstain is on the Shroud [see 08Sep13b & 30Sep15.]:

"In August of 1997 I went to Chartres to study closely the windows and to take photographs and I could make an important discovery. While I was intent on resuming [sic] some details with a powerful telephoto lens, I have noted that, in the panel of the crucifixion, on the forehead of Christ, it was clearly visible the design of a blood stream in the shape of 3 of the same type of the observable one on the shroud face. It should be noted that the blood stream is drawn as opposed to how it is visible on the Shroud positive. Perhaps the artist has it rightly interpreted as a decal by laying for the Shroud image as contact training [sic] The subsequent analysis of the shots made confirmed definitely as I observed that it is not visible or appreciable on normal typographical reproductions that I consulted in numerous publications. It seems beyond doubt that the master glazier who carried out the work could not "Invent" a detail so peculiar to the Shroud without knowing it."[20].

[Above (enlarge): Falcinelli's telephotograph (left) and his highlighting (right), of the depiction of the Shroud's reversed `3', or epsilon (ε), forehead bloodstain [see below] in the c.1150 Chartres Cathedral stained glass window, "the crucifixion panel" (L4)[21]. This is Shroud-like feature 9) in this overall "window of the Passion and Resurrection" (see above) ogival stained glass window in the west wall of Chartres Cathedral.]

The original of this reversed `3', or epsilon (ε), bloodstain is found on the forehead of the man on the Shroud (see below). So this depiction of

[Above (enlarge): The reversed `3', or epsilon (ε), and other bloodstains on the forehead and scalp of the man on the Shroud[22]. These bloodstains match the pattern of punctures by a crown (or rather cap) of thorns [see 08Sep13c].]

the Shroud's reversed `3' bloodstain at the exact same location on the face of Jesus in this c.1150 "the crucifixion panel" stained glass window in Chartres Cathedral, is yet another proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroud already existed in at least 1150, and therefore the mediaeval ... AD 1260-1390" radiocarbon date of the Shroud[23] was, and is, wrong!

Continuing with my Google Translation of Prof. Falcinelli's paper, "Testimonianze sindoniche a Chartres-Torino 1998" ("Shroud testimonies in Chartres-Turin 1998"):

"The working hypothesis that I formulate, and which I offer to the competence of historians, is the following: it is possible that, given the date of manufacture of the window in question (1150) and the visit to Constantinople by King Louis VII of France (1147), there is one relationship between this and the `model' Shroud? We believe that the hypothesis is not farfetched and that deserves further study"[24].
King Louis VII of France (r. 1137-80), enroute to Jerusalem on the Second Crusade (1147–49), stopped over at Constantinople in 1147 [see "1147a"], where he was entertained lavishly by the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (r.1143-80)[25]. The Emperor took Louis to the Blachernae palace where he was shown the Shroud and venerated it[26]. Louis was both "well-learned and exceptionally devout"[27], and given the Byzantines prohibition of literal depictions of the Shroud image[28], and the short timeframe (1149-50), it seems likely that Louis remembered the features he saw on the Shroud and on his return to France in 1149[29], had them depicted in these Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows.

Falcinelli next presents the "anointing panel" (below) in support of

[Above (enlarge): Photograph of "the anointing panel" (L5), in the Window of the Passion and Resurrection, Chartres Cathedral[30].]

his "working hypothesis" (above):

"In the anointing panel we find further and surprising confirmations to our thesis. Under the gaze of Mary and John, Joseph of Arimathea, left bare-headed and Nicodemus on the right, they lay Jesus on a stone slab supported by four columns. One of the central characters holds a yellow cup and anoints the body of Christ with one mixture of aloe and myrrh. The arms of Jesus are unequivocally crossed, on the pubic region, like the Shroud man (the right arm on the left) and not thumbs are visible. Even the facial appearance has obvious references to the Shroud"[31].
Shroud-like features in this "anointing panel" above, mentioned by Falcinelli, include: 10) Jesus' arms are crossed, right over left, over his pubic region; 11) His thumbs are not visible; and 12) Jesus face has long hair and a forked beard. A shroud-like feature in this "anointing panel" not mentioned by Falcinelli, is: 13) Jesus is naked. I have double-counted some of these because they are on different panels and the sceptical alternative presumably is that these are merely chance features, not based on any original model. Therefore there are at least thirteen (13) unusual features on these three Chartres Cathedral stained glass window panels, dating from c.1150, that are found on the Shroud. One of these, Shroud-like feature 9), the reversed `3', or epsilon (ε), forehead bloodstain (above), is too specific to be explained away by Shroud sceptics as merely a chance similarity.

Falcinelli concluded his paper by comparing these Shroud-like features in Chartres Cathedral's stained glass windows and other 12th century artworks:

"The iconography of this panel would seem to anticipate chronologically, as regards the Shroud references, the similar one of the Pray manuscript of Budapest which dates back to 1192. Significant iconic references similar have been reported by Prof. Gino Zaninotto [c.1936-2016] about a sketch a drawn pen, by an artist from Saxony, between the years 1230-1240 in a book kept in the Wolfenbuttel Library. In 1991 the prof. [sic] Ian Wilson proposed an interesting recording Byzantine ivory, with Shroud elements, dating back to the eleventh century. The iconographic similarities between the window of Chartres and the manuscript Pray are therefore evident and reveal a common model identifiable with the Shroud of Turin. So far I have not been able to check if even in the panel of the anointing, on the Christ's forehead, there exists the blood stream in the form of three like on the crucifix panel"[32].

Shroud-like features in common between the Pray manuscript [or codex] (1192-95) (below) and these Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows (c.1151) include: 1) Jesus hands are crossed, at the wrists, right over

[Above (enlarge): "The Entombment" (upper) and "Visit to the Sepulchre" (lower) in fol. 28 of the Hungarian Pray Codex (1192-95)[33].]

left. 2) His hands and fingers are abnormally long. 3) Jesus' thumbs are not visible. 4) There is a red mark of the same angle and location on Jesus' forehead, as the reversed `3' bloodstain on the Shroudman's forehead [see 04Oct18]. 5) Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud [see 23Sep17].

In another of the Pray Codex's four drawings, fol. 28v (below),

[Above (enlarge): "Christ enthroned with the Angel Holding the Instruments of Torture": fol. 28v of the Pray Codex[34].]

Shroud-like features also in these Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows (c.1151) include: 6) The nail wound in Jesus' right hand is in his wrist, while its counterpart in the other hand (hidden on the Shroud) is in Jesus' palm (as per Christian tradition).

On 8 December I emailed Prof. Falcinelli, asking if he could email me a photograph of this Shroud-like sketch by an artist from Saxony, dated 1230-1240, in a book kept in the Wolfenbuttel [Herzog August] Library. To date I have had no response.

Below is the "Byzantine ivory, with Shroud elements, dating back to the eleventh century," which Falcinelli referred to above. Shroud-like

[Above (enlarge): "Scenes from the Passion of Christ"[35]. Part of a larger carved ivory, late 11th/early 12th century [see "c.1090"] Byzantine icon[36], in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London[37].]

features in this part of a late 11th/early 12th century Byzantine icon include: 1) Jesus' arms are crossed awkwardly at the wrists, right over left, covering His pubic region. 2) He is wrapped in a double-length shroud which may have a herringbone weave. 3) Jesus' hands and fingers are abnormally long. 4) No thumbs are visible.

In the absence of the Shroud-like sketch by an artist from Saxony, dated 1230-1240, in the Wolfenbuttel Library (see above), I have added

[Above (enlarge)[38]: Entombment of Jesus scene, part of the Verdun Altar, Klosterneuburg Monastery, made in 1181 by Nicholas of Verdun (1130–1205)[39]. The three concentric circles represent `portholes' in Jerusalem's Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which existed from the 12th to the 15th century, so that pilgrims could see through them to where Jesus' body had been laid[40].]

the enamel panel entombment scene, by Nicholas of Verdun, dated 1181, in the altar in the Klosterneuburg monastery, near Vienna[41]. Shroud-like features in common between this 1181 altar panel and the above c.1151 Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows include: 1) Jesus hands are crossed, at the wrists, right over left. 2) His hands and fingers are abnormally long. 3) His thumbs are not visible. 4) There is a nail wound in Jesus' right wrist, while the wound in His left hand is covered by His right hand. 5) The reversed `3' bloodstain on Jesus' forehead is represented by a tuft of hair. 6. Jesus is about to be wrapped in adouble body length shroud.

To be continued in the fifteenth installment of this post.

Notes:
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Email, "My studies on Shroud\Chartres," from Roberto Falcinelli, 28 November 2018, 2:15 am. [return]
3. Morgan, R., 1999, "Editorial," Shroud News, No 114, June, p.2. (Not yet online). [return]
4. Falcinelli, R., 1998, "Shroud testimonies in Chartres-Turin 1998," Academia.edu, pp.1-12, 2. [return]
5. Geoffrion, J., 2018, "Praying with Stained Glass Windows," Pray with Jill at Chartres. [return]
6. Falcinelli, 1998, p.2. [return]
7. Geoffrion, 2018. [return]
8. Email, "My studies on Shroud\Chartres," from Roberto Falcinelli, 30 November 2018, 6:03 am. [return]
9. "Chartres Cathedral: Earlier buildings and the west façade," Wikipedia, 24 November 2018. [return]
10. "Chartres Cathedral: World War II," Wikipedia, 24 November 2018; "Welborn Griffith," Wikipedia, 8 November 2018. [return]
11. Falcinelli, 1998, p.9. [return]
12. Falcinelli, 1998, p.3. [return]
13. Falcinelli, 1998, p.4. [return]
14. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.64; Brent, P. & Rolfe, D., 1978, "The Silent Witness: The Mysteries of the Turin Shroud Revealed," Futura Publications: London, p.46; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.42; Morgan, R.H., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.103; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, pp.24-25; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 24; Bucklin, R, 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: A Pathologist's Viewpoint," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.271-279, 274; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.59; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.37; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.22; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, pp.94, 234-235; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.145. [return]
15. Barnes, 1934, p.64; Borkan, 1995, p.24; Antonacci, 2000, p.32. [return]
16. Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Horizontal" (rotated left 90°), Sindonology.org. [return]
17. Barnes, 1934, p.68; O'Connell, P. & Carty, C., 1974, "The Holy Shroud and Four Visions," TAN: Rockford IL, p.6; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1993, "Shrouded in Mystery," Shroud News, No 76, April, pp.14-21, 16; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.13, 195-196; Tribbe, 2006, p.234. [return]
18. Barnes, 1934, pp.67-68; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.195. [return]
19. Barbet, P., 1953, "A Doctor at Calvary," [1950], Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, Reprinted, 1963, p.86; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.45; Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, pp.283-311, 285; Cruz, J.C., 1984, "Relics: The Shroud of Turin, the True Cross, the Blood of Januarius. ..: History, Mysticism, and the Catholic Church," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.51; Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.53; Borkan, 1995, p.27; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.114. [return]
20. Falcinelli, 1998, p.4. [return]
21. File "Chartres-Schema volto1.JPG", emailed to me by Roberto Falcinelli, 28 November 2018, 2:15 am. [return]
22. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Face Only Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
23. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615, 611. [return]
24. Falcinelli, 1998, p.4. [return]
25. "Second Crusade: French route," Wikipedia, 3 December 2018. [return]
26. Ricci, G., 1981, "The Holy Shroud," Center for the Study of the Passion of Christ and the Holy Shroud: Milwaukee WI, p.xxxv; Crispino, D.C., 1983, "Louis I, Duke of Savoy," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 7, June, pp.7-13, 12; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.178; Iannone, 1998, p.120; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.58; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.7; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.40; Fanti, G. & Malfi, P., 2015, "The Shroud of Turin: First Century after Christ!," Pan Stanford: Singapore, p.55. [return]
27. "Louis VII of France: Early years," Wikipedia, 29 November 2018. [return]
28. de Wesselow, 2012, pp.180-181. [return]
29. "Louis VII of France: Early years," Wikipedia, 29 November 2018. [return]
30. File "CHARTRES 2.jpg," emailed to me by Roberto Falcinelli, 28 November 2018, 2:15 am. [return]
32. Falcinelli, 1998, pp.4-5. [return]
33. Berkovits, I., 1969, "Illuminated Manuscripts in Hungary, XI-XVI Centuries," Horn, Z., transl., West, A., rev., Irish University Press: Shannon, Ireland, pl. III. [return]
34. Berkovits, 1969, pl. IV (cropped). [return]
35. "Scenes from the Passion of Christ; The Crucifixion, the Deposition from the Cross, The Entombment and the Lamentation," Victoria and Albert Museum, London. [return]
36. Wilson, 1998, p.147. [return]
37. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.160; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.151; Wilson, 1998, pp.147, 270. [return]
38. Biddle, M., 1999, "The Tomb of Christ," Sutton Publishing: Stroud UK, p.38. [return]
39. "Klosterneuburg Monastery: Verdun Altar," Wikipedia, 30 October 2018. [return]
40. Biddle, 1999, p.38; Wilson, I., 2008, "II: Nicholas of Verdun: Scene of the Entombment, from the Verdun altar in the monastery of Klosterneuburg, near Vienna," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 67, June. [return]
41. Wilson. & Schwortz, 2000, p.115; Wilson, 2008; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.182-183. [return]

Posted: 29 November 2018. Updated: 12 December 2018.

Tuesday, November 27, 2018

Date index 2018: The Shroud of Turin blog

The Shroud of Turin blog
DATE INDEX 2018
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the date index to the 2018 posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog. The posts are listed in reverse date order (recent uppermost). For further information on this date index series see the Main Date Index. I have now caught up, so the linked subject headings of future 2018 posts will be added to this page in the background.

[Main index] [Previous: 2017] [Next: 2019]


2018

[Above: Positive (upper-enlarge)[2] and negative (lower-enlarge)[3] photographs of the hands of the man on the Shroud. As can be seen, like the skull [see 16Sep18], the man's under-the-skin finger and hand bones are visible as in a modern x-ray! This is from my post of 16-Sep-18 below. See my previous posts of 10Dec15, 20Apr17 and 16Sep18, that some of the Shroudman's bones and teeth are xray images. Since: 1) the man on the Shroud is dead [02Dec13]; 2) dead bodies don't emit xrays; and 3) a medieval forger would not know about xrays (they were only discovered in the 1890s) to depict them; this is proof beyond reasonable doubt that man on the Shroud is Jesus, at the very instant (Greek atomos 1Cor 15:52) of His resurrection!]

29-Nov-18: Shroud-like Jesus in a stained glass window (c.1150) in Chartres Cathedral, France
27-Nov-18: Date index 2018: The Shroud of Turin blog
10-Nov-18: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fifteenth century (1)
08-Nov-18: Date index 2017: The Shroud of Turin blog
05-Nov-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, October 2018
30-Oct-18: 13 October 1988: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
28-Oct-18: Media release: Were the Turin Shroud radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?
26-Oct-18: Date index 2016: The Shroud of Turin blog
04-Oct-18: Open letter to Prof. Christopher Ramsey
02-Oct-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, September 2018
29-Sep-18: `If Jesus had type AB blood it would mean... he had two separate human parents!'
27-Sep-18: Date index 2015: The Shroud of Turin blog
16-Sep-18: Obituary (5): Dr. Alan Duane Whanger (17 July 1930 - 21 October 2017)
14-Sep-18: Date index 2014: The Shroud of Turin blog
09-Sep-18: Obituary: Paul C. Maloney (April 9, 1936 - August 27, 2018)
07-Sep-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, August 2018
06-Sep-18: Date index 2013: The Shroud of Turin blog
21-Aug-18: `Poker holes' #29: Other marks and images: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
20-Aug-18: Date index 2012: The Shroud of Turin blog
13-Aug-18: My critique of Borrini, M. & Garlaschelli, L., 2018, "A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin," Journal of Forensic Sciences, 10 July
12-Aug-18: Date index 2011: The Shroud of Turin blog
06-Aug-18: 3 July 1988: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
05-Aug-18: Date index 2010: The Shroud of Turin blog
04-Aug-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, July 2018
15-Jul-18: Media release: Were the Turin Shroud radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker? (Fully referenced version)
14-Jul-18: Date index 2009: The Shroud of Turin blog
03-Jul-18: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fourteenth century (3)
02-Jul-18: Date index 2008: The Shroud of Turin blog
01-Jul-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, June 2018
23-Jun-18: 6 May 1988: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
22-Jun-18: Date index 2007: The Shroud of Turin blog:
20-Jun-18: `I would like to point out an important mistranslation of a French expression in your post'
20-Jun-18: Main date index: The Shroud of Turin blog:
05-Jun-18: Obituary (4): Dr. Alan Duane Whanger (17 July 1930 - 21 October 2017)
03-Jun-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, May 2018
26-May-18: 21 April 1988: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
09-May-18: 'you claim that the shroud is genuine, yet this is contrary to scripture'
06-May-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, April 2018
13-Apr-18: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fourteenth century (2)
05-Apr-18: Water stains #28: Other marks and images: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
02-Apr-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, March 2018
25-Mar-18: 25 March 1988: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
18-Mar-18: 11th-10th centuries: Shroud's 1260-1390 radiocarbon date is against the preponderance of the evidence (4): Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #12
03-Mar-18: Obituary (3): Dr. Alan Duane Whanger (17 July 1930 - 21 October 2017)
02-Mar-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, February 2018
10-Feb-18: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fourteenth century (1)
04-Feb-18: 22 January 1988: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
02-Feb-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, January 2018
20-Jan-18: Burns #27: Other marks and images: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
19-Jan-18: Other marks and images #26: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
14-Jan-18: 12th-11th centuries: Shroud's 1260-1390 radiocarbon date is against the preponderance of the evidence (3): Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #11
02-Jan-18: Obituary (2): Dr. Alan Duane Whanger (17 July 1930 - 21 October 2017)
01-Jan-18: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, December 2017


Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
3. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical," (flipped horizontally), Sindonology.org. [return]

Posted: 27 November 2018. Updated: 1 December 2018.

Friday, November 9, 2018

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fifteenth century (1)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
FIFTEENTH CENTURY (1)
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the sixteenth and final installment (which is a further update of "1453a") of part #17, "Fifteenth century" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see part #1, "1st century and Index." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. Because of its length, I have decided to split this post into two: 1401-1453 (1) and 1457-1500 (2).

[Index #1] [Previous: 14th century (3) #16] [Next: 15th century (2) #18]


15th century (1401-1553).

[Above (enlarge): "Man of Sorrows"[2] depiction of the Shroud with its distinctive wounds, bloodstains and crossed hands:

"... the wounds of the Christ can be seen to be Shroud-related. Not only are the hands crossed in the Shroud manner and Christ's body peppered with most-Shroud-like scourge-marks, particularly telling are long streams of blood as from the nail-wounds that are depicted running down the front of the forearms"[3]
in 1485 by French miniaturist Jean Colombe (c. 1430-c. 1493)[4], on behalf of Charles I, Duke of Savoy (r. 1482-1490) (left), to commemorate his marriage in that year to Blanche (Bianca) of Montferrat (1472–1519)[5] (right). This miniature was added to the collection, Les Très Riches Heures (the Very Rich Hours) of King John II (r.1350–1364)'s son John, Duke of Berry (1340–1416)[6], by Duke Charles I, John's descendant[7] [See future "1482" and "1485"].]

1407 Marguerite de Charny (c. 1393–1460)[8], eldest child of Geoffroy II de Charny (1352–98)[9] [see "c.1393"], inheritor of her father's properties at Lirey, Montfort, and Savoisy[10], and the Shroud[11], married Jean de Bauffremont (1380–1415)[12]. However the Shroud remained in the Lirey church under the control of its canons[13] [see "1398"], who did not release it to Marguerite until 1418 [See "1418b" below].

1408 Commencement of the building of what would become the Sainte Chapelle, Chambéry[14], initiated by Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy (1383–1451)[15], who in 1439 became the last Avignon Pope Felix V (r. 1439-1449)[16] [See "1439" below].

1413 Birth of Louis (Ludovico) (1413–65), the future Duke of Savoy (r. 1440-65) [see "1440"] and future owner of the Shroud [see "1453a"], to Amadeus VIII and Marie of Burgundy (1386–1428)[17].

1415 Jean de Bauffremont, first husband of Marguerite de Charny was killed in the Battle of Agincourt[18], which marked the resumption of the Hundred Years' War between England and France[19] [see "1337" and "1389b"]. Their marriage was childless[20].

1418a On 8 June Marguerite de Charny married the wealthy Humbert de Villersexel (1385–1437), Count de la Roche, Lord of St Hippolyte sur Doubs[21]. As his title implies, Humbert, like Geoffroy I de Charny (c.1300–1356)'s wife, Jeanne de Vergy (c.1332–1428), was a direct descendant of Othon de la Roche (c.1170-1234)[22], who brought the Shroud from Constantinople to France, via Athens [see "c.1332" and below]. Humbert, like Marguerite's father, Geoffroy II de Charny (1352-98) was a Knight of the Order of the Collar of Savoy[23].

1418b Less than a month later, on 6 July, due to danger from marauding bands of English soldiers remaining in France after the Battle of Agincourt[24] [see [1356e], the Lirey canons handed over the Shroud, other relics and jewels to Humbert for safe-keeping[25]. A receipt from Humbert described the Shroud as "a cloth on which is the figure or representation of the Shroud of our Lord Jesus Christ"[26]. Humbert's receipt described the Shroud as being in a chest emblazoned with the arms of Charny[27]. That chest is depicted on a lead badge that had belonged to a pilgrim who had visited the c.1355 exhibition of the Shroud at Lirey, and was recovered in 1855 from the mud below a bridge over the Seine River, Paris [see "c.1355-6"]. Humbert's receipt

[Above (enlarge)[28]: The bottom `third' of the Lirey pilgrim's badge showing the reliquary in which the Shroud was then kept. The coat of arms shields of Geoffroy I de Charny are on the right of the reliquary and that of Jeanne de Vergy is on its left[29]. This alone is proof that the Shroud had been the private property of Geoffroy I de Charny and his wife, Jeanne de Vergy. And on Geoffroy I's death in 1356 [see "1356c"], the Shroud became the property of his heir, Geoffroy II de Charny. And upon Geoffroy II's death in 1398 [see "1398"], the Shroud became the property of his heir, Marguerite de Charny. The Shroud had merely been kept in Lirey church on behalf of Geoffroy II de Charny, and the canons had no right to demand it be returned to them, nor that they be paid compensations for its `loss'. See 16Feb15, 14Mar15, and below on the Lirey church canons' extortion racket!]

promised that when the danger had passed, the Shroud and relics would be returned to the Lirey church's canons[30]. Humbert and Marguerite kept the Shroud in Humbert's castle at Montfort [Right (original)[31].] near Montbard[32], about 63 km (39 mi) from Lirey, as also specified in the receipt[33].

c. 1419 But not long after the Shroud and relics were moved west about 227 km (141 mi) from Lirey to another of Humbert's castles, St Hippolyte sur Doubs[34], and then kept in the chapel called des Buessarts[35]. Expositions of the Shroud were held every Easter Sunday in a meadow on the banks of the River Doubs[36].

1428 Death of Jeanne de Vergy (c.1332–1428)[37], wife of Geoffroy I de Charny (c.1300–1356), mother of Geoffroy II de Charny (1352-98) and grandmother of Marguerite de Charny, at the presumed age of ~96. Jeanne was one of the most significant person in Shroud history, being a direct descendant of Othon de la Roche (c.1170-1234) who brought the Shroud from Constantinople to France, via Athens [see above and "c.1332"]. It was probably Jeanne who organised the first undisputed exposition of the Shroud at Lirey in 1355 [see "1355a"] and she certainly was the organiser of the second Lirey exposition in 1389 [see "1389a"]. It was Jeanne who held the Shroud for about 30 years (c.1359-1389) in High Savoy with her second husband Aymon de Geneva (c. 1324-1388), between the first Lirey exposition [see "c1359"] and the second. It was Jeanne who presumably showed the Shroud to Aymon's nephew and neighbour Robert of Geneva (1342-94), the future Clement VII (r.1378-94), so that as Pope he unexpectedly sided with Geoffroy II de Charny against Bishop Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-1395), in allowing the second 1389 exposition to continue [see "1389f"]. Finally. Jeanne may have arranged Marguerite's marriage to Humbert de Villersexel (above). Not only was Humbert and Marguerite's father Geoffroy II de Charny a Knight of the Order of the Collar of Savoy [see above], so was Jeanne's husband Aymon [see 16Feb15]. And both Humbert and Marguerite were distant cousins, descended from the same common ancestors, Jean I de Vergy (c.1248–1310) and his wife Marguerite de Noyers (c.1235–1290)[38]!

1434 Marriage of Louis (Ludovico) I (1413–65) to Princess Anne de Lusignan of Cyprus (1418-62) [Left (enlarge)[39].] in Chambéry[40]. Anne was the daughter of King Janus of Cyprus (1375–1432) and Charlotte of Bourbon (1388–1422) [41]. Janus' other titles included crusader King of Jerusalem[42] [see "1095"]. Anne was a direct descendant of Aimery de Lusignan (c. 1155–1205), the first King of Cyprus[43] [see "1191"], who also claimed the title, "King of Jerualem"[44].

1437 Death of Humbert de Villersexel, second husband of Marguerite de Charny (see above)[45]. Their marriage also was childless[46]. Humbert lands were bequeathed to his nephew, François de La Palud (c.1400–1456)[47], but Marguerite was named trustee of the Shroud[48]. So Anne left St Hippolyte sur Doubs, her home for the previous ~20 years, taking the Shroud with her[49]. Now in her mid-forties, twice-widowed and childless[49a], Marguerite would have known that she was going to die without a direct heir to pass on the Shroud to[50].

1439 After a bishops' revolt against Pope Eugene IV (r. 1431-1447), Duke Amadeus VIII was elected Pope by the Council of Basel-Florence, and became Pope Felix V (r. 1439-1449)[51].

1440 Amadeus VIII abdicated as Duke in favour of his eldest surviving son, Louis, who became Louis I, Duke of Savoy (r. 1440-65)[52]. [Right (enlarge)[53].]

1443 Since Humbert de Villersexel's death in 1437 (above), the dean and canons of the Lirey church had been demanding that Marguerite return to them the Shroud and relics that Humbert had taken into safekeeping in 1418 (see above)[54]. Having received no response the dean and canons of the Lirey church sued Marguerite in the Parlement of Dole for the return of the Shroud to them[55]. That is despite the Shroud being her property not theirs (see above)! Marguerite's deposition to the Parlement stated that the Shroud was "conquis par feu messire Geoffroi de Charny, mon grant père'"[56]. i.e. it was her grandfather Geoffroy I de Charny (c.1300–1356)'s by right of conquest[57] and therefore was not Humbert's to give away. Marguerite handed back to the Lirey church the relics and jewels, but not the Shroud[58]. In return for various payments towards the upkeep of the Lirey church Marguerite was allowed to keep the Shroud for three more years"[59].

1447 Marguerite having not being prepared to negotiate the return of the Shroud to the Lirey church, its dean and canons summoned her before the ecclesiastical court of Besançon[60]. In its judgement the court allowed Marguerite to keep the Shroud for another two years, on payment of the Lirey canons' legal costs and further church upkeep[61]. Two years later this agreement was renewed for a further three years[62]. In these negotiations Marguerite was represented by her half-brother Charles de Noyers (c.1401–1460)[63], a son of Marguerite's mother's second marriage[64]. [See future "1457".]

1448 Presumably seeking someone or something suitable for her to transfer the Shroud to, Marguerite took the Shroud with her through the domain of Philip the Good (r. 1419–1467), the Duke of Burgundy[65]. She is recorded, as "Mme de la Roche," in the archives of Mons, Burgundy (in today's Belgium)[66], as having in her care "what is called the Holy Shroud our Our Lord"[67].

1449 Benedictine chronicler Cornelius Zantiflet recorded Marguerite de Charny exhibiting the Shroud at Chimay, Belgium[68]. According to Zantiflet, who was evidently sceptical of the Shroud's authenticity, it was "a certain sheet on which the shape of the body of our Lord Jesus Christ has been skilfully painted, with remarkable artistry, showing the outlines of all the limbs, and with feet, hands and side stained with blood-red, as if they had recently suffered stigmata and wounds"[69].

1452a Birth of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) on 15 April 1452, Anchiano, Italy[70]. See future "1492" for Picknett and Prince's `Leonardo da Vinci replaced the original Shroud with a photograph in 1492' theory.

1452b In September Marguerite gave a public exposition of the Shroud at the Chateau of Germolles[71], a residence of the the Duke of Burgundy[72], near Macon, France[73].

1452c Marriage of Amadeus IX (1435–1472), eldest child of Louis I and Anne de Lusignan, and future Duke of Savoy [see future "1465"] to Princess Yolande de Valois (1434–78), daughter of King Charles VII of France (r. 1422-61)[74].

1453a On 22 March 1453, Marguerite de Charny, in Geneva[75] (presumably at Château de Chillon, i.e. Chillon Castle), received

[Left (enlarge): The Château de Chillon (i.e. Chillon Castle)[76] which presumably was where in Geneva Marguerite de Charny transferred the Shroud to Duke Louis I of Savoy.]

from Duke Louis I of Savoy the castle of Varambon[77] and revenues of the estate of Miribel near Lyon[78] in return for "valuable services"[79]. This can only be the transfer of the Shroud to the House of Savoy[80].

As mentioned above, Louis wife, Princess Anne de Lusignan of Cyprus (1418-62) was descended from the crusader Kings of Jerusalem and Cyprus. In 1453 she and Louis had been married ~19 years[81]. Anne was both beautiful and self-willed[82]. The future Pope Pius II (r. 1458-64) described Anne as "a woman incapable of obeying, married to a man incapable of commanding"[83]! Louis was more interested in the arts than his duchy, so he had left it to Anne to manage its affairs of state[84]. So it was Anne who in 1453 negotiated with Marguerite the transfer of ownership of the Shroud to the House of Savoy[85]. Anne was born and raised in Cyprus before her marriage at age ~16 to Louis[86]. The Greek Orthodox Church in Cyprus celebrated 16 August as the feast of the coming of the Image of Edessa to Constantinople [see "[945b"], despite its disappearance from there in 1204 [see "1204"][87]. That annual celebration was held in the Church of the Acheiropoietos (Greek "not made with [human] hands"[89] - that same Greek word is in Mk 14:58; 2Cor 5:1 & Col 2:11) at Lapithos in Cyprus[90], not far from the Lusignan Palace where Anne had lived[91]. Although a Roman Catholic, Anne would have been aware of these celebrations[92]. She may also have recognized a similarity between the Image of Edessa and the Shroud of Lirey[93] and believed that the two were one and the same[94]. So it was likely that Anne was much more interested in possessing the Shroud than Marguerite would have expected[95], and this would have been an important factor (amongst others - see next) in Marguerite's decision to transfer the Shroud to Duke Louis and Duchess Anne of Savoy[96].

Presumably Marguerite saw in Duke Louis and his wife Anne a pious[97] and rising dynasty, wealthy and powerful enough to give security to the Shroud[98]. Marguerite's judgment (or rather Jesus, the Man on the Shroud's leading) proved to be correct, as the Savoys became the kings of Italy from 1861 [see future "1861"][99]. The secrecy was presumably necessary because the legal owner of the Shroud, the Byzantine Empire, was still in existence (albeit only for another two months - see below). Varambon had been the seat of the de la Palud family until it was confiscated by Duke Louis I from Marguerite's nephew and Humbert's heir, François de la Palud (see above)[100]. Marguerite had previously petitioned King Charles VII (Yolande's father see above), that Louis pay compensation for what he had taken from her nephew[101], so presumably this was a face-saving way for Louis to return Varambon to its rightful owner. The revenues from Miribel were already exhausted, so in 1455 Louis took it back replaced it with the town and manor of Flumet, in High Savoy[102], so that the ~62 year-old Marguerite could have a place in which to live out her remaining years[103]. If Marguerite had wanted to profit from the exchange, she could have asked and received much more for the Shroud, but presumably the Duke Louis and Duchess Anne wanted legal proof that they now owned the Cloth[104] [see 16Feb15]. Therefore the repeated claim by professional Shroud sceptic, Joe Nickell, that Marguerite "sold" the Shroud for "two castles"[105] is false. As Ian Wilson pointed out, "Margaret was now in her seventies [sic], and one can scarcely suppose that at this stage in her life she should have been particularly interested in acquiring real estate"[106]!

1453b End of the Byzantine Empire on 29 May 1453, in the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire's Sultan Mehmed II (1432–1481), after a 7-weeks siege which began on 6 April 1453[107]. The last reigning Byzantine Emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos (r. 1449–1453), died in battle at the fall of Constantinople[108]. So the Byzantine Empire could no longer demand that the Shroud be returned, if it was now publicly admitted that it was the one looted from Constantinople in 1204 [see "1204]," by Marguerite's ancestor, Othon de la Roche (c.1170-1234) (see above)[109].

To be continued in the next part #18 of this series..

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "File:Folio 75r - The Man of Sorrows.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 4 June 2018. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1994, "A New Finding," BSTS Newsletter. No. 38, August/September, pp.16-19, 17; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.285. [return]
4. "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry," Wikipedia, 24 August 2018. [return]
5. Wilson, 1994, p.17; Wilson, 1998, p.285. [return]
6. "John, Duke of Berry," Wikipedia, 12 October 2018. [return]
7 . Wilson, 1994, p.17. [return]
8. Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, pp.35, 174. [return]
9. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.221; Crispino, D.C., 1990, "The Charny Genealogy," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 37, December, pp.19-25, 20; Duncan, H., 2013, "The Shroud in Montfort, 1418-?," BSTS Newsletter, No. 77, June. [return]
10. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.209; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.37; Currer-Briggs, 1995, pp.16-17; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.237. [return]
11. Wilson, 1979, p.209; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.44; Brucker, E., 1998, "Thy Holy Face: My 39 Years of Lecturing on the Shroud of Turin," Brucker: Tucson AZ, p.16; Duncan, 2013. [return]
12. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.174; Wilson, 1998, p.281. [return]
13. de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.15. [return]
14. Wilson, 1998, p.281. [return]
15. Wilson, 1998, p.281. [return]
16. Wilson, 1979, p.215; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.48; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.52; Wilson, 2010, p.243. [return]
17. Wilson, 2010, p.247; "Louis, Duke of Savoy," Wikipedia, 6 April 2018. [return]
18. Wilson, 1979, p.211; Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.44; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.44; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.221; Wilson, 1998, pp.118, 281-282; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.15; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.63; Duncan, 2013. [return]
19. "Hundred Years' War: Battle of Agincourt (1415)," Wikipedia, 8 November 2018. [return]
20. Wilson, 1979, p.211; Guerrera, 2001, p.16; Oxley, 2010, p.63. [return]
21. Wilson, 1979, pp.211, 260; Wilson, 1998, p.282; Whiting, 2006, p.49; "Humbert de Villersexel," Wikipedia, 27 September 2017 (translated by Google). [return]
22. Whiting, 2006, p.49; Wilson, 2010, p.211. [return]
23. Wilson, 1979, p.215; Whiting, 2006, p.52. [return]
24. Wilson, 1979, pp.211-212, 260; Wilson, 1998, pp.118, 282. [return]
25. Wilson, 1979, p.260; Wilson, 1998, p.282. [return]
26. Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, p.101; Wilson, 1979, pp.212, 260; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.44; Bonnet-Eymard, B., "Study of original documents of the archives of the Diocese of Troyes in France with particular reference to the Memorandum of Pierre d'Arcis," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.233-260, 247; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.35; Wilson, 1998, pp.118, 282; Whiting, 2006, p.50; Wilson, 2010, p.238; Duncan, 2013. [return]
27. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.44; Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, p.247; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.35; Wilson, 1998, p.118; Whiting, 2006, p.50; Duncan, 2013. [return]
28. Latendresse, M., 2012, "A Souvenir from Lirey," Sindonology.org. [return]
29. Wilson, 1979, p.224D; Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.96; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.5; Wilson, 1998, p.127; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.150; Tribbe, 2006, p.42; Wilson, 2010, p.221. [return]
30. Wilson, 1979, p.212; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.44; Duncan, 2013; Whiting, 2006, p.50; Wilson, 2010, p.238. [return]
31. "Castle Montfort (Côte-d'Or)," Wikipedia, 3 November 2017 (translated by Google). [return]
32. Wilson, 1979, p.260; Wilson, 1998, pp.118, 282. [return]
33. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.44; Wilson, 1998, p.118; Duncan, 2013. [return]
34. Wilson, 1979, p.260; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.33; Wilson, 1998, pp.238, 282; Whiting, 2006, p.50. [return]
35. Wilson, 1979, pp.212, 260; Wilson, 1998, p.282; Whiting, 2006, p.50. [return]
36. Wilson, 1979, pp.260-261; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.45; Wilson, 1998, pp.238, 282; Whiting, 2006, p.50. [return]
37. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.220; "Jeanne de Vergy," Wikipedia, 13 January 2018, translated by Google. [return]
38. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.30. [return]
39. "Anne of Cyprus, Duchess of Savoy, by Giuseppe Lavy," c.1758-66, in Royal Palace, Turin. [return]
40. "Anne of Cyprus," Wikipedia, 5 July 2018. [return]
41. Wilson, 2010, p.243; Ibid.. [return]
42. "Janus of Cyprus: Family and issue," Wikipedia, 13 November 2018. [return]
43. Wilson, 1979, p.215; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.46; Scott, J.B., 2003, "Architecture for the Shroud: Relic and Ritual in Turin," University of Chicago Press: Chicago & London, p.13; Whiting, 2006, p.52; Oxley, 2010, p.68; Wilson, 2010, p.243. [return]
44. Currer-Briggs, 1988, pp.46-47. [return]
45. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.35; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.35; Wilson, 1998, p.282; Wilson, 2010, p.239. [return]
46. Morgan, 1980, p.44; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.45; Tribbe, 2006, p.47; Whiting, 2006, p.50; Wilson, 2010, p.239. [return]
47. Sox, H.D., 1978, "File on the Shroud," Coronet: London, p.41; Wilson, 1979, p.213; Oxley, 2010, p.68. [return]
48. Sox, 1978, p.41. [return]
49. Adams, 1982, p.44; Guerrera, 2001, p.16; Oxley, 2010, p.67. [return]
49a. Wilson, 2010, pp.100-101. [return]
50. Wilson, 1979, p.212; Wilson, 2010, p.239. [return]
51. Wilson, 1998, p.282; "Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy: Election as anti-pope," Wikipedia, 27 August 2018. [return]
52. Oxley, 2010, p.69; "Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy: Election as anti-pope," Wikipedia, 27 August 2018; "Louis, Duke of Savoy," Wikipedia, 6 April 2018. [return]
53. "File:Lodovico di Savoia.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 28 June 2016. [return]
54. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.35. [return]
55. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.35. [return]
56. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.35; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.20; Wilson, 1998, pp.130, 132, 282; Oxley, 2010, p.66. [return]
57. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.183. [return]
58. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.15; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.45. [return]
59. Wilson, 2010, p.240. [return]
60. Bulst, 1957, p.15; Wilson, 1979, p.213; Whiting, 2006, p.51; Wilson, 2010, p.240. [return]
61. Wilson, 1979, p.213; Whiting, 2006, p.51; Wilson, 2010, p.240. [return]
62. Wilson, 1979, p.213; Whiting, 2006, p.51; Wilson, 2010, p.240. [return]
63. Wilson, 1979, p.213; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.36; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Whiting, 2006, p.51; Wilson, 2010, p.240. [return]
64. Oxley, 2010, p.70. [return]
65. Wilson, 2010, pp.240-241. [return]
66. Wilson, 1998, p.282; Oxley, 2010, p.67; "Mons," Wikipedia, 11 November 2018. [return]
67. Wilson, 1998, p.282; Oxley, 2010, p.67. [return]
68. Wilson, 1979, p.214; Wilson, 1998, p.282; Oxley, 2010, p.67. [return]
69. Wilson, 1979, p.214; Wilson, 1998, p.282; Oxley, 2010, p.67. [return]
70. Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.139; Guerrera, 2001, p.70; Wilson, 2010, p.244; "Leonardo da Vinci," Wikipedia, 20 November 2018. [return]
71. Wilson, 1979, p.214; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.46. [return]
72. Oxley, 2010, p.67; "Château de Germolles," Wikipedia, 6 April 2018. [return]
73. Wilson, 1979, p.214; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.46; Wilson, 1998, pp.282-283; Oxley, 2010, p.67. [return]
74. Jones, S.E., 2015, "de Charny Family Tree," Ancestry.com.au (members only); "Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy," Wikipedia, 15 October 2018; "Yolande of Valois," Wikipedia, 19 July 2018. [return]
75. Wilson, 1979, p.214; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.46; Oxley, 2010, p.69. [return]
76. "Château de Chillon," Wikipedia, 19 October 2018. Photograph, "Castle_of_Chillon_N.jpg"," by Zacharie Grossen, 3 July 2014. [return]
77. Wilson, 1979, p.214; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.46; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Whiting, 2006, p.53; Oxley, 2010, p.69; de Wesselow, 2012, p.16. [return]
78. Humber, 1978, p.103; Wilson, 1979, p.214; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.46; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Whiting, 2006, p.53; Oxley, 2010, p.69; de Wesselow, 2012, p.16. [return]
79. Wilson, 1979, p.214; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.46; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Whiting, 2006, p.53; de Wesselow, 2012, p.16. [return]
80. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Whiting, 2006, p.53; de Wesselow, 2012, p.16. [return]
81. Reference(s) to be provided. [return]
82. Oxley, 2010, p.68. [return]
83. Crispino, D.C., 1983, "Louis I, Duke of Savoy," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 7, June, pp.7-13, 8; Oxley, 2010, p.68. [return]
84. "Anne of Cyprus," Wikipedia, 5 July 2018. [return]
85. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.34. [return]
86. Wilson, 1979, p.216; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40; Oxley, 2010, p.70. [return]
87. Wilson, 1979, p.216; Whiting, 2006, pp.52-53; Oxley, 2010, p.70. [return]
89. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40. [return]
90. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40; Whiting, 2006, p.52. [return]
91. Wilson, 1979, p.216; Whiting, 2006, p.53. [return]
92. Wilson, 1979, p.216; Oxley, 2010, p.70. [return]
93. Wilson, 1979, p.216; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40; Oxley, 2010, p.70. [return]
94. Oxley, 2010, p.70. [return]
95. Whiting, 2006, p.53. [return]
96. Wilson, 1979, p.215. [return]
97. Wilson, 1979, p.215. [return]
98. Wilson, 1979, p.215; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.130; Tribbe, 2006, p.49. [return]
99. Iannone, 1998, p.130; Oxley, 2010, p.71. [return]
100. Oxley, 2010, p.69. [return]
101. Oxley, 2010, p.69. [return]
102. Humber, 1978, p.103. [return]
103. Iannone, 1998, p.130. [return]
104. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.46. [return]
105. Nickell, J., 1993, "Looking for a Miracle: Weeping Icons, Relics, Stigmata, Visions & Healing Cures," Prometheus Books: Buffalo NY, p.23; Nickell, J., 1987, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Prometheus Books: Buffalo NY, Revised, Reprinted, 2000, pp.18-19 & Nickell, J., 2007, "Relics of the Christ," The University Press of Kentucky: Lexington KY, p.133. [return]
106. Wilson, 1979, p.214. [return]
107. "Byzantine Empire: Rise of the Ottomans and fall of Constantinople," Wikipedia, 23 November 2018. [return]
108. "Constantine XI Palaiologos," Wikipedia, 9 November 2018. [return]
109. de Wesselow, 2012, pp.182-183. [return]

Posted: 10 November 2018. Updated: 27 November 2018.

Thursday, November 8, 2018

Date index 2017: The Shroud of Turin blog

The Shroud of Turin blog
DATE INDEX 2017
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the date index to my 2017 posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog. The posts are listed in reverse date order (more recent uppermost). For further information on this date index series see the Main Date Index.

[Main index] [Previous: 2016] [Next: 2018]


2017

[Above (enlarge): "The surrender of the Holy Mandylion (the `Image of Edessa'), bearing the face of Christ [and behind it the full-length, previously folded, Shroud!], by the inhabitants of Edessa in Mesopotamia to the Byzantines in 944," by John Skylitzes (c. 1040s – aft. 1101)[2]. Note that in the 11th century (c. 1070) Skylitzes depicted the Image of Edessa/Mandylion, at the time of its transfer from Edessa to Constantinople in 944, as full-length and folded[3]! This is from my post of 13-May-17. My other posts which included this work by Skylitzes are: 30Jul15, 25Oct15, 04Oct18 & 05Nov18. The second last is my "Open letter to Professor Christopher Ramsey," where because of space constraints I didn't elaborate, but if I had I would have said that this c. 1070 work by Skylitzes alone (and it isn't alone), proves beyond reasonable doubt: 1) that Ian Wilson's theory that the Image of Edessa was the Shroud "doubled in four" = tetradiplon)[4] is correct; and 2) at c. 1070, this painting by Skylitzes is 190 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud[5], and therefore (yet again) the "mediaeval ... AD 1260-1390" radiocarbon date of the Shroud[6] was wrong!]

18-Dec-17: Obituary: Dr. Alan Duane Whanger (17 July 1930 - 21 October 2017)
11-Dec-17: 18 November 1987: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
10-Dec-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, November 2017
11-Nov-17: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Thirteenth century
05-Nov-17: No image under blood #25: The man on the Shroud: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
04-Nov-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, October 2017
29-Oct-17: Vignon markings: Shroud's 1260-1390 radiocarbon date is against the preponderance of the evidence (2): Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #10
22-Oct-17: 10 October 1987: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
22-Oct-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, September 2017
23-Sep-17: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth century
18-Sep-17: VT-100 terminal to a DEC mini-computer, Timothy Linick and Karl Koch: Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #9
13-Sep-17: 29 June 1987: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
04-Sep-17: Blood clots intact #24: The man on the Shroud: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
03-Sep-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, August 2017
15-Aug-17: Obituary: Rev. H. David Sox (24 April 1936 - 28 August 2016)
13-Aug-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, July 2017
27-Jul-17: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Eleventh century
19-Jul-17: "Atomic resolution studies detect new biologic evidences on the Turin Shroud," Shroud of Turin News, June 2017
07-Jul-17: 15 June 1987: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
06-Jul-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, June 2017
21-Jun-17: 13th-12th centuries: Shroud's 1260-1390 radiocarbon date is against the preponderance of the evidence (1): Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #8
19-Jun-17: 6 May 1987: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
03-Jun-17: Real human blood #23: The man on the Shroud: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
02-Jun-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, May 2017
31-May-17: 27 April 1987: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
29-May-17: Index: On this day 30 years ago in the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud
13-May-17: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Tenth century
10-May-17: Dr Jull's and Prof. Ramsey's prompt, misleading and false replies: Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #7
09-May-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, April 2017
20-Apr-17: X-rays #22: The man on the Shroud: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
19-Apr-17: `Radiocarbon Dating ... error potential when an item is contaminated with newer material'
11-Apr-17: Summary and embryonic statement of my hacker theory: Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #6
09-Apr-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, March 2017
25-Mar-17: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Ninth century
14-Mar-17: No decomposition #21: The man on the Shroud: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
10-Mar-17: Another form of fraud - computer hacking: Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #5
09-Mar-17: Odds "one in a thousand trillion" against the radiocarbon dating!: Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #4
07-Mar-17: My first use of the term "hacker": Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #3
06-Mar-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, February 2017
24-Feb-17: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Eighth century
21-Feb-17: Fraud a real possibility: Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #2
05-Feb-17: Three-dimensional #20: The man on the Shroud: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!
04-Feb-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, January 2017
24-Jan-17: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Seventh century
23-Jan-17: Hacking an explanation & Index: Steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud hacker theory #1
20-Jan-17: The date of Ian Wilson's tetradiplon = `doubled in four' Shroud experiment
19-Jan-17: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, December 2016


Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "Chronography of John Skylitzes, cod. Vitr. 26-2, folio 131a, Madrid National Library, in "File:Surrender of the Mandylion to the Byzantines.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 20 December 2012. [return]
3. Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 193-194; Scavone, D.C., "Underscoring the Highly Significant Historical Research of the Shroud," in Tribbe, 2006, p.xxvii. [return]
4. Wilson, I., 1974, "The Shroud in history," The Tablet, 13th April, p.12; Wilson, I., "The Shroud's History Before the 14th Century," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, pp.31-49, 44-45; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, pp.120-121; Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, pp.36-37; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, pp.112-113, 145; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.82; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, pp.141-142; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 35; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, pp.104-105; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.152-153, 266; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.132-133; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, pp.110-111; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, pp.2-3; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.140-141; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, pp.186-187. [return]
5. Wilson, 1991, p.161; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.115; Marino, J.G., 2011, "Wrapped up in the Shroud: Chronicle of a Passion," Cradle Press: St. Louis MO, p.53. [return]
6. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615, 611. [return]

Posted: 8 November 2018. Updated: 27 November 2018.