This is Revised #5 of my series, "Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?" My previous post in this series was, "Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?: Revised #4. Earlier posts in this series were: part 1, part 2, part 3, "Summary," "My replies to Dr. Timothy Jull and Prof. Christopher Ramsey," "Further to my replies to Dr. Timothy Jull and Prof. Christopher Ramsey," Revised #1, Revised #2 (Vignon markings) and Revised #3. See those last three previous posts for my purpose in documenting this historical evidence of the Shroud of Turin's existence from the 13th century to the 1st century, and its connection with the title of this series, "Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?"
I have decided to terminate this "Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?" series and start a new series: "My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker." I could have continued on posting historical and artistic evidence for the Shroud's existence from the early 13th century to the 1st century, proving beyond reasonable doubt, over and over, that the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud to 1260-1390 was wrong. But I have already posted enough such evidence and I want to get on with posting the actual evidence that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were hacked, and that the hacker was Timothy W. Linick (1946-89) aided by Karl Koch (1965–1989).
I deleted the sections about Jesus' face in the 10th century St Catherine's icon of Abgar holding the Edessa cloth, having a depiction of both the reversed 3 bloodstain and most if not all of the Vignon markings, because in the higher resolution photograph of the icon, it could not be determined whether the reversed 3 bloodstain was not the result of reddish wax leaking through.
c. 1000 The tenth-century "Christ Enthroned" fresco on the apse of the church of Sant'Angelo in Formis, near Capua, Italy has 14 out
[Above (click to enlarge): Christ's face part of a larger 10th century fresco in the church of St. Angelo in Formis, Capua, Italy.]
"... a transverse line across the forehead, a raised right eyebrow, an upside-down triangle at the bridge of the nose, heavily delineated lower eyelids, a strongly accentuated left cheek, a strongly accentuated right cheek, and a hairless gap between the lower lip and beard ...".
One of these, the upside-down triangle at the bridge of the nose (VM #3) is particularly important because it has no
logic as a natural feature of the face, yet it recurs on several other works, for example, the eleventh-century mosaic Pantocrator in the dome of the church at Daphni, near Athens (see Revised #3), where, being a mosaic, pieces of black material have been specially selected and arranged into the shape of a triangle in convey it.
Significantly the upside-down triangle is on several early copies of the Image of Edessa/Mandylion, notably on the twelfth-century fresco at Spas Nereditsa, but that was destroyed in World War II. However, other icons from the same place and time still exist, for example the twelfth century Christos Acheiropoietos ("not made with hands") that was in the Assumption Cathedral, Moscow but is now in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow (see below). That icon has, by
my count, 12 out a possible 14 Vignon markings (since there is no throat for the transverse line across it, VM#13, to be depicted), including, as can be seen above VM#3, the upside-down triangle.
This is one of a few Image of Edessa/Mandylion icons which contain most of the 15 Vignon markings, and are, together with all the other evidence for it, prove that the Image of Edessa/Mandylion was the face panel of the tetradiplon ("four-doubled") Shroud (as we shall see below). This is more evidence that 10th century artists saw the Shroud, centuries before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud.] And, as we have seen and will see, this is but one in a family of Byzantine likenesses of Christ, from the thirteenth century to as far back as the sixth century.
c. 950 The Edessa cloth/Mandylion depicted being held by Edessa's King Abgar V (4BC–AD50) after he had been handed it by the disciple
[Right: Icon of Abgar V holding the Mandylion bearing an image of Christ, 10th century, St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai.]
Thaddeus (Addai), in this tenth-century encaustic (hot wax painting) icon at St. Catherine's monastery, Sinai. Abgar's face is that of Emperor Constantine VII's Porphyrogenitus (905-959) from other art works depicting him.
And the face of Jesus is in landscape aspect, confirming Ian Wilson's theory that the Edessa Cloth/Mandylion was the Shroud tetradiplon ("four-doubled").
[Above: Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin illustrated: The full-length Shroud of Turin (1), is doubled four times (2 through 5), resulting in Jesus' face within a rectangle, in landscape aspect (5), exactly as depicted in the earliest copies of the Image of Edessa, the 11th century Sakli church, Turkey (6) and the 10th century icon of King Abgar V of Edessa holding the Image of Edessa, St. Catherine's monastery, Sinai (7)..
c. 950 A tenth century fresco of the Edessa cloth is in the church of St. John at Sakli, ancient Cappadocia, now the Goreme region of
[Above:Image of Edessa from wall-painting in the Sakli or 'Hidden' Church, Goreme.]
central Turkey, about halfway between ancient Edessa and Constantinople. The church and its frescoes have escaped the Islamic destruction and neglect which has befallen almost everything Christian in Turkey, by it having only been discovered in 1957 after a landslide had blocked its entrance for about 500 years. This Edessa cloth fresco is painted above an arch in the Sakli or `Hidden' church and despite damage to the face, its resemblance to the face of the Shroud is remarkable. It has the same sepia-coloured, disembodied, rigidly frontal face as the Shroud, in landscape aspect cloth, strikingly resembling the equivalent area on the Turin Shroud. Its shape may be evidence of the frame which held the Mandylion. This mural dates no later than the mid-eleventh century, two centuries earlier than the earliest radiocarbon date of the Shroud. Yet one more item in the "lot of other evidence" which "suggests [to put it mildly] ... that the Shroud is older than the radiocarbon dates allow" as admitted even by Oxford Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory's Prof. Christopher Ramsey :
"There is a lot of other evidence that suggests to many that the Shroud is older than the radiocarbon dates allow and so further research is certainly needed. It is important that we continue to test the accuracy of the original radiocarbon tests as we are already doing. It is equally important that experts assess and reinterpret some of the other evidence. Only by doing this will people be able to arrive at a coherent history of the Shroud which takes into account and explains all of the available scientific and historical information" (my emphasis).
Continued in a new series: "My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a hacker #1."
1. No one may copy from any of my posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog without them asking and receiving my written permission. Except that I grant permission, without having to ask me, for anyone to copy the title and one paragraph only of any of my posts, provided that if they repost it on the Internet a link to my post from which it came is included. See my post of May 8, 2014. [return]
2. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.47. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.110A. [return]
4. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ?," , Image Books: New York NY, Revised, p.102. [return]
5. Wilson, 1991, p.47. [return]
6. Wilson, 1991, p.165. [return]
7. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.82e. [return]
8. "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Face Only Vertical". [return]
9. Wilson, 1991, p.165. [return]
10. Ibid. [return]
11. Wilson, 1979, p.192f. [return]
12. "Saviour Church on Nereditsa," Wikipedia, 9 May 2014. [return]
13. "File:Christos Acheiropoietos.jpg," Wikipedia, 24 August 2005. [return]
14. Wilson, 1986, p.110A. [return]
15. Wilson, 1998, p.141. [return]
16. Wilson, 1979, p.102. [return]
17. "Abgar V," Wikipedia,. [return]
18. Wilson, 1986, p.110E. [return]
19. Wilson, 1979, p.155. [return]
20. Wilson, 1998, p.152. [return]
21. Jones, S.E., 2012, "Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin," Blog post, September 15. [return]
22. Wilson, 1986, p.110E. [return]
23. Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.75. [return]
24. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.210F. [return]
25. Wilson, 1998, p.151. [return]
26. Wilson, 1998, p.112. [return]
27. Wilson, 2010, p.172. [return]
28. Wilson, 1998, p.151. [return]
29. Ibid. [return]
30. Ibid. [return]
31. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.109. [return]
32. Scavone, 1989, p.75. [return]
33. Wilson, 2010, p.112. [return]
34. Ramsey, C.B., 2008, "Shroud of Turin," Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, 23 March. [return]
Updated: 24 May, 2014.