Friday, April 17, 2015

Shroud of Turin News - April 2015

I have decided to re-start (again!) my Shroud of Turin News. The last issue was in October 2013. What prompted me was that I have started scanning the 118 issues of fellow Australian Rex Morgan's Shroud News, with his permission, for a new archive of that name on Barrie Schwortz' According to Schwortz the Shroud News archive should commence "this [northern] summer," and will be announced in his imminent late April/early May, update. Also, I had recently read Mark Guscin's "Interview With Rex Morgan" in the BSTS Newsletter No. 63 of June 2006, in which Morgan [right] said:

"There have been many letters asking me to resurrect Shroud News and I would much like to. The mountain of material I have assembled since the last one would enable me to produce issues for many more years."
While I do not claim that this is the successor to Morgan's Shroud News (which is one reason I have called it "Shroud of Turin News"), I do hope that this new (or re-started) series will help in some small way to fill the void left by Morgan's decision to not continue with his original Shroud News after December 2001. As before, I will add my comments to Shroud-related news and other articles in reverse chronological order (latest uppermost). My comments are in bold to distinguish them from the articles.

"Turin Shroud Displayed Despite Inauthenticity," The Huffington Post UK, Paul Vale, 21/04/2015 ... A piece of cloth scientifically proven to have no connection to Biblical times has gone on display in Italy, with millions expected to make the pilgrimage to see the medieval forgery.

[Above: "Shroud of Turin Goes on Display in Italy"]

The infamous Shroud of Turin -- a 14 foot piece of linen once believed to be Christ’s burial cloth -- went on public display on Sunday after a 5-year hiatus, with Pope Francis reportedly planning to see the "sacred" garb in June. The linen boasts a faded image of a bearded man, which for centuries was said to be an imprint of the face of Christ. However, in 1988 researchers dated the shroud with Carbon 14 testing, the results placing the garment's creation within the period 1260-1390. ... Recent Popes have been careful to avoid pronouncing on the issue, unwilling to reject the shroud while opting to highlight its more symbolic resonance. Yet despite its inauthenticity, the relic remains a big draw for tourists -- believers and non-believers. ... On the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud to "within the period 1260-1390," see below on "My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker." This anti- authenticist journalist's "Recent Popes have been careful to avoid pronouncing on the issue..." confirms my previous point that anti-authenticists cite the Vatican's refusal to affirm that the Shroud is authentic, as evidence that it is not. Jesus, who imprinted His image on the Shroud and has preserved it down through the millennia against all the odds, cannot be happy with the Vatican's persistent refusal to tell the truth in this matter.

More than a million already booked to see Turin Shroud," The Australian/AFP, April 20, 2015 ... The Turin Shroud will go on display

[Above: "Holy Shroud of Turin at Cathedral of Turin, Italy (APP)"]

for the first time in five years, with more than a million people already booked in to view one of Christianity's most celebrated relics. Devotees believe the shroud, which is imprinted with the image of a man who appears to have been crucified, to be the burial cloth of Jesus Christ. ... researchers have not been able to explain how the remarkable image was created, leaving space for theories of some sort of miraculous process to flourish. The church does not officially maintain that Christ's body was wrapped in the shroud ... But it does accord the cloth a special status which has helped to sustain its popularity as an object of veneration. "What counts the most is that this shroud, as you have seen, reflects in a clear and precise manner how the gospels describe the passion and death of Jesus," said Cesare Nosiglia, the Archbishop of Turin. ... As I have stated before, it is duplicitous (i.e. two-faced), of the Vatican to refuse to confirm or deny that the Shroud is authentic. By its actions of spending the equivalent of tens (if not hundreds) of millions of dollars preserving the Shroud and exhibiting it to millions of people as though it is authentic, the Vatican clearly does believe that the Shroud is authentic, so it should say so. Shroud anti-authenticists cite the Vatican's refusal to state that the Shroud is authentic as evidence that it is not. I am not being anti-Catholic in this, I am being pro-truth!

"Shroud of Turin goes back on display in Italian city's Cathedral, but does it show the face of Jesus Christ, or is it a medieval hoax?," The Independent, Loulla-Mae Eleftheriou-Smith, 19 April 2015. The Shroud of Turin, a 4.4 metre-long piece of cloth that many Christians believe was used to shroud Jesus's face and body, will go back on display on

[Above (enlarge): A negative (left) of a photograph (right) of the Shroud face, meaning that the Shroud image is a photographic negative. Since even the concept of photographic negativity was unknown until the 19th century, this alone proves beyond any reasonable doubt that the Shroud is NOT "a medieval hoax" but does indeed "show the face of Jesus Christ"!]

Sunday in the Italian city's cathedral. The cloth, which appears to show the imprint of a man's face and the body markings that would match those of a person who was crucified, will be on display for the first time in five years from 19 April to 24 June. ... The story of cloth itself has been shrouded in mystery for centuries, with some Christians believing the marks of dried blood match where Jesus's hands and feet would have bled from his crucifixion wounds. It has also been said the dried blood around the head area of the cloth, where the markings of a man's face appear to be shown, are from Jesus's crown of thorns. Scientists in Italy a year ago claimed that a powerful magnitude 8.2 earthquake that took place in Jerusalem in 33 AD – the year Jesus is claimed to have been crucified - could have been strong enough to release neutron particles from crushed rock and caused the X-ray like image of the bearer's face to be imprinted on the cloth, leaving it with the appearance seen today. The scientists have said this radiation would have interfered with the carbon-dating process carried out in 1988, which claimed the shroud had been created in the 1300s and was the result of an elaborate medieval forgery – the theory that most sceptics stand by. ... The earthquake theory is UNBIBLICAL for starters (see "Could Ancient Earthquake Explain Face of Jesus?)." A better explanation why: 1) the overwhelming evidence is that the Shroud of Turin is authentic; 2) but the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud found "that the linen of the Shroud of Turin is mediaeval ... AD 1260-1390," yet 3) the probability that the Shroud being 1st century, has a radiocarbon-date of 13th-14th century, is "about one in a thousand trillion," is provided by "My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker."

"Pope makes a date to see Turin shroud as it goes back on public display," The Guardian, 19 April 2015, The Turin shroud is going back on display to the public for the first time in five years, and the Pope has

[Above: "Archbishop of Turin, Cesare Nosiglia, in front of the Turin Shroud during a preview ... Photograph: Elena Aquila ..."]

already made a date to see the burial cloth, which some believe covered Jesus ... The 4.3m (14ft) cloth goes on view from Sunday to 24 June, displayed in a climate-controlled case in Turin cathedral. Pope Francis will view it on 21 June ... Public viewings of the cloth were last held in 2010. "Many pilgrims who had already seen the shroud in past showings come back, even though some saw it just five years ago," the archbishop of Turin, Cesare Nosiglia, said on Saturday. "That's not a long time. And yet many of the bookings we have are people who have already seen the shroud. That means there is a fundamental need in people's hearts to renew this incredible experience that they had the first time they saw it," the prelate told reporters. Reservations to see the shroud are mandatory but free of charge. Turin's mayor said recently that more than one million people had made reservations. In 2010, some 2.5 million people came, according to organisers of the display. The Pope's predecessor, Benedict XVI, ... said there was "full correspondence with what the gospels tell us of Jesus". ... Sceptics say the linen bearing the figure of a crucified man is a medieval forgery. Nosiglia said people of all faiths will come to see the shroud, not just Christians. "Even non-believers will come. ... It is significant that the Shroud continues to have such an attraction for modern people, including even non-Christians. No other Roman Catholic relic has that, which itself is evidence of the Shroud's authenticity. To the sceptics who claim that the Shroud "is a medieval forgery," where is your comprehensive forgery theory that: 1. Positively explains WHO was the forger? HOW was the Shroud forged? WHEN was the Shroud forged? WHY was the Shroud forged? and REPLICATES the Shroud exactly in ALL its major features, using only medieval knowledge and technology? And 2. negatively explains away ALL the evidence for the Shroud having existed since the 1st century?

"Shroud of Turin Inspires Conversion and Deepens Faith," National Catholic Register, Joseph Pronechen, 8 April, 2015. TURIN, Italy - When the Shroud of Turin goes on display in Turin Cathedral beginning April 19, Pope Francis will be among the millions of visitors expected to see and venerate what is believed to be the burial cloth of Jesus Christ ... Mark Antonacci ... is a leading authority on the shroud and a major speaker at conferences - quite a change from his starting

[Left: "Mark Antonacci: Founder and President, Test The Shroud Foundation."]

point: He was baptized a Catholic ... He went to church every Sunday, but once in college, he became agnostic. "Thirty-three years ago, I was a young agnostic lawyer in my early 30s and came across a summary of … the findings of the Shroud of Turin Research Project, deducted from their examination of the shroud in 1978 ... It really bothered me ... Finally ... It hit me: What's the problem here? It's a win-win-win situation every way you look at it ... The evidence is just remarkable, like nothing ever seen. It could not be forged. The attorney in me took over. The evidence from the shroud made me realize there is an objective and independent evidence to confirm that every element of the Passion, Crucifixion and Resurrection occurred in precisely the ways described in the Gospels." ... Antonacci is an example (another is Ian Wilson) of an agnostic who was prepared to have an open mind on the authenticity of the Shroud and then on the basis of the evidence, came to accept that the Shroud is authentic, and then became a Christian. His 2001 book, "Resurrection of the Shroud" is a veritable library of information on the Shroud. Read the rest of the article for other examples.

"What Does the Shroud of Turin Prove about Easter?," Myra Adams, National Review Online, April 4, 2015. .. The basis for the world's largest religion is the belief that, in Jerusalem around A.D. 33, an itinerant Jewish rabbi died as a result of crucifixion and after three days rose from the dead, fulfilling his own and numerous other ancient Messianic prophecies found in the ... Old Testament ... this ... is easily dismissed by non-believers. However, millions of Christians firmly believe that material scientific proof of the Christ's resurrection actually exists today, and that evidence is called the Shroud of Turin.

[Above: "Shroud of Turin, front and back. Negative image, with burn marks from a fire, in 1532, running the entire length of the cloth. Credit: Barrie Schwortz"]

The Shroud, alleged to be the burial cloth of Jesus, is the most studied, tested, and analyzed religious relic the world has ever known. It is preserved ... in the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in Turin, Italy. Beginning April 19, the Shroud will be on a rare public display, through June 24. ... The Shroud's public exposition, highlighted by the Pope's visit, naturally will also generate a debate about the Shroud's authenticity. ... The key mystery of the Shroud centers on how and why there is a detailed negative photographic image of a beaten, crucified man, anatomically correct, front and back, head to toe, on a piece of fine linen cloth measuring 14.5 feet by 3.5 feet. ... pollen and dust found on the Shroud are native to where, according to the Bible, Jesus lived and walked. ... As one would expect, blood of that crucified male penetrates the linen cloth. But here is where science enhances the Shroud's mystery: Blood on the cloth preceded the image of the crucified man ... Here is a startling fact that makes the Shroud nearly impossible to be considered a forgery and enhances the mystery. Unlike his blood, the man's crucified image does not penetrate the cloth but rests on top. His image could be scraped away with a razor blade. Since any earthly substance used to create the man's image would seep into and adhere to the cloth, this lack of penetration continues to baffle modern science. Moreover, tests on the mysterious substance constituting the image have concluded that it was applied with 100 percent consistency, as it rests on the cloth's top two microfibers. Such consistency is a feat impossible to achieve with human hands ... Read the rest of this great article for more facts about the Shroud of Turin which prove beyond any reasonable doubt, that it is the very burial sheet of Jesus Christ, bearing the front and back, head to head image of His beaten, flogged, crowned with thorns, naked, crucified, dead, speared in the side, buried and resurrected body!

"The Shroud: Not a Painting, Not a Scorch, Not a Photograph," Catholic World Report, March, 27, 2015, Jim Graves. This June, Pope Francis will be making a pilgrimage to Turin, Italy, home of the famous Shroud of Turin, which many believe is the 2,000-year-old burial cloth of Jesus Christ. The Pope's June 21-22 visit will include time venerating the Shroud at the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist. ... The Shroud, which is a 14.5' by 3.5' linen cloth bearing the image of the front and back of a man who has been scourged and crucified, has been kept in Turin since 1578. Barrie Schwortz is one

[Right: "Barrie Schwortz (CNS photo/Paul Haring)"]

of the world's leading experts on the Shroud. In 1978, Schwortz, a technical photographer, was invited to participate in the first ever in-depth scientific examination of the cloth, known as the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP). A non-practicing Jew at the time, he reluctantly agreed to be part of STURP, fully expecting the team to prove that the Shroud was a painted image from the Middle Ages. But after many years of study and reflection he came to believe in its authenticity. ... The interview is well worth reading. That Barrie Schwortz, a Jew who distinguishes himself from Christians, is "one of the world's leading experts on the Shroud," and the owner of the world's biggest Shroud website,, believes on the basis of the evidence, that the Shroud is authentic (as does agnostic art historian Thomas de Wesselow), defeats the argument of Shroud anti-authenticists that only Christians believe the Shroud is authentic and that only for religious reasons.

Created: 17 April 2015. Updated: 23 April 2015]

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

Locations of the Shroud: Turin 1578-1694: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia

Turin Shroud Encyclopedia
© Stephen E. Jones

Locations of the Shroud: Turin 1578-1694

This is the entry, "Locations of the Shroud: Turin 1578-1694," in my Turin Shroud Encyclopedia. It is a continuation from "Locations of the Shroud: Chambéry 1471-Turin 1578" and before that "Locations of the Shroud: Lirey c.1355-Chambéry 1471." I am working through the topics in the entry, "Shroud of Turin, expanding on them.

[Index] [Previous: Locations: Chambéry 1471-Turin 1578: ] [Next: Locations: Turin 1694-Present]

Introduction. This is the third of a four-part series of entries which will briefly trace the locations of the cloth today known as Shroud of Turin, from its first appearance in undisputed history (see previous) at Lirey, France in c.1355, to its current location since 1578 in St John the Baptist Cathedral, Turin, Italy. It is partly based on my 2012 post, "The Shroud's location."

Chambéry-Turin (1578-1604). On 14 September 1578 the Shroud arrived in Turin, carried at the head of a triumphal procession by four Archbishops. Three weeks later Cardinal Charles Borromeo (1538–84), Archbishop of Milan, arrived after his pilgrimage on foot from Milan, which was originally to have been over the Alps to Chambéry. But Duke Emmanuel Philibert I of Savoy (1528–80) had seized this as an excuse to bring the Shroud from Chambéry to Turin which he had established as Savoy's capital. The Cardinal was given an informal private viewing of the Shroud where it was being kept, in the Duke's small Chapel of San Lorenzo adjacent to the his palace gardens, over which the

[Right (enlarge): Extract from a 1618-19 plan[1] showing the location (A) of the Duke's private Chapel of San Lorenzo, in which the Shroud was kept from 1578 until a new Chapel of the Holy Shroud (D) would be built between Turin's Cathedral of St John the Baptist (C) and the ducal Palace complex (E).]

current Church of San Lorenzo was built. It was on the Feast Day of St. Lawrence (San Lorenzo), 10 August, in 1557 (see previous) that Duke Emmanuel Philibert defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin. The Cardinal expressed his concern that such an important relic was being kept in a small chapel and offered the cathedral, but the Duke demurred as that would imply church jurisdiction over the Shroud. The next day the Cardinal and his retinue were given an official private viewing in Turin Cathedral followed by a public viewing in the the Piazza Castello, Turin's main square (see print below). In 1580 Duke Emmanuel Philibert died in Turin, and was succeeded by his only child, Duke Charles Emmanuel I (1562–1630). In 1582 Cardinal Borromeo had walked a second pilgrimage from Milan to venerate the Shroud in Turin and to mark that occasion the Shroud was first exhibited to the Cardinal and his retinue in a new, larger (but still small) chapel and

[Above (enlarge): Extract from a c.1640 map of Turin[2] by Giovenale Boetto (c.1603-78), showing the Shroud's processional route from the Cathedral (A) to the Piazza Castello (B) in front of the Castle (C). The domed structure upper left is believed to be the larger chapel where the Shroud was kept c.1580-7.]

later publicly in the cathedral and, when the crowds became too great, in the Piazza Castello (see below). But the Cardinal was still not happy

[Above (enlarge): Print depicting the public exposition of the Shroud in Turin on 13-15 June 1582[3], to mark the second pilgrimage by Cardinal Charles Borromeo (centre cleric holding the Shroud) to venerate the Shroud in Turin.]

that the Shroud was being kept in a small chapel. The new Duke Charles Emmanuel I agreed that the Shroud should be kept in the Cathedral until a permanent private Savoy Chapel of the Holy Shroud was built between the Palace and the Cathedral - see (D) above. Borromeo's idea was for the Shroud to be mounted above the Cathedral's high altar and to be continuously visible, to obviate it being damaged by continually folding and unfolding it. In 1585 the Duke married Catherine Michelle of Spain (1567–97), a daughter of King Philip II of Spain (1527–98) and Elisabeth de Valois (1545–68) a daughter of King Henry II of France (1519–59). Although Duchess Catherine only lived to age 31, she bore 10 children, 9 of which survived to adulthood. Their second son, Victor Amadeus I (1587–1637) would become the next Duke of Savoy. Cardinal Borromeo died in 1584, and in 1587 the Duke carried through with his idea (albeit less grandiosely) by locating the Shroud in Turin Cathedral, displayed continuously on a shrine supported by four wooden columns over the cathedral's high altar.

Turin (1587-1630). In 1588 Charles Emmanuel I occupied the adjoining Marquisate of Saluzzo, which had been annexed by France following the deposition and death of the last Marquis of Saluzzo, Gian Gabriel I (1501-48). A war with France ensued, until the Treaty of Lyon (1601), in which Saluzzo went to Savoy in exchange for Savoy territories in France. In 1602, Charles Emmanuel attempted a night raid on the city of Geneva to eradicate its Protestants, but it failed with the Savoy army forced to retreat and many Savoyards killed. In 1604, the Shroud was enclosed in a new 4 foot (~1.2 m) long wooden casket, decorated with silver and gold relief plaques of the instruments of the Passion, and rolled up around a velvet-covered staff. This casket would remain the Shroud's container until the 1990s. Every 4th of May, the Feast Day of the Holy Shroud, the Shroud was exhibited publicly in the Piazza Castello. An engraving by Antonio Tempesta (1555–1630) of the

[Above (enlarge): "Antonio Tempesta (1555-1630), View of the Piazza del Castello, Turin, during the ostension of the Holy Shroud, 1613"[4].]

4 May 1613 exposition captures their immense popularity. The Shroud was shown publicly in the Piazza Castello in 1620 to mark the marriage between the Duke Charles Emmanuel I's eldest surviving son, and future Duke, Victor Amadeus with Princess Christine de Bourbon (1606–63) a daughter of the late King Henry IV of France (1553–1610) and sister of the current King Louis XIII (1601–43). In 1630 Duke Charles Emmanuel I died and was succeeded as Duke by his eldest surviving son Victor Amadeus I.

Turin (1630-94). In 1637 Victor Amadeus I died and was succeeded as Duke by his 5 year-old son, Francis Hyacinth (1632–8), with his mother dowager Duchess Christine acting as regent. But Francis in turn died a year later, and was succeeded as Duke by his 4 year-old brother Charles Emmanuel II (1634-75) with Christine continuing to act as regent for him. But two of Victor Amadeus' brothers, Maurice (1593–1657) and Thomas (1596–1656) disputed Christine's regency and her French influence and so with Spanish support they started the Piedmontese Civil War (1639-41). However, Christine was victorious due to French military support. In April 1663 Duke Charles Emmanuel II married Christine's niece Françoise d'Orléans (1648–64). But Christine died in December 1663 and Françoise died childless a week later in January 1664. Charles married in 1665 Marie Jeanne Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours (1644-1724), a descendant of Duke Emmanuel Philibert's brother Jacques (1531–85). In 1666 their only child and future Duke, Victor Amadeus II (1666–1732) was born. In 1668 the architect Guarino Guarini (1624–83) was appointed to construct the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, between the Royal Palace and Turin cathedral, as envisaged in 1618-19 by Duke Charles Emmanuel II (see above). Duke Charles Emmanuel II died in 1675 and was succeeded as Duke by the 9 year-old Victor Amadeus II, with his mother dowager Duchess Marie acting as regent. On 6 May 1684 Duke Victor Amadeus II married Anne Marie de Orléans (1669–1728). She was a daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans (1640–1701), who was a son of King Louis XIII of France, and Henrietta Stuart (1644-70), who was a daughter of the late King Charles I of England (1600-49). The marriage took place in Chambéry, and two days later the newlyweds entered Turin, celebrated by a public exposition of the Shroud (see below). However,

[Above (enlarge): Painting by Pieter Bolckmann (1640-1705)[5] of the public exposition of the Shroud in Turin's Piazza Castello on 8 May 1684, to mark the wedding of Duke Victor Amadeus II and Anne Marie de Orléans].

[Above (enlarge): Etching on silk, c. 1690, by Pietro Antonio Boglietto[6] depicting five bishops holding the Shroud at its abovementioned 1684 public exposition.]

Duchess Anne did not bear a son who survived to adulthood until 1701 (as we shall see).

To be continued in the entry, "Locations of the Shroud: Turin 1694-Present.

1. Scott, J.B., 2003, "Architecture for the Shroud: Relic and Ritual in Turin," University of Chicago Press: Chicago & London, p.63. [return]
2. Scott, 2003, pp.66, 225. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, plate 30b. [return]
4. "The Origins of the Shroud of Turin,", 24 October 2014. [return]
5. Wilson, 2010, plate 31a. [return]
6. Scott, 2003, p.239. [return]

• Jones, S.E., 2015, "Savoy Family Tree," (members only).
• Scott, 2003, pp.62-71.
• Wilson, I., 1996, "A Calendar of the Shroud for the years 1509-1694," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 44, November/ December.
• Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.290-293.
• Wilson, 2010, pp.246, 260-264, 304-305.

Created: 8 April, 2015. Updated: 14 April, 2015.

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

"E": Turin Shroud Dictionary

Turin Shroud Dictionary
© Stephen E. Jones[1]


This is page "E" of my Turin Shroud Dictionary. For more information about this dictionary see the "Main index A-Z" and page "A."

[Index] [Previous: "D"] [Next: "F"]

[Above (enlarge): Sepia print of the Shroud face by Giuseppe Enrie in 1931[2] (see below).]

Edessa is the ancient name of a city, now called Sanliurfa, in what today is southeastern Turkey. The fourth century Christian historian Eusebius (c.260–340) recorded in his Ecclesiastic History, that Edessan King Abgar V (c.4 BC–AD 50) [see "Abgar V"] wrote to Jesus asking Him to come and heal him, and Jesus replied in a dictated letter that after His Ascension He would send one of His disciples to heal Abgar and give eternal life to him and his. Accordingly, as preserved in the fourth century Syriac text, Doctrine of Addai, one of the seventy-two disciples (Lk 10:1-17), Thaddeus (Syriac Addai), did visit Abgar, healed him and started Christianity in Edessa. However, there is no mention of the Shroud or a cloth in that account until the tenth century, and the story of the Edessa Cloth (see next) is probably a reading back into Edessan history the rediscovery of the Shroud (doubled in four as the Mandylion), at Antioch after its great earthquake in 525, according to the theory of historian Jack Markwardt. Also according to Markwardt's theory, the Shroud as the Mandylion was then taken to Edessa, where it was later employed successfully as a last resort in repelling the Persian seige of Edessa in 544. After which the Shroud/Mandylion took the place of Jesus' letter to Abgar as Edessa's palladium and the story of its rediscovery at Antioch in 525 was retrospectively inserted into Edessan history.

Edessa Cloth (see "Mandylion"
Edessa image (see "Image of Edessa").
eighth century.
eleventh century.

Emmanuel Philibert (1528–80) was a Duke of Savoy. He became Duke and the owner of the Shroud in 1553 upon the death of his father, Duke Charles III (1486–1553). Emmanuel Philibert was born in Chambéry, France in 1528, but when he was 7 the French invaded the Duchy of Savoy in a phase of the Italian Wars between Francis I (1494–1547) King of France and the Hapsburg Emperor Charles V (1500–1558). The Savoys abandoned Chambéry in late 1535 ahead of the advancing French army, taking the Shroud with them into northern Italy. Emmanuel Philibert served in Charles V's army in the war against France, distinguishing himself by leading a force which captured the northern French town of Hesdin in 1553. A month later, he became Duke of Savoy on the death of his father, but he continued fighting, leading a force which defeated the French at the crucial Battle of St. Quentin in 1557, which ended the Italian Wars. Having won the victory which ended the war, Duke Emmanuel Philibert earned a place at the table where the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1558) was signed. The terms of the treaty included that the Duchy of Savoy would be independent and most of Savoy's lands would be returned to the Duke. Moreover, as part of the peace terms, Duke Emmanuel Philibert married in 1559 Marguerite de Valois (1523-74), a daughter of the late King Francis I and a sister of King Henry II 1519–59) of France. Between 1561-63 the Duke moved his capital from Chambéry across the Alps to Turin making Savoy an Italian state. In 1562, Emmanuel Philibert and Marguerite's only child, the future Duke Charles Emmanuel I (1562–1630), was born in Turin. Duchess Marguerite died in Turin in 1574. In 1578, on the pretext of saving the saintly Cardinal Charles Borromeo (1538–84), the Archbishop of Milan, from having to walk from Milan to Chambéry to fulfill a vow to venerate the Shroud, Emmanuel Philibert had the Shroud brought to Turin, from where it never returned. Duke Emmanuel Philibert died in Turin 1580, having spent his remaining years re-acquiring former Savoy lands that had not been returned and adding others, as well as fortifying Turin and its surrounds.

Enrie, Giuseppe. Giuseppe Enrie (1886-1961) was an Italian professional photographer. He was commissioned by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati (1876-1965), the Archbishop of Turin, to take a series of photographs of the Shroud in conjunction with a public exposition of the Shroud in May 1931. The exposition marked the wedding of Prince Umberto II of Savoy (1904-83) and Princess Maria José of Belgium (1906–2001). Enrie's photographs confirmed those taken in 1898 by Secondo Pia (1855–1941) that the man's image on the Shroud was a photographic negative. Enrie's photographs are much clearer than Pia's, due to advances in photography since Pia's time, and Enrie was permitted to photograph the Shroud direct, not through a protective glass barrier. Because of the sharper detail they revealed, Enrie's photographs becamee the basis of much modern scientific study of the Shroud, including medical and anatomical, three-dimensionality, coin(s) over the eyes, flower and plant images, and computer enhancement, until STURP's 1978 investigation. In fact, Enrie's photographs reveal details of the Shroud image, such as the letters "UCAI" on the Pontius Pilate lepton coin over the man's right eye, that later photographs reveal less clearly. This is because Enrie photographed the optimum distance from the Shroud, onto large glass plates, his emulsion was high-contrast, and he smoothed wrinkles in the cloth by using tacks.

Evagrius scholasticus.
expositions and exhibitions.

1. This page, and each page in my Turin Shroud Dictionary, is copyright. However, permission is granted to quote from one entry at a time within a page (e.g. "Edessa," not the whole page "E"), provided a link and/or reference is provided back to the page in this dictionary it came from. [return]
2. Vignon, P., 1939, "Le Saint Suaire de Turin: Devant La Science, L'archéologie, L'histoire, L'iconographie, La Logique," Masson et Cie. Éditeurs: Paris, Second edition, plate I. [return]

Created: 7 April, 2015. Updated: 14 April, 2015.

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #10: Summary (7)

Copyright ©, Stephen E. Jones[1]

Introduction. This is part #10, Summary (7), of my theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker. My next post in this series will be part #10, Summary (8). See the previous parts #10(1), #10(2), #10(3), #10(4), #10(5) and #10(6). Other previous posts in this series were parts #1, #2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8 and #9, which posts this part #10 will summarise. It is my emphasis below unless otherwise indicated.

[Above: Arizona radiocarbon dating laboratory staff and Rochester radiocarbon dating laboratory's Prof. Harry Gove (second from right) around the AMS control console computer terminal[2], just before or after it had, on 6 May 1988 displayed the alleged hacker's bogus radiocarbon age of the Shroud, "640 years"[3], which was then calibrated to "1350 AD"[4]. The alleged hacker, Timothy W. Linick, is the one in a black shirt standing most prominently in the foreground[5].]


• Linick was an extreme anti-authenticist who would not accept that the Shroud was authentic, even if its carbon-date was 2000 years ago:

"Timothy Linick, a University of Arizona research scientist, said: `If we show the material to be medieval that would definitely mean that it is not authentic. If we date it back 2000 years, of course, that still leaves room for argument. It would be the right age - but is it the real thing?'"[6].

By contrast, anti-authenticists like Oxford's Prof. Edward Hall and Prof. Harry Gove, would have accepted that the Shroud was authentic if its carbon-date was first century[7].

• Linick was aware of McCrone's prediction that the Shroud's carbon date would be "about 1355." Linick's words above, coupled with his extreme anti-authenticism, indicate that he was aware of the prediction of the late extreme anti-authenticist Walter McCrone (1916-2002) who wrote in 1980 of a future "carbon-dating test" that, "A date placing the linen cloth in the first century, though not conclusive in proving the cloth to be the Shroud of Christ... a first century cloth could have been found and used by a 14th century artist to paint the image."[8]. This was in the context of McCrone's claim that "the image [on the Shroud] was painted on the cloth shortly before the first exhibition, or about 1355"[9]. That McCrone regarded what he wrote in 1980 as a prediction is evident from: 1) he later claimed it was a prediction: "I could predict with complete confidence what the result of the radiocarbon dating of the linen cloth would be ..." followed by an excerpt from the above 1980 quote[10]; and 2) in a 1980 letter to David Sox, McCrone wrote: "The carbon date will be helpful here; I predict the range of dates found will include the 1350's but it could be earlier"[11].

• Linick was the leaker of Arizona's "1350" first date of the Shroud. The above quote of Linick by Sox is proof beyond reasonable doubt that Linick was the leaker, who told Sox that Arizona's first calibrated radiocarbon date of the Shroud was "1350"[12]. Linick was not a laboratory leader, but an ordinary `back room' Arizona laboratory scientist, who would have been unknown outside of radiocarbon dating circles. So Sox, who lived in England, would not even know that Linick existed, let alone quote him, unless Linick had contacted Sox, in breach of his signed undertaking "not to communicate the results to anyone ... until that time when results are generally available to the public"[13]. Gove had, by a process of elimination, concluded that the leaker of Arizona's first "1350" date had to have been "someone who was present at Arizona during the first measurement," as Linick was[14].

• Linick was found dead of suspected suicide on 4 June 1989 Linick was found dead in Tucson, Arizona[15] on 4 June 1989[16], at the age of 42[17].

[Right: Photograph of Linick and report that "He died at the age of forty-two on 4 June 1989, in very unclear circumstances, shortly after the campaign of the Italian press reporting our [Bonnet-Eymard's] accusations"[18]. This is consistent with my theory that the KGB executed confessed KGB hacker Karl Koch between 23 and 30 May 1989, and Linick the day after[19] the German police had publicly released the identity of a burnt body as Koch's on 3 June 1989[20] (see next part #10(8)), to prevent them revealing that the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud to 1325 ±65[21] was the result of a KGB-sponsored computer hacking by Linick, aided by Koch.]

Linick's obituary in Arizona laboratory's journal Radiocarbon stated that his death was "untimely"[22], and the lack of details (e.g. "after an illness," "as a result of a road accident," etc) suggests that Linick's death was sudden, unexpected and embarrassing (as a suicide would be). Ian Wilson recorded Linick's death in his chronology of the Shroud for 4 June 1989, that it was "in unclear circumstances"[23]. Vatican

[Above: Extract from Ian Wilson's "Chronology of the Shroud," under "1989," on page 311 of his, "Blood and the Shroud" (1998), noting that Linick's death was "in unclear circumstances" and that he was "one of the authors of the Nature report on the Shroud radiocarbon dating."]

Insider reported that Linick's death was "suicide in mysterious circumstances"[24]. Those who correctly concluded that since the Shroud is authentic, there had to have been fraud in its radiocarbon dating, such as Roman Catholic scholar Br. Bruno Bonnet-Eymard[25], suspected that Linick was murdered to cover up his part in the radiocarbon dating fraud[26]. Linick's death occurred shortly after a campaign in the Italian press reporting Bonnet-Eymard's accusations of fraud in the radiocarbon dating [27]. No other signatory to the 1989 Nature paper[28] appears to have met an untimely death.

Yet, despite my trying (e.g. emailing Arizona news media, police departments, etc), I have been unable to find any further information on Linick's death. Arizona is a "closed record" state, which means that death records are not normally available to the public[29]. The US Library of Congress could only find for me two newspaper items about Linick's death, a funeral notice in the Arizona Daily Star of June 6 and a death notice in the Los Angeles Times of June 9 (see below). That Linick's death was apparently not reported in at least the local Tucson or Arizona state newspapers, suggests that there was something mysterious about Linick's death. The sudden

[Left: Timothy W. Linick's funeral and death notices sent to me by the Library of Congress. In the words of the librarian: "I am attaching two death notices, one from the Arizona Daily Star (June 6), and one from the Los Angeles Times (June 9)" and "I have not been able to find any additional information on the cause of Linick's death"[30]].

"untimely" death of a 42 year-old local scientist (especially one who had only a year before been involved in carbon-dating the Shroud of Turin) is sufficiently unusual to have been newsworthy, so there may have been a high-level suppression of news about Linick's death, due to its circumstances which may have made US security agencies suspect the KGB's involvement. Another possibility is that Linick's `suicide' was by a method that tends not to be reported to prevent `copy-cat' suicides, such as suicide by train. Clearly the KGB could have executed Linick on the pretext of meeting him and then arranging for him to be run over by a train, in a simulated suicide.

• Linick's role at Arizona laboratory included the AMS carbon-14 measurement procedures. Linick was mentioned in footnote 9 of the 1989 Nature paper[31] as the lead author of a 1986 Radiocarbon paper which gave the "specific measurement procedures" for Arizona laboratory[32]. In that paper Linick described in

[Above (enlarge): Excerpts from page 613 and footnotes on page 615 of the 1989 Nature paper, which states that Linick was the lead author of a 1986 Radiocarbon paper which described the radiocarbon measurement procedures for Arizona.]

minute technical detail how the AMS system at Arizona measured the carbon-14 content of samples[33]. It may be significant that Linick is the only one of the three lead authors who originally described the AMS carbon-14 measurement procedures at each of the three laboratories, who was also a signatory to the 1989 Nature paper.

• So Linick would have had access to Arizona's AMS computer, would understand what its carbon 14 measurement program did, and may even have written that program! Also, the previously mentioned standard order of samples explains how Linick could write a program, not only for Arizona, but also for the other two laboratories, Zurich and Oxford, and the program would know which sample was of the Shroud. Each laboratory knew which, of their supposedly `blind' samples, was of the Shroud, by its distinctive weave. As we saw, a unique identifying code for the Shroud and control samples was imposed upon the laboratories by the coordinator of the dating, Prof. Tite of the British Museum[34]. It would therefore not be difficult for a competent programmer, as the "extremely mathematically gifted"[35] Linick presumably was, to write a program which could detect that a sample was of the Shroud and then substitute the date of that Shroud sample with random dates within limits which, when they were calibrated, totalled and averaged, would make the flax of the Shroud appear to have been harvested a plausible period of time before McCrone's prediction of "about 1355" above.

The sole exception may have been Arizona's very first run which was the `too good to be true', when calibrated, "1350 AD" date, which looks like a `hard-wired' straight substitution of "640" uncalibrated, for the actual Shroud date, by Linick's alleged program. The hacker, allegedly Linick, presumably wanted the very first run to yield a calibrated "1350" date for its psychological and media leak value. He would have needed to create a climate of expectation that the Shroud was medieval, so his program's combined average 1325 ±65 calibrated date of the Shroud across the three laboratories would be unquestioned. Also, the hacker, allegedly Linick, may have needed some actual Shroud and control sample data to test his program against to ensure there were no `bugs' in it.

• Linick had sufficient time to prepare and carry out the hacking. On 10 October 1987 the Archbishop of Turin advised the seven laboratories which had originally been agreed would carbon-date the Shroud, using two different methods, that their number had been reduced to three laboratories using only one method, AMS: Arizona, Oxford and Zurich[36]. So after that the hacker (allegedly Linick) would have realised that it was feasible for him to write a program to be installed on the AMS computers at the three laboratories (which were effectively clones of each other[37]), to replace the Shroud's carbon 14 dates coming from their AMS systems, with computer-generated dates which would ensure the Shroud appeared to date from a plausible time before the Shroud's debut in undisputed history at Lirey, France, about 1355[38]. On 21 April 1988 the sample was cut from the Shroud and sub-samples in turn were cut from it and distributed to leaders of the three laboratories[39]. The first actual dating of the Shroud was over six weeks after that when Arizona carried out its first run on 6 May 1988[40]. Zurich was next with its first dating on or about 26 May[41], nearly three weeks after Arizona's. Eight weeks after Zurich, on 21 July, Oxford completed its dating of the Shroud[42]. So Linick, the alleged hacker, had plenty of time, after he had proved his program worked at Arizona, to have it installed on Zurich and Oxford's AMS computers. Although because Linick may have been unsure when each laboratory would date the Shroud, he could have written his alleged program and had it installed on all three laboratories' AMS computers even before, or shortly after, the sample was cut from the Shroud. However, since the laboratories were in contact with each other during the tests[43], it is likely that they had prearranged the order and approximate timeframe in which each laboratory would conduct its dating, and if so Linick would have known that order and timeframe.

To be continued in part #10, Summary (8).

1. This post is copyright. No one may copy from this post or any of my posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog without them first asking and receiving my written permission. Except that I grant permission, without having to ask me, for anyone to copy the title and one paragraph only (including one associated graphic) of any of my posts, provided that if they repost it on the Internet a link to my post from which it came is included. See my post of May 8, 2014. [return]
2. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, p.176H. [return]
3. Gove, 1996, p.264. [return]
4. Ibid. [return]
5. Jull, A.J.T. & Suess, H.E. , 1989, "Timothy W. Linick," Radiocarbon, Vol 31, No 2. [return]
6. Sox, H.D., 1988, "The Shroud Unmasked: Uncovering the Greatest Forgery of All Time," Lamp Press: Basingstoke UK, p.147. [return]
7. Gove, 1996, pp.184-185. [return]
8. McCrone, W.C., 1999, "Judgment Day for the Shroud of Turin," Prometheus Books: Amherst NY, pp.138, 141. [return]
9. Ibid. [return]
10. McCrone, 1999, p.245. [return]
11. McCrone, 1999, p.178. [return]
12. Gove, 1996, p.264. [return]
13. Gove, 1996, p.262. [return]
14. Gove, 1996, p.279. [return]
15. Suess, H.E. & Linick, T.W., 1990, "The 14C Record in Bristlecone Pine Wood of the past 8000 Years Based on the Dendrochronology of the Late C. W. Ferguson," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 330, April 24, pp.403-412. [return]
16. Jull & Suess, 1989. [return]
17. de Nantes, G. & Bonnet-Eymard, B., 2014, "The Holy Shroud of Turin: II. The conclusion of a new trial," The Catholic Counter-Reformation in the 21st Century, 27 March. [return]
18. Bonnet-Eymard, B., 2000, "The Holy Shroud is as Old as the Risen Jesus, IV. Caution! Danger!, The Catholic Counter-Reformation in the XXth Century, No 330, Online edition, May. [return]
19. Jull & Suess, 1989. [return]
20. "WikiFreaks, Pt. 4 `The Nerds Who Played With Fire'," The Psychedelic Dungeon, 15 September 2010h; and Clough & Mungo, 1992, p.163. [return]
21. The cited radiocarbon dating range "1260-1390" of the Shroud is equivalent to "the year AD 1325, give or take sixty-five years either way." (Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.7). [return]
22. Jull & Suess, 1989. [return]
23. Wilson, 1998, p.311. [return]
24. Galeazzi, G., 2013. "Never solved: The enigma that still divides the Church: The Shroud," Vatican Insider, 1 April. Translated from Italian by Google. See English translation, "Unsolved Enigma that Still Divides the Church: The Shroud." [return]
25. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.128-129. [return]
26. "Examination of the carbon-14 dating of the Shroud," Wikipedia, January 4, 2014. Translated from Italian by Google. [return]
27. Bonnet-Eymard, 2000. [return]
28. "9. Linick, T. W., Jull, A. J. T., Toolin, L. J. & Donahue, D. J. Radiocarbon 28, 522-533 (1986).[return]
29. "Who Can Obtain a Death Certificate,"Arizona Department of Health Services: Office of Vital Records, April 15, 2014. [return]
30. Email reply from the Library of Congress, received on 2 May 2014. [return]
31. Damon, 1989, p. 613. [return]
32. Ibid. [return]
33. Linick, T.W., et al. , 1986, "Operation of the NSF-Arizona accelerator facility for radioisotope analysis and results from selected collaborative research projects," Radiocarbon, Vol. 28, No. 2a, pp.522-533. [return]
34. Sox, 1988, pp.138-139. [return]
35. Jull & Suess, 1989. [return]
36. Gove, 1996, pp.213-214. [return]
37. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.178. [return]
38. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.222. [return]
39. Gove, 1996, pp.260-261. [return]
40. Gove, 1996, pp.263-264. [return]
41. Guerrera, V., 2000, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.131. [return]
42. McDonnell, D.J., 2003, "The Great Holy Shroud Dating Fraud of 1988," 4 November. [return]
43. Kersten, H. & Gruber, E.R., 1994, "The Jesus Conspiracy: The Turin Shroud and the Truth About the Resurrection," Element Books: Shaftesbury UK, Reprinted, 1995, p.69; Wilson, I., 1988, "Ian Wilson Writes," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 19, April, p.4. [return]

Created: 31 March, 2015. Updated: 7 April, 2015.

Monday, March 30, 2015

"D": Turin Shroud Dictionary

Turin Shroud Dictionary
© Stephen E. Jones[1]


This is page "D" of my Turin Shroud Dictionary. For more information about this dictionary see the "Main index A-Z" and page "A."

[Index] [Previous: "C"] [Next: "E"]

[Above[2]: Dirt on the Shroud man's feet, particularly on his right heel (arrowed). See below.]

da Vinci (see "Leonardo").

Damon, Paul E. (1921-2005) was Professor of Geosciences at Arizona University, Director of the Arizona radiocarbon dating laboratory, and the lead author of the 1989 Nature paper on the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud, which (wrongly-see future "hacking") claimed that: "... the Shroud of Turin is mediaeval ... AD 1260-1390." [1, 2, 3.]

Danin, Avinoam (1939-) is Professor Emeritus of Botany at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He is a world authority on the flora of Israel, being an editor of the "Flora Palaestina" and author of "Flora of Israel Online." In 1995 when Dr Alan Whanger visited Prof. Danin in Jerusalem and asked him to confirm from photographs Whanger's identification of flower images found on the Shroud, Danin immediately did so. And in 1997, when Danin visited Whanger's North Carolina home, Danin identified the images of more flowers and plant parts that Whanger had not noticed. From then on, Danin although a non-religious Jew, became a Shroud pro-authenticist. Danin later pointed out that the flowers he had identified on the Shroud bloom only in March-April in Palestine, which covers the date of Jesus' crucifixion in April AD30. Danin also discovered that three of those flower species Zygophyllum dumosum, Gundelia tournefortii and Cistus creticus, are only found together in a limited area, around Jerusalem. Danin initially supported the identification by Swiss pioneering criminologist Max Frei (1913-83) of pollen on the Shroud as Palestinian and Turkish, but due to problems in verifying Frei's work posthumously, Danin felt he had to withdraw that support (which does not mean that Frei was wrong). Prof. Danin is the author of two books on the Shroud: "Flora of the Shroud of Turin" (1999) and "Botany of the Shroud" (2010). See future "Flower images," "Frei," and "Pollen." [1, 2, 3.]

d'Arcis (see "Pierre").
de Charny (see "Geoffroy," etc).
de Savoie, di Savoia (see Amadeus IX, etc).

Delage, Yves (1854–1920) was a French zoologist at the Sorbonne, Paris, specialising in comparative anatomy. Delage was also a self-declared agnostic, who rejected supernatural explanations. Yet, after studying the first photographs of the Shroud taken in 1898 by Secondo Pia, Delage found the image of the man on the Shroud was anatomically flawless. So in in 1902 Delage read a paper by his protégé Paul Vignon (1865-1943) to the French Academy of Sciences arguing that the Shroud was Christ's, estimating the probability that the image on the shroud was not caused by the body of Jesus Christ as 1 in 10 billion. While the Academy members heard Delage out and examined Vignon's photographs, the Secretary of the Academy, atheist Marcellin Berthelot (1827-1907), edited out all reference in Delage's paper to the Shroud and Christ and published it as mentioning only the vaporography of zinc. In protest, Delage sent an open letter to the editor of the Revue Scientifique, pointing out the double-standard (which continues to this day), "...if instead of Christ, there was a question of some person such as a Sargon, an Achilles or one of the Pharaohs, no one would have thought of making an objection..."!

directionality (see "non-directional").

dirt.There is dirt on the Shroud man's feet (see above), detected by the reflectance spectroscopy of husband and wife team Roger and Marty Gilbert, as part of STURP's 1978 examination of the Shroud in Turin. This is consistent with the man being Jesus, who wore sandals (Mt 3:11; Mk 1:7; Lk 3:16; Acts 13:25) on the dusty unsealed roads of first century Palestine (Mt 10:14; Mk 6:11; Lk 9:5; 10:11; Acts 13:51). But it is inconsistent with the Shroud being a medieval forgery, because a forger would not likely add such realism, especially since the dirt was not noticed until 1978. Moreover, the dirt contains a rare form of limestone, travertine Aragonite, which is the type of limestone in the cave tombs around Jerusalem, in one of which Jesus was buried (Mt 27:59-60; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:52-53; Jn 19:41-42). Furthermore, the chemical signature of the limestone on the Shroud near the man's feet and its underside matches that of the Jerusalem cave tombs and nowhere else, as far as is yet known. [See 1, 2.]

doubled-in-four (see "tetradiplon").
dukes of Savoy.

1. This page, and each page in my Turin Shroud Dictionary, is copyright. However, permission is granted to quote from one entry at a time within a page (e.g. "dirt," not the whole page "D"), provided a link and/or reference is provided back to the page in this dictionary it came from. [return]
2. Based on Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical. [return]

Created: 30 March, 2015. Updated: 7 April, 2015.

Saturday, March 14, 2015

Locations of the Shroud: Chambéry 1471-Turin 1578: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia

Turin Shroud Encyclopedia
© Stephen E. Jones

Locations of the Shroud: Chambéry 1471-Turin 1578

This is the entry "Locations of the Shroud: Chambéry 1471-Turin 1578" in my Turin Shroud Encyclopedia. It is a continuation of "Locations of the Shroud: Lirey c.1355 - Chambéry 1471." I am working through the topics in the entry, "Shroud of Turin, expanding on them.

[Index] [Previous: Locations: Lirey c.1355-Chambéry 1478] [Next: Locations: Turin 1578-1694.]

Introduction. This is the second of a four-part series of entries which will briefly trace the locations of the cloth today known as Shroud of Turin, from its first appearance in undisputed history (see previous) at Lirey, France in c.1355, to its current location since 1578 in St John the Baptist Cathedral, Turin, Italy. It is partly based on my 2012 post, "The Shroud's location."

Chambéry-Vercelli, Italy (1471-73). In 1471 began the enlargement of the Savoys private Royal Chapel at Chambéry, which later would become the Sainte Chapelle, a permanent home for the Shroud. In September that year the Shroud was transferred from Chambéry over the Alps to Vercelli, Italy (see map below). On 30

[Right (enlarge)"[1]: The ruins of a Savoy fortress-castle at Verrua, Italy, about 30 kms (19 miles) from Vercelli. Presumably the Shroud was kept here from September 1471 to July 1473.]

March 1472, Duke Amadeus IX (1435-1472) died, and his eldest surviving son, six year-old Philibert I (1465-1482), became Duke of Savoy. Amadeus IX had refused to honour the agreement of his father Duke Louis I (1413–65), to pay the Lirey canons an annual rent as compensation for them losing the Shroud (see previous). So upon his death the Lirey canons in 1472 complained to King Louis XI (1423–83) about Amadeus IX's failure to honor his father's agreement, and they requested that the King reinstate the revenues to them. The king responded by sending letters to three of his bailiffs, presumably to seize the Shroud. It presumably was forewarning of this action which prompted dowager Duchess Yolande (1434-78), Louis XI's estranged sister, to move the Shroud out of Louis XI's jurisdiction over the Alps into Italy. But the Lirey canons were rebuffed by Louis XI, because in 1473 they approached Yolande, who was acting as regent for her now eight year-old son Duke Philibert I, claiming eight years of arrears of the income promised them by Louis I in 1464. But Yolande had been living with the Savoys as Amadeus IX's betrothed future wife in 1453 (see previous) when Louis I received the Shroud from Marguerite de Charny (c.1390-1460) and she would have known that the Shroud never was the property of the Lirey church, and so she also rebuffed them, ending their lucrative extortion racket (see previous)! In 1473, Pope Sixtus IV (1414–1484), who as Francesco della Rovere was one of Duke Louis I's Franciscan retinue, published his De sanguine Christi, in which he referred to the Shroud as:

"... the Shroud in which the body of Christ was wrapped when he was taken down from the cross. This is now preserved with great devotion by the Dukes of Savoy, and is coloured with the blood of Christ"[2].
Under the ownership of the House of Savoy, with their royal and papal connections, the Shroud had achieved a respectability that had been all but lost after its wrongful condemnation as a painted forgery by Bishop Pierre d'Arcis (c.1300-95) in 1389. Which in the providence of the Man on the Shroud (who is ruling over all - Acts 10:36; Rom 9:5; Eph 1:21-22; Php 2:9), saved His burial cloth, bearing His image and blood, from being seized, especially when Marguerite de Charny travelled around France with it for ~35 years from ~1418-53, on a mule!

Vercelli-Chambéry (1473-1475). On 2 July 1473 the Shroud began a return to Chambéry via a circuitous route involving stays of weeks

[Left (enlarge)[3]: The rear of the Palazzo Madama, Turin, which in the 14th century was a Savoy castle. Presumably the Shroud was kept here from ~2 July-5 October, 1473.]

and months at the nearby towns of Turin (1473), Ivrea (1473-75) and Moncalieri (1474).

[Right (enlarge)[4]: 14th century Savoy castle in Ivrea, Italy. Presumably the Shroud was here from ~5 October 1473-18 July 1474 and ~25 August 1474-5 October, 1475.]

[Left (enlarge)[5]: Savoy Castle of Moncalieri. The twin round towers were part of the 15th century castle where the Shroud was presumably kept between ~18 July-25 August 1474.]

The Shroud returned from Moncalieri to Ivrea on ~25 August 1474 and over a year later departed from there back to Chambéry on 5 October, 1475.

Chambéry (1474-1502). Yolande, wife of the late Duke Amadeus IX, died at Chambéry on 23 August 1478, leaving her 13 year-old son, Duke Philibert, I the sole ruler of Savoy. But 4 years later Philibert himself died in a hunting accident near Lyon on 22 Apr 1482, aged 16. Philibert was married to Bianca Sforza (1472-1510) but as she was then only 10(!) the marriage had not been consummated, and so she returned to Milan. Philibert was succeeded as Duke by his 14 year-old brother Charles I (1468-1490). In 1485 Charles I married Bianca (Blanche) de Montferrat (1472-1519). A miniature by Jean Colombe (c.1430-93) added to John Duke of Berry (1340–1416)'s Les Très Riches Heures, shows Charles and Bianca looking at a Man of Sorrows art work [right (enlarge)[6]] which depicts the dead Christ with the Shroud's distinctive wounds, bloodstains and crossed hands. The Shroud continued to be carried around with the Savoys in their journeys from castle to castle; for example, Susa - Avigliano - Rivoli (1477-8). Exhibitions of the Shroud were held at Savigliano (1488) and Vercelli (1494). Charles I and Bianca had two children, Yolande Louise (1487–1499) and Charles II (1489–96). In 1490 Duke Charles I died at the age of 23, believed to have been poisoned by Ludovico II, Marquess of Saluzzo (1438-1504), with whom he was at war. The Dukedom and the Shroud passed to Charles I's 7 month-old son, Charles II, with dowager Duchess Bianca acting as regent. But on 1496 Duke Charles II died aged 7. Since there were no surviving males from Amadeus IX's line, the Dukedom and the Shroud passed to Amadeus' 58 year-old brother, Philip II (1438-97). Philip was married to his second wife Claudine de Brosse of Brittany (1450–1513). But only a year later, in 1497, Philip II died and the Dukedom and the Shroud passed to his 17 year-old son Philibert II (1480-1504), from Philip II's first marriage to Margaret of Bourbon (1438–83). In 1501 Philibert II, at 21, married the widowed Margaret of Austria (1480–1530).

Chambéry (1502-32). On 11 June 1502, at the request of Duchess Margaret, the Shroud was to be no longer moved around with the Savoys during their travels, but was given a permanent home in the royal chapel at Chambéry. The Shroud was moved from Chambéry's Franciscan church to the

[Left (enlarge): The repaired Sainte-Chapelle, Chambéry, as it is today[7], after it was all but destroyed by a fire in 1532 (see below).]

Royal Chapel which became the Sainte-Chapelle (Holy Chapel). The Shroud in its casket was deposited behind the high altar, in a cavity in the wall, and secured by an iron grille with four locks,

[Right (enlarge): The cavity in the wall of the Sainte-Chapelle, Chambéry[8], where the Shroud was held from 1502-32.]

each opened by a separate key, two of which were held by the Duke. A public exhibition of the Shroud was held on Good Friday, 1503 in the market place at Bourg-en-Bresse, arranged by Margaret of Austria for her brother, Philip I of Castile (1478–1506). On 10 September 1504, Duke Philibert II died aged 24, from drinking too much iced wine after hunting, leaving Margaret of Austria twice-widowed and childless at 22. He was succeeded as Duke by his 18 year-old half-brother Charles III (1486-1553), from Philip II's second marriage to Claudine de Brosse. Dowager Duchess Margaret relinquished custody of the Shroud in 1505 to the new Duke's mother, the pious dowager duchess Claudine, who was also devoted to the Shroud and temporarily kept it with her in her castle at Billiat, near Nantua, France. The copy of the Shroud in St. Gommaire church, Lierre, Belgium [left (enlarge)[9]], attributed to Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) and dated 1516, is probably Margaret of Austria's copy, mentioned in her 1507 inventory, "The picture of the Holy Shroud of Our Lord made on cloth."[10] In 1506 Pope Julius II (1443–1513) formally approved the name "Sainte-Chapelle of the Holy Shroud," after the chapel of the same name in Paris which St King Louis IX (1214–70) built to house the Crown of Thorns. The Pope also declares the 4th May the annual Feast of the Holy Shroud. Three years later in 1509 the Shroud was installed in a new silver casket which had been commissioned by Margaret of Austria, now regent of the Netherlands (see next on the fire of 1532). Charles' mother, dowager duchess Claudine de Brosse died at Chambéry in 1513 and was buried behind the high altar of the Sainte Chapelle, facing the Shroud's casket. Public exhibitions of the Shroud were held on the balcony of the Sainte Chapelle, probably at least every year on the 4th of May until 1533 (see next), as depicted retrospectively by Carlo Malliano in his "Ostension of the Holy Shroud" (1579) [right (enlarge)][11]. In 1516 King Francis I of France (1494–1547), a son of Duke Philip II's daughter Louise of Savoy (1476–1531), came from Lyon to Chambéry to venerate the Shroud. In 1521 Charles III married Beatrice of Portugal (1504-1538), a daughter of Spain's King Manuel I (1469–1521) and Queen Maria of Aragon (1482–1517). They had nine children, one of whom, Emmanuel Philibert (1528-80), would become Duke. Margaret of Austria died in Belgium in 1530, mercifully having been spared from what was to happen only two years later (see next).

Chambéry (1532)-Piedmont (1535). On 4 December 1532 a fire nearly destroyed the Sainte Chapelle, Chambéry. Because the Shroud was behind an iron grille, secured by four locks with separate keys, there was no time to obtain them all to unlock the grille. So a local blacksmith, Guillaume Pussod, was called and with the help of the chapel's canons, at great risk to their lives, he prised open the grille and removed the casket from the burning chapel. But by that time the casket had begun to melt and a drop of molten silver had burned through a corner of the Shroud which was folded in 48 layers. The inside of the casket was doused with buckets of water and the fire extinguished. The casket was then taken into the nearby Treasury and when the Shroud was extracted it was found that miraculously the burn marks had paralleled the image (see below) and apart from part of the shoulders and upper arms, the image was not affected. The Shroud was not exhibited on 4th May 1533, seemingly confirming rumours that it had been totally destroyed. In April 1534 the Shroud was carried in a procession, including Duke Charles III, the local cardinal Cardinal Louis de Gorrevod (c.1473-1535), two bishops, an ecclesiastical notary and many other clergy, to Chambéry's convent of the Poor Clare nuns (founded by Duchess Yolande in 1471). After the Shroud had been laid out on a table, to counter the above rumours, Cardinal Gorrevod, invited those present to testify that the cloth before them was the same as the one they knew before the fire. After three bishops and ten noblemen did so testify, the Cardinal himself testified:

"It is the same sheet as we ourselves before the fire have many times held in our hands, seen, touched and shown to the people"[12] (my emphasis).

The Cardinal's words indicate that he had been one of the clerics who had held the Shroud at its Chambéry exhibitions (see above) and that there had been many such exhibitions, the records of which have not survived. The Poor Clare nuns then sewed a Holland cloth backing on to the Shroud and covered the unsightly burn holes with triangular linen patches, sewed into the backing cloth. An insightful report by Abesse Louise de Vargin, who had unparalleled access to the Shroud, is online. The repairs were completed on 2 May, just in time for the Shroud's annual exhibition on 4th May 1454.

[Left (enlarge)[13]: The Shroud, as it was before the 2002 restoration, showing the triangular burn patches sewn on by Chambéry's Poor Clare nuns in 1534. Compare it with the post-2002 restoration.]

In late 1535 Francesco II Sforza (1495–1535), the Duke of Milan, died with no heir. This sparked a fresh outbreak of the Italian Wars between France's King Francis I and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1500–1558). The latter took charge of the Duchy of Milan, and announced that his son, King Philip II of Spain (1527–98), was the new Duke of Milan. At this, Francis I invaded Italy through Savoy, in March 1536. Savoy was aligned with Charles V and so it passed into French control. Charles III and his family, seeing what was coming, had already left Chambéry in late 1535, taking the Shroud with them over the Alps into Piedmont, Italy.

Piedmont (1535)-Chambéry (1561). The Shroud was taken by Duke Charles III to Piedmont, Italy, passing through the Lanzo valley. On 4 May 1535, the Feast Day of the Holy Shroud, the Shroud was exhibited in Turin, possibly at

[Right (enlarge): Extract from Ian Wilson's "Travels of the Shroud" map[14], showing some of the locations the Shroud (1535-61).]

Turin's Castle of Rivoli, a Savoy castle on the

[Left (enlarge)[15]: The Savoy Castle of Rivoli, on the outskirts of Turin, where the Shroud was possibly exhibited on 4 May 1535 and probably kept between then and the French capture of Turin a year later.]

outskirts of Turin, where the future Duke Charles Emmanuel (1562-1630) was later born. The French Army captured Turin in April 1536, but it failed to take Milan. The next record of the Shroud is just over a year later, when it was exhibited on 7 May 1536, at Milan, now safe in Charles V's territory. However, because of the ongoing threat of a French invasion of Milan, in 1537 the Shroud was taken to Vercelli. Then on Good Friday 1537 the Shroud was exhibited further south at Nice. Charles III's wife, Duchess Beatrice died in January 1538 in Nice. And it was in Nice, in June 1538, that the Truce of Nice was signed by Charles V and Francis I, temporarily ending the war, but leaving Turin in French hands. In 1541 the Shroud returned to Vercelli where it will stay for the next twenty years, in the treasury of St. Eusebius Cathedral. In 1542 Francis I, allied with the Muslim Ottoman Empire, declared war on Charles V's Holy Roman Empire. In August 1543 a Franco-Ottoman fleet captured the city of Nice. For Christian and Islamic troops to jointly attack a Christian town was regarded as shocking. Francis I died in 1547 and was succeeded to the throne by his son, King Henry II of France (1519-59), who continued his father's war. The future Duke Emmanuel Philibert served in Charles V's army in the war against France, and distinguished himself by capturing the northern France town of Hesdin in July 1553. In August 1553 Charles III died in Vercelli and his eldest surviving son Emmanuel Philibert succeeded him as Duke. In November 1553 the French sacked Vercelli but the Shroud was hidden in the house of Antoine Claude Costa, one of the canons. Emperor Charles V abdicated the Western part of his Empire in 1556 and gave it to his son Philip II, who continued his father's war with France. Duke Emmanuel Philibert personally led an invasion of northern France and decisively defeated the French at Battle of St. Quentin on 10 August 1557, the Feast Day of St Lawrence. This important victory secured for the Duke a place at the conference table when the terms of peace were deliberated. In April 1559 Henry II of France and Philip II of Spain signed the Treaty of Chateau-Cambrésis which ended the 60 year-long Italian Wars. Under its terms, amongst others, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Duke of Savoy, and Duke Emmanuel Philibert was to marry Marguerite of Valois (1523–74), the sister of Henry II, in July 1559.

[Right (enlarge)[16]: Miniature by Christophe Duch (1559), in the prayer-book of Duchess Marguerite, presumably a wedding present, depicting a private exhibition of the Shroud, probably in the Sainte-Chapelle, Chambéry, before the 1532 fire.]

But just before the wedding, Henry sustained a fatal injury in a jousting tournament. Henry insisted that the wedding go ahead and and died a day after it. In 1560 the Shroud was exhibited from a balcony in Vercelli castle, and then after 25 years of exile of the Savoys from their own lands, the Shroud returned to Chambéry in 1561.

Chambéry (1561)-Turin (1578). On 3 June 1561 the Shroud was returned to Chambéry, and deposited in the Franciscan convent. The next day Duke Emmanuel Philibert led a procession accompanied by trumpeters and torches, to the now restored Sainte Chapelle. On 15 August the first exposition of Shroud in a quarter of a century was held in the Sainte Chapelle, Chambéry's high altar. On 17 August, because of the huge crowds and the confined space in, and in front of, the Sainte Chapelle, the Shroud was exhibited from the walls of Chambéry and also above the piazza of the castle. But the days of the Shroud in

[Above (enlarge)[17]: Simulated exhibition of the Shroud (white rectangle) from a temporary scaffolding platform outside the Sainte-Chapelle, Chambéry's apse window[18], overlooking the piazza of Chambéry Castle, where the Shroud was presumably exhibited on 17 August 1561.]

Chambéry were numbered. Following the Treaty of Chateau-Cambrés, Chambéry was no longer suitable for the capital of the dukes of Savoy. Moreover, there still was the likelihood of further French aggression and as an experienced military man, the Duke knew that Chambéry was indefensible. In 1562 Charles Emmanuel I (1562-1630), the future Duke of Savoy, and the only child of the 38 year-old Marguerite and the 34 year-old Emmanuel Philibert, was born. But significantly his birth was in the Castle of Rivoli, Piedmont, not in Chambéry. By 1563 Duke Emmanuel Philibert had moved his administration to Turin. In 1566 there was a private exposition of the Shroud in the Sainte-Chapelle for the new duchess of Savoy from Nemours, the important and influential Anna d'Este (1531-1607), who had married that year Jacques de Savoie, Duke of Nemours (1531-85), a descendant of both Duke Louis I's sister Agnes de Savoie (1445-1509) and Louis' brother Duke Philip II. The Shroud was recorded as being kept in an iron box as the silver casket had been destroyed in the 1532 fire. Duchess Marguerite de Valois died in 1574, again significantly, not in Chambéry but Turin. The Duke saw Turin as the logical center of his dominions but needed an excuse to bring the Shroud there. In 1578 that excuse came in the form of an announcement by the saintly Cardinal Charles Borromeo (1538–1584), the Archbishop of Milan, that he was intending to make a pilgrimage on foot to Chambéry to revere the Shroud, because of a vow he had made during a plague that had afflicted Milan. Duke Emmanuel Philibert volunteered to have the Shroud brought from Chambéry to Turin, ostensibly to save the relatively young (~40 years old) but sickly Borromeo the rigors of the journey over the Alps to reach Chambéry. On 14 September 1578, the Shroud arrived in Turin, never to return to Chambéry again.

Continued in "Locations of the Shroud: Turin 1578-1694.

1. "Rocca di Verrua," Wikipedia, 22 November 2014. Translated from Italian by Google. [return]
2. Wilson, I., 1994b, "A Chronology of the Shroud 1452-1509," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 38, August/September, pp.20-25, p.20. [return]
3. "Palazzo Madama in Turin," Aree Protette del Po e della Collina Torinese, 2015. [return]
4. "Castello di Ivrea," Turismo Torino e Provincia, 2015. [return]
5. "Castle of Moncalieri," Wikipedia, 11 March 2015. Photo by Marrabbio2, February 2007. [return]
6. "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry," Wikipedia, 6 February 2015. [return]
7. "File:Sainte-Chapelle (Chambéry).jpg," Wikipedia, 1 June 2013. [return]
8. Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.19. [return]
9. Moretto, 1999, p.18. [return]
10. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.286. [return]
11. "Books," Geocities, October, 2009. [return]
12. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.253-254. [return]
13. "Shroud of Turin," Wikipedia, 21 March 2015. [return]
14. Wilson, I. 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Gollancz: London, inside cover. [return]
15. "Rivoli, Piedmont," Wikipedia, 1 May 2014. [return]
16. Powell, A.K, 2012, "Depositions: Scenes from the Late Medieval Church and the Modern Museum," Zone Books/MIT. [return]
17. Chambéry Palace piazza, La Savoie, terre d'accueil de la Fédération Française de Gymnastique, [return]
18. Scott, J.B., 2003, "Architecture for the Shroud: Relic and Ritual in Turin," University of Chicago Press: Chicago & London, p.50. [return]

• Crispino, D.C., 1982, "The Report of the Poor Clare Nuns," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 2, March, pp.19-28, p.20.
• Crispino, D.C., 1983, "Louis I, Duke of Savoy," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 7, June, pp.7-14, pp.8-9, p.13.
• Crispino, D.C., 1988, "To Know the Truth: A Sixteenth Century Document with Excursus," Shroud Spectrum International, #28/29, September/December, pp.25-40, pp.38-39.
• de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.16.
• Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, pp.16-17.
• Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, pp.104-105.
• Jones, S.E., 2015, "de Charny Family Tree" and "Savoy Family Tree," (members only).
• Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.163.
• Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, pp.66-68.
• Scott, 2003, pp.47-48, 60, 365 n.79.
• Van Haelst, R., 1986, "The Lier Shroud: A Problem in Attribution," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 20, September, pp.7-24.
• Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, pp.53-54.
• Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, pp.217-220, 262-263.
• Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.70.
• Wilson, I., 1994a, "A New Finding - A Hitherto Unknown Shroud Image From 1486," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 38, August/September, pp.16-19, p.16.
• Wilson, 1994b, pp.19-25.
• Wilson, I., 1996a, "News from France: CIELT to hold Pre-Exposition International Shroud Symposium in Nice, 11-14 May 1997," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 43, June/July.
• Wilson, I., 1996b, "A Calendar of the Shroud for the years 1509-1694," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 44, November/December.
• Wilson, 1998, pp.64-66, 116, 282-286.
• Wilson, 2010, pp.242-257.

Created: 14 March, 2015. Updated: 14 April, 2015.