Thursday, December 27, 2018

Dirt #30: Other marks and images: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!

DIRT #30
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is part #30, "Other marks and images: Dirt," of my series, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!" For more information about this series, see the "Main index #1" and "Other marks and images #26." See also, "The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (3): Dirt ." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. To save time I had trialed in this post progressively updating the whole post in each installment and as it grew longer, using temporary number-letter footnotes which I converted to sequential numbers near the final installment. I will continue doing that in future long posts.

[Main index #1] [Previous: `Poker holes' #29] [Next: Flower & plant images #31]


    Other marks and images #26
    1. Dirt #30

Introduction There is dirt on the nose, left knee and feet of the man on the Shroud[2].

[Above (enlarge): Bloodstained images of the feet, on the dorsal (back) side of the Shroud[3]. The dorsal image is upside down (see Shroud Scope). The man's right foot (apparent left foot because of mirror reversal)[4] is on our left. The imprint and bloodstain of His left foot is smaller due to it having not fully touched the cloth[5]. This was because it was forced over his right foot and both feet were transfixed by a single nail[6]. Then at the man's death on a cross, his legs and feet were fixed by rigor mortis in that crucifixion position[7]. There are also microscopic traces of dirt in this feet area of the Shroud, but they are not readily seen with the unaided eye (see below).]

Dirt on the nose There are traces of dirt on the tip of the nose of the man on the Shroud[8]. This and the dirt on the left knee (below) indicate that the man fell forward onto a hard, dusty surface with his hands unable to break his fall[9]. This is consistent with the Gospel accounts that Jesus went out from Jerusalem bearing his own cross (Jn 19:17), but on the way to the site of crucifixion, Golgotha (Mt 27:33; Mk 15:22; Jn 19:17) [which still exists - see 08May18], a passerby, Simon of Cyrene, was compelled by the Romans to carry Jesus' cross for Him (Mt 27:32; Mk 15:21; Lk 23:26)[10].

Dirt on the left knee The Shroudman also has traces of dirt on his left knee[11]. Experiments have shown that a right-handed man carrying a crossbeam over his shoulder, with both hands tied to it, if he stumbles, will fall on his left knee[12]. This and the dirt on his nose (above), is consistent with the man on the Shroud being Jesus, who started out carrying His cross, was unable to continue, so the Romans compelled a passerby, Simon of Cyrene, to carry Jesus' crossbeam for him (see above). This would have been only necessary if Jesus, carrying a heavy crossbeam on His shoulders, tied to His hands, and weakened by a severe scourging (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15) [see 15Jul13], stumbled, fell on His left knee and then face[13], and was unable to continue[14].

Dirt on the feet There are microscopic traces of dirt on the soles of the feet of the dorsal image of the man on the Shroud[15]. During STURP's 1978 investigation of the Shroud, husband and wife team Roger and Marty Gilbert discovered using reflectance spectroscopy [right[16]] that there was a markedly different light spectra in the feet area than the rest of the Shroud[17]. When STURP optical engineer Sam Pellicori examined the heel area under a microscope at 500 times magnification[18], he found there was dirt there unlike anywhere else on the Shroud[19]. It was likely transferred to the Shroud from the feet of a barefoot man[20].

In 1986 optical crystallographer Dr Joseph Kohlbeck of the Hercules Aerospace Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah, with the assistance of Dr Riccardo Levi-Setti (1927–2018) of the University of Chicago, using a scanning ion microprobe[21], reported that dirt on a fibre from the Shroud's heel area contained travertine aragonite, a comparatively rare form of limestone[22]. And travertine aragonite is the type of the limestone in the Jerusalem rock tombs[23]! Moreover, Kohlbeck and Levi-Setti

[Above: Dr Ricardo Levi-Setti's scanning ion microprobe comparisons of Jerusalem limestone (black) and limestone on Shroud (red)[24]. The Jerusalem limestone came from near the Damascus Gate, which is the gate closest to Golgotha[25]. The Shroud sample analysed was from the same foot area of the Shroud where Roger and Marty Gilbert had found the abovementioned dirt[26]. As can be seen above, from their spectral patterns it was clear that the Shroud and Jerusalem tomb limestone samples were a very close match[27]. Both the Shroud and the Jerusalem samples contained small amounts of iron and strontium, but no lead[28]. They would have been an even closer match but for a slight organic variation due to particles of flax which could not be separated from the Shroud's calcium[29].]

found that the spectral signature of the travertine aragonite limestone dust on the heel of the man on the Shroud, very closely matched that of the samples from Jerusalem tombs (see above)[30]!

Problem for the forgery theory. (see previous three: #27, #28 and #29). The dirt on the feet is subliminal[31] (i.e. it is just above the threshold of human perception[32], so it can be seen with the unaided eye only if one knows where to look for it[41]). So it cannot reasonably be ascribed to a hypothetical artist-forger because he himself would have barely seen it, so there was no reason for him to put it there, since others viewing his work would not have seen it[34]. It was only by reflectance spectroscopy and a microscope that the dirt on the foot was identified[35]. That there are microscopic traces of limestone dust on the feet of the man on the Shroud, that limestone is the comparatively rare travertine aragonite found in Jerusalem rock tombs, and the spectral signal of the limestone on the feet of the Shroudman very closely matches that of Jerusalem tombs, is evidence that rather than being merely a painting, or a statue, the Shroud really had once wrapped the body of a scourged [15Jul13] and crucified[02Dec13] man, who had been entombed in the environs of Jerusalem[36]!

Conclusion According to the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud," 1260-1390[37], i.e. 1325 ±65 years, was "the time when the flax used to make the shroud's linen was harvested"[38]. So the hypothetical 13th-14th century forger would have had to obtain limestone dust from around Jerusalem's tombs, not knowing that it was the comparatively rare travertine aragonite limestone, since aragonite was only named in 1797[39]. Let alone him knowing that Jerusalem limestone had a very special spectral signal. The sceptical alternative that the forger obtained the Shroud as a linen sheet from Jerusalem, which just happened to have Jerusalem limestone dirt at exactly the right places on the nose, left knee and soles of the feet, is clearly effectively impossible. But then why would the forger go to so much trouble, when: 1) he applied the Jerusalem limestone dirt so faintly that his viewers could not see it; and 2) they would have been satisfied with much less:

"Also is it not rather incredible that this unknown individual [medieval forger] should have gone to so much trouble and effort to deceive in an age in which, as twentieth-century journalists have reminded us, a large proportion of the populace would have been very easily duped by a feather of the Archangel Gabriel or a phial of the last breath of St Joseph?"[40]
After all, as Oxford radiocarbon dating laboratory's Director, Professor Edward Hall (1924-2001) pointed out, all that a 13th-14th century forger would have needed to do was, `get a bit of linen, fake it up and flog [sell] it':
"There was a multi-million-pound business in making forgeries during the fourteenth century. Someone just got a bit of linen, faked it up and flogged it"[41].
So again (see #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #14, #28 & #29) the evidence is overwhelming that the 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud was WRONG!

To be continued in the next part #31 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.152; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, pp.59, 71; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.32, 109, 120; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.65. [return]
3. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
4. Bucklin, R., 1970, "The Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ," Medicine, Science and the Law, January; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.30; Case, T.W., 1996, "The Shroud of Turin and the C-14 Dating Fiasco," White Horse Press: Cincinnati OH, p.23; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.267. [return]
5. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, pp.64-65; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.144. [return]
6. Bucklin, R., 1982, "The Shroud of Turin: Viewpoint of a Forensic Pathologist," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 5, December, pp.3-10; Heller, 1983, p.216. [return]
7. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, pp.46-47; Bucklin, 1970; Zugibe, F.T., 1988, "The Cross and the Shroud: A Medical Enquiry into the Crucifixion," [1982], Paragon House: New York NY, Revised edition, p.132; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.166, 196; Bucklin, R., 1997, "An Autopsy on the Man of the Shroud," Third International Scientific Symposium on the Shroud of Turin, Nice, France, 12 May; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, pp.25, 111; Antonacci, 2000, p.32; Tribbe, 2006, pp.234-235.; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.144-145. [return]
8. Bucklin, 1982; Iannone, 1998, pp.56, 59; Antonacci, 2000, p.32; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
9. Heller, 1983, p.152; Bucklin, R, 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: A Pathologist's Viewpoint," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.271-279, 274; Antonacci, 2000, pp.32-33; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
10. Antonacci, 2000, p120. [return]
11. Heller, 1983, p.152; Iannone, 1998, pp.56, 59; Antonacci, 2000, p.32; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
12. Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.22; Iannone, 1998, p.56. [return]
13. Antonacci, 2000, pp.32-33, 120; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
14. Ricci, G., "Historical, Medical and Physical Study of the Holy Shroud," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, p.69; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, pp.44-45; Iannone, 1998, p.55; Ruffin, 1999, p.43; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.165. [return]
15. Heller, 1983, pp.152, 216; Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.325-344, 328; Iannone, 1998, p.59. [return]
16. "Reflectance difference spectroscopy," Wikipedia, 16 September 2017. [return]
17. Heller, 1983, p.112; Ruffin, 1999, p.84; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, pp.92-93; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.65-66; Oxley, 2010, p.210. [return]
18. Maloney, P.C., 2002, "Science, Archaeology, and the Shroud of Turin," Approfondimento Sindone, 1 September. [return]
19. Heller, 1983, p.112. [return]
20. Jackson, 1991, p.328; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 28; Iannone, 1998, p.59. [return]
21. Guscin, M., 1998, "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, p.79; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.105; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
22. Guscin, 1998, p.79; Iannone, 1998, p.59; Guerrera, 2001, p.65; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.93. [return]
23. Guscin, 1998, p.79; Antonacci, 2000, p.109; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
24. Kohlbeck, J.A. & Nitowski, E.L., 1986, "New evidence may explain image on Shroud of Turin," Biblical Archeological Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp.23-24. [return]
25. Guscin, 1998, p.79. [return]
26. Kohlbeck & Nitowski, 1986. [return]
27. Wilson, 1998, p.106. [return]
28. Wilson, 1998, p.105. [return]
29. Wilson, 1998, p.106. [return]
30. Antonacci, 2000, p.109; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.93. [return]
31. Jackson, 1991, p.328; Borkan, 1995, p.28. [return]
32. Ruffin, 1999, p.84. [return]
33. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.93. [return]
34. Heller, 1983, p.112; Jackson, 1991, p.328; Borkan, 1995, p.28; Guscin, 1998, p.79; Iannone, 1998, p.71. [return]
35. Guscin, 1998, p.79. [return]
36. Jackson, 1991, p.328; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.93. [return]
37. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615. [return]
38. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, pp.7, 264; Hulse, T.G., 1997, "The Holy Shroud," Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London, p.28; Wilson, 1998, p.106. [return]
39. "Aragonite," Wikipedia, 29 October 2018. [return]
40. Wilson, 1998, pp.59-60). [return]
33. Sheridan, M. & Reeves, P., 1988, "Turin Shroud shown to be a fake," The Independent, 14 October in Wilson, 1998, p.7; Oxley, 2010, p.221. [return]

Posted: 27 December 2018. Updated: 8 January 2019.

Thursday, December 20, 2018

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth century (2)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
TWELFTH CENTURY (2)
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is part #13, "Twelfth century (2)" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. See also 29Mar14. For more information about this series see part #1, "1st century and Index." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. As mentioned [see 29Nov18], I decided to split this my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth Century" (1101-1200) into two parts 1101-1151 (1) and 1152-1200 (2), and insert a summary of the c. 1151 Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows into the first part (1). An then renumber this part as #13 and increase the already posted parts #13 to #15.

[Index #1] [Previous: 12th century (1) #12] [Next: 13th century #14]


12th century (1101-1200).

[Above (enlarge): "The Entombment" (upper) and "Visit to the Sepulchre" (lower) in the Hungarian Pray Manuscript, or Pray Codex, (1192-95)[2]. According to Wikipedia:

"The Codex Pray, Pray Codex or The Hungarian Pray Manuscript is a collection of medieval manuscripts. In 1813 it was named after György Pray, who discovered it in 1770. It is the first known example of continuous prose text in Hungarian. The Codex is kept in the National Széchényi Library of Budapest. One of the most prominent documents within the Codex (f. 154a) is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer ... It is an old handwritten Hungarian text dating to 1192-95. Its importance of the Funeral Sermon comes from that it is the oldest surviving Hungarian, and Uralic, text ... One of the five illustrations within the Codex shows the burial of Jesus. It is sometimes claimed that the display shows remarkable similarities with the Shroud of Turin: that Jesus is shown entirely naked with the arms on the pelvis, just like in the body image of the Shroud of Turin; that the thumbs on this image appear to be retracted, with only four fingers visible on each hand, thus matching detail on the Turin Shroud; that the supposed fabric shows a herringbone pattern, identical to the weaving pattern of the Shroud of Turin; and that the four tiny circles on the lower image, which appear to form a letter L, `perfectly reproduce four apparent "poker holes" on the Turin Shroud', which likewise appear to form a letter L.[3] The Codex Pray illustration may serve as evidence for the existence of the Shroud of Turin prior to 1260–1390 AD, the alleged fabrication date established in the radiocarbon 14 dating of the Shroud of Turin in 1988"[4].
See "1192" below. Also see 21Jun17; 11Apr17; 07Aug16; 07May16; 27Dec15; 11Jan10; 08Dec09; 08Oct09 & 03Apr08].

1157 Nicholas Soemundarson, the Abbot of Thingeyrar Benedictine monastery, Iceland[5], returned from a pilgrimage to Constantinople[6]. He then drew up a very detailed inventory in medieval Icelandic of the relics[7] in Constantinople he had seen[8]. In that list was the sveitakuk (sweat cloth) and the maetull (Mandylion)[9] or Shroud (see "990")[10] with the blood and body of Christ on it[11]. The reference to blood means that these were burial cloths[12].

c. 1167 This Christ Acheiropoietos (not made with hands) copy of the Mandylion/Image of Edessa (the face panel of the Shroud "four-doubled" - tetradiplon) in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow (see below), is estimated to date from 1167[13]. It has, by my count, 12 out of a

[Above: Twelfth century Christ Acheiropoietos (not made with hands - see Mk 14:58; Acts 7:48, 19:26; 2Cor 5:1; Heb 9:11, 24), copy of the Mandylion/Shroud face panel) from the Assumption (Dormition) Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin, now in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow[14]. This icon is closely related to the Holy Face of Laon (see below).]

possible 14 (since there is no throat for the transverse line across it - VM13 - to be depicted) Vignon markings (see above). This is one of a few Image of Edessa/Mandylion icons which contain most of the 15 Vignon markings[15] and, together with all the other evidence for it, prove beyond reasonable doubt that the Image of Edessa/Mandylion was the face panel of the tetradiplon ("four-doubled") Shroud. So this is yet more evidence that medieval artists saw the Shroud, centuries before its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date[16]!

1171 Chronicler William of Tyre (c.1130–1186), as Archbishop of Tyre[17], accompanied a state visit of King Amaury I (L. Amalric I) of Jerusalem (r. 1163-74) to Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (L. Comnenus) (r.1143-80) in Constantinople[18]. The purpose of the visit was to gather support to drive the Muslims from the Eastern part of the Byzantine Empire[19]. William recorded his party being shown "the most precious evidences of the passion of our Lord Jesus Christ" including "the shroud" [sindon][20]. William did not mention an image on the shroud, but this can be explained either by him only seeing its reliquary within which was the folded cloth[21] or the light being too dim for him to distinguish the Shroud's faint image [see "Faint"] . [See also 29Mar14 & 21Jun17].

c. 1175 The Holy Face of Laon (French: "Sainte Face de Laon"[22]) is a glazed panel painted presumably at Constantinople[23] about

[Above (enlarge): "Icon of the Holy Face (Mandylion) of Laon. Purchased in 1249 in Bari (Italy) by Jacques Pantaleon, later to become Pope Urban IV"[24]. The close relationship between this icon and the Christ Acheiropoietos icon (above) is evident.]

1175[25]. In 1249, Jacques Pantaleon (1195–1264), then Archdeacon of Laon[26], and later to become Pope Urban IV (r.1261–1264)[27], gave the icon to his sister Sibylle, the abbess of a nearby convent at Montreuil-en-Thierache[28]. It is now kept in the Cathedral of Laon, Picardy, France[29]. The icon is actually a copy of the Image of Edessa or Mandylion[30], as its background has a trellis pattern[31] like other depictions of the Image. It also shows a brown monochrome, rigidly front facing, disembodied head of Jesus on cloth, strongly reminiscent of the Shroud[32]. This icon corresponds more closely to the face on the Shroud than any other[33], having 13 of the 15 Vignon markings (see above)[34]. It also bears an inscription in ancient slavonic: OBRAZ GOSPODIN NA UBRUSJE "the portrait of the Lord on the cloth"[35], which must mean that the artist worked directly from the Shroud[36], which was in Constantinople between 944 and 1204[37] [see "944b" and "1204"]. But since the Sainte Face dates from the end of the 12th century, and it is a copy of the Shroud image, then the Shroud itself must date from well before 1200[38]. This cannot be reconciled with the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating[39]! [See 21 Jun17].

c. 1181 A champlevé enamel panel which forms part of the altar in the Klosterneuburg monastery, near Vienna, was completed no later than 1181 by Nicholas of Verdun (1130–1205)[40]. As can be seen below,

[Above (enlarge): Entombment of Jesus, c. 1181, by Nicholas of Verdun, Klosterneuburg Abbey, Vienna[41].]

Jesus is depicted being wrapped in a double body length burial shroud[42], with His hands crossed over His loins, right over left (as it appears on the Shroud), crossing awkwardly at the wrists[43], exactly as on the Shroud[44]! Yet this was at least 79 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! [See 21 Jun17].

1185 Establishment of a Knights Templar administrative and training preceptory in the village of Templecombe, Somerset, England[45]. While the Templars never possessed the Shroud (see above), they

[Above (enlarge)[46]: Painted face on the lid of a wooden chest found in c. 1944 wired to the ceiling of a building which had been part of a twelfth century Templar preceptory in Templecombe, Somerset, England. The face has similarities to copies of the Image of Edessa in the "Holy Face" style (see the "Holy Face of Genoa").].

owned and revered painted copies of the Image of Edessa/Shroud. Evidence of this is first, at their trial following the order's 1307 arrest (see above), one the charges brought against the Templars was that they worshipped an idol which was a head with a reddish beard[47]. And second, during World War II (c. 1944) a nearby bomb blast in the village of Templecombe, Somerset, England, dislodged a piece of plaster in the ceiling of an outbuilding which was originally part of the above Templar preceptory, and revealed to its tenant, a Mrs Molly Drew, a painted face wired to the ceiling and covered with plaster[48] (see above). Mrs Drew and the owner of the house a Mrs A. Topp, had the panel removed from the outbuilding and brought it into the house[49]. They then called in the local rector, a retired Bishop George Wright, who had it moved to his rectory and then cleaned, removing some of the original paint[50]. But fortunately Mrs Drew had taken a black and white photograph of the panel before it was cleaned[51] (see below), which showed a trellis pattern around the

[Above (enlarge): A black and white photograph of the Templecombe panel, taken by Mrs Molly Drew, before it was cleaned with loss of historical information. As can be seen, the face had a trellis pattern around it, as the Image of Edessa did (see above).]

face[52], confirming that it was a copy of the Image of Edessa/Shroud!

1187 Fall of Jerusalem. The Kurdish general, Saladin (1137–93), had succeeded in uniting the Muslims[53]. In 1169 Saladin defeated a combined Crusader-Byzantine attack on the port of Damietta, Egypt[54]. In 1174 Saladin conquered Damascus[55], and by 1183 Saladin's Muslim state surrounded the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem on its north, east, and south[56]. In 1187 at the Battle of Hattin, near Tiberias in today's Israel, the Muslim armies under Saladin decisively defeated the combined Crusader forces[57]. After a brief seige Jerusalem surrendered in 1187 to Saladin's forces, and the the loss of most of the Holy Land, including Acre on the Mediterranean coast, speedily followed[58].

1189 The Third Crusade (1189-92). The loss of Jerusalem and most of the Holy Land to the Muslims roused Europe to the Third Crusade (1189-1192) to retrieve those losses[59]. Three great armies were led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (r. 1155–90), by King Philip II of France (r. 1179-1223), and by King Richard I of England (r. 1189-99)[60]. The Crusaders arrived in Constantinople in 1189, where they were warned in a note from Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem (r. 1186–1190) of a secret alliance between Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos (r. 1185–95, 1203–04) and Saladin[61]. This would have further added to the bitterness felt in the West towards the Byzantine Empire following its lack of support in the Second Crusade (see above ), and further helps to explain the 1204 Sack of Constantinople by Western forces on their way to the Fourth Crusade [see "1204"], especially since it was the same Emperor! But Frederick was accidentally drowned in 1190 while crossing a river in Cilicia, plunging his army into chaos, with only a small fraction of the original force reaching Acre[62]. The death of Frederick left the Crusader armies under the command of Philip II and Richard I, who were rivals in Europe, and this led to the Third Crusade's subsequent failure[63]. In 1191 Richard captured Cyprus from Isaac Komnenos (c.1155–1196)[64]. Richard used the island as a supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens[65]. In 1992 Richard sold the island to the Knights Templar, who in turn sold it that year to Guy of Lusignan (c.1150–1194), king of the crusader state of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 through his marriage in 1180 to Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem[66]. His brother and successor Aimery (1155-1205) was recognised as King of Cyprus by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1191–1197)[67]. Anne de Lusignan (1418–62), wife of Duke Louis I of Savoy (1413–65), owner of the Shroud, was a direct descendant of Aimery, King of Cyprus[68]. Richard's forces helped recover Acre[69] and established Mediterranean coastal crusader states[70], but Philip and his army returned to France[71], leaving Richard's forces alone unable to retake Jerusalem[72]. This failure of the Third Crusade to recover Jerusalem from Muslim control led to the Fourth Crusade, which had very important consequences for the Shroud [see "1204"]!

1192-5 The Hungarian Pray Manuscript, or Codex (see above), is dated 1192-95[73]. The Codex was compiled at the ancient Benedictine monastery at Boldva, Hungary[74]. Hungary was then ruled by King Bela III (r.1172–1196), who had spent six years (1163–1169) as a young man in the imperial court at Constantinople[75]. Two pen and ink drawings[76] on one page of the Codex, one above the other (see above), document the existence of the Shroud in the late twelfth century[77]. The upper drawing is a depiction of Jesus' body being prepared for burial[78]. Correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud include: 1. Jesus is nude[79]; 2. His hands are crossed awkwardly at the wrists, right over left (as it appears on the Shroud), covering His genitals[80]; 3. No thumbs are visible on Jesus' hands[81]; 4. His hands and fingers are unnaturally long[82]; 5. Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (see below)[83] and 6.

[Above (enlarge): Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (highlighted green) in the Pray Codex upper Entombment scene (see above).]

Red marks on Jesus' scalp and forehead are in the same position as the bloodstains (including the "reversed 3") on the Shroud[84]. In the lower drawing an angel is showing three women disciples Jesus' empty tomb symbolised by a sarcophagus with an open lid[85]. Correspondences between this lower drawing and the Shroud include: 7. The sarcophagus lid has a herringbone weave pattern[86]; 8. Red zigzags match the inverted V-shaped blood trickles down the Shroud man's arms[87] and 9. L-shaped patterns of tiny circles in the herringbone weave of the sarcophagus lid match the `poker holes' on the Shroud[88]. Thomas de Wesselow, an agnostic art historian[89] concludes:

"We have now identified eight [there are at least nine - see above] telling correspondences between the Shroud and the drawings on a single page of the Pray Codex ... It is inconceivable that all these detailed links with the Shroud, several of which are found nowhere else, could have occurred on a single manuscript page by chance. The only reasonable conclusion is that the artist of the Pray Codex was aware of the Shroud. The Shroud existed and was already damaged, then, by 1192-5, when the illustrations in the Pray Codex were drawn. Given the close links at the time between Hungary and Byzantium, it can hardly be doubted that the artist saw the relic in Constantinople. The Shroud was the Byzantine Sindon."![90]
On plate IV of Berkovits (1969), the same artist has shown two more telling correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud: 10. the nail in the wrist of the right hand (as it appears on the Shroud)

[Above (enlarge): Extract of plate IV in Berkovits (1969), showing the nail wound in the wrist of Jesus' right hand (as it appears on the Shroud), while the nail wound in the left hand (which is covered on the Shroud) is traditionally in the palm. This shows the artist knew the traditional view but deliberately chose to depict the nail in Jesus' right wrist because that is what he saw on the Shroud! Also note that the fingers of Jesus' right hand are unnaturally long, and the rest of that hand is unnaturally short, as it is on the Shroud because the latter are xray images of the Shroud man's finger and hand bones! See "X-Raya #22".]

of the resurrected and enthroned Jesus[91]; and 11. The angel is holding Jesus' cross with three nails[92], matching the three nail wounds on the Shroud[93].

Because of these, not eight, but eleven telling correspondences with the Shroud, the Pray Codex is the final nail in the coffin of the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud[94]. That is because, being the sindon of Constantinople [see "1204"] [95], the Shroud arrived there in 944 [see "944b"] from Edessa where it had been since 544 [see "544"][96], which makes the Shroud more than seven centuries older than the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date!

Continued in the next part #14 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page.[return]
2. Berkovits, I., 1969, "Illuminated Manuscripts in Hungary, XI-XVI Centuries," Horn, Z., translated, West, A., revised., Irish University Press: Shannon, Ireland, pl. III. [return]
3. Scavone, D.C., 1996, "Book Review of "The Turin Shroud: In Whose Image?," Shroud.com. [return]
4. "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 12 April 2017. [return]
5. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.53; Ricci, G., 1981, "The Holy Shroud," Center for the Study of the Passion of Christ and the Holy Shroud: Milwaukee WI, p.xxxv. [return]
6. Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, 1983, p.72; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.58. [return]
7. Heller, 1983, p.72; Scavone, D.C., "The Shroud of Turin in Constantinople: The Documentary Evidence," in Sutton, R.F., Jr., 1989a, "Daidalikon: Studies in Memory of Raymond V Schoder," Bolchazy Carducci Publishers: Wauconda IL, pp.311-329, 320. [return]
8. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.120; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
9. Wilson, 1979, p.167; Iannone, 1998, p.120; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.184. [return]
10. Hynek, R.W., 1951, "The True Likeness," [1946], Sheed & Ward: London, p.8; Ricci, 1981, p.xxxv; Heller, 1983, p.73; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
11. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Ricci, 1981, p.xxxv; Heller, 1983, p.73; Scavone, 1989a, p.320; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
12. Scavone, 1989a, p.320. [return]
13. de Riedmatten, P., 2008, "The Holy Face of Laon," BSTS Newsletter, No. 68, December, p.7. [return]
14. "File:Christos Acheiropoietos.jpg," Wikipedia, 24 August 2005. [return]
15. de Riedmatten, 2008, p.7. [return]
16. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.141. [return]
17. "William of Tyre," Wikipedia, 21 September 2017. [return]
18. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.8; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.165; Iannone, 1998, pp.120-121; Wilson, 1998, p.271; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.6; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.25; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.177. [return]
19. Iannone, 1998, pp.120-121. [return]
20. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Hynek, 1951, p.8; Wilson, 1979, pp.165-166; Scavone, D.C., 1989b, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.321; Iannone, 1998, p.121; Wilson, 1998, p.271; Tribbe, 2006, p.25; de Wesselow, 2012, p.177. [return]
21. Bulst, 1957, p.8. [return]
22. Currer-Briggs, N., 1984, "The Holy Grail and the Shroud of Christ: The Quest Renewed," ARA Publications: Maulden UK, p.158; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988a, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.45. [return]
23. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, pp.58-59. [return]
24. "File:Icône Sainte Face Laon 150808.jpg, Wikimedia Commons, 13 September 2008. Translated from French by Google. [return]
25. de Riedmatten, 2008, p.7. [return]
26. Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.21. [return]
27. "Pope Urban IV," Wikipedia, 30 September 2017. [return]
28. Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.45; Wilson, 1991, pp.47, 78. [return]
29. Wilson, 1986, p.110F. [return]
30. Wilson, 1991, p.78. [return]
31. Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.60; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.158; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.136; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.131. [return]
32. Wilson, 1979, pp.114-115; Wilson, 1998, pp.150-151. [return]
33. Currer-Briggs, N., 1995, "Shroud Mafia: The Creation of a Relic?," Book Guild: Sussex UK, p.56. [return]
34. Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.58. [return]
35. Wilcox, 1977, p.97; Wilson, I., 1983, "Some Recent Society Meetings," BSTS Newsletter, No. 6, September/December, p.13; Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.21; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.157; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988b, "Dating the Shroud - A Personal View," BSTS Newsletter No. 20, October, pp.16-17; Wilson, 1991, p.47; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.205; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.108. [return]
36. Wuenschel, 1954, pp.58-59; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.158; Oxley, 2010, p.108. [return]
37. Wilson, 1991, p.78. [return]
38. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.56. [return]
39. Currer-Briggs, 1995, pp.56-57]. [return]
40. Wilson, I., 2008, "II: Nicholas of Verdun: Scene of the Entombment, from the Verdun altar in the monastery of Klosterneuburg, near Vienna," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 67, June; Wilson, 2010, p.182. [return]
41. Wilson, 2008. [return]
42. Wilson, 2008. [return]
43. Wilson, 1979, p.160. [return]
44. Wilson, 2008; Wilson, 2010, pp.182-183. [return]
45. "Templecombe Preceptory," Wikipedia,15 August 2017. [return]
46. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.116. [return]
47. Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 197. [return]
48. Morgan, R., 1987a, "Was the Holy Shroud in England?," Shroud News No. 42, August, pp.3-17, 5; Morgan, R., 1987b, "The Templecombe Panel Painting," BSTS Newsletter, No. 17, September, pp.3-11, 4. [return]
49. Morgan, 1987a, p.6; Morgan, 1987b, pp.6-7. [return]
50. Morgan, 1987a, p.6; Morgan, 1987b, p.7. [return]
51. Morgan, 1987a, p.13; Morgan, 1987b, p.8. [return]
52. Wilson, 1987, "Templecombe Panel-Painting Carbon Dated," BSTS Newsletter, No. 16, May, pp.3-5, 4-5. [return]
53. Latourette, K.S., 1953, "A History of Christianity: Volume 1: to A.D. 1500," Harper & Row: New York NY, Reprinted, 1975, p.411; Walker, W., 1959, "A History of the Christian Church," [1918], T. & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Revised, Reprinted, 1963, p.222. [return]
54. "Saladin: Vizier of Egypt," Wikipedia, 8 August 2017; "Damietta: History," Wikipedia, 11 September 2017. [return]
55. Walker, 1959, p.222; "Saladin: Conquest of Damascus," Wikipedia, 8 August 2017. [return]
56. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222. [return]
57. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Battle of Hattin," Wikipedia, 13 October 2017. [return]
58. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Siege of Jerusalem (1187)," Wikipedia, 10 October 2017. [return]
59. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Siege of Jerusalem (1187): Aftermath," Wikipedia, 10 October 2017. [return]
60. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Third Crusade," Wikipedia, 14 October 2017. [return]
61. "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
62. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
63. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
64. "Cyprus: Middle Ages," Wikipedia, 30 October 2018. [return]
65. Ibid. [return]
66. Ibid. [return]
67. Ibid. [return]
68. Jones, S.E., 2016, "Savoy Family Tree," Ancestry.com.au (members only); Oxley, 2010, p.68. [return]
69. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Richard I of England: In the Holy Land," Wikipedia, 16 October 2017. [return]
70. "Third Crusade: Aftermath," Wikipedia, 13 November 2017. [return]
71. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Philip II of France: Third Crusade," Wikipedia, 8 October 2017. [return]
72. Walker, 1959, p.223; "Richard I of England: In the Holy Land," Wikipedia, 16 October 2017; "Third Crusade: Advances on Jerusalem, regicide, and negotiations," Wikipedia, 14 October 2017. [return]
73. Berkovits, 1969, p.19. [return]
74. Berkovits, 1969, p.19. [return]
75. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
76. Wilson, 1991, p.150; Guerrera, 2001, p.104. [return]
77. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
78. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
79. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
80. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.91; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
81. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, pp.59-60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
82. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91. [return]
83. Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
84. Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
85. de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
86. Iannone, 1998, p.155; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
87. Maloney, P.C., "Researching the Shroud of Turin: 1898 to the Present: A Brief Survey of Findings and Views," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.16-47, 33. [return]
88. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.164; Iannone, 1998, pp.154-155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91; Oxley, 2010, p.38; de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
89. de Wesselow, 2012, p.192. [return]
90. de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
91. Wilson, I., 1995, "News From Around The World," BSTS Newsletter, No. 39, January, pp.4-13, 6; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 1998, p.146. [return]
92. Wilson, 1995, p.6; Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
93. Barbet, P., 1953, "A Doctor at Calvary," [1950], Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, Reprinted, 1963, p.85; Bulst, 1957, p.49. [return]
94. de Wesselow, 2012, p.183. [return]
95. Scavone, D.C., "Greek Epitaphoi and Other Evidence for the Shroud in Constantinople up to 1204," in Walsh, B., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.196-211, 197; de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
96. Oxley, 2010, p.38. [return]

Posted: 20 December 2018. Updated: 31 December 2018.

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

"Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, November 2018

Shroud of Turin News - November 2018
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

[Previous: October 2018, part #1] [Next: December 2018, part #1]

This is the November 2018 issue of my Shroud of Turin News. I have listed below linked news articles about the Shroud in November as a service to readers, without necessarily endorsing any of them.

Contents:
• "'Suddenly I Saw Eyes': Jesus' Face Discovered in Ancient Israeli Desert Church," Haaretz Daily Newspaper, Ruth Schuster Nov 12, 2018. In my reply to Joe Marino who alerted me (and Ian Wilson) to this, I wrote: "As you probably already know, here are other news articles on this discovery:
"‘Face’ of Jesus Christ Uncovered in 1,500 Year Old Church in Israel," The Epoch Times, November 13, 2018, Jack Phillips; "'Jesus' face' uncovered at ancient church in the Israeli desert," Fox News, 14 November 2018, James Rogers. But it doesn't sound Shroud-like:

"In contrast to the Western image of Jesus as someone with flowing long hair and, sometimes, a beard, the Shivta painting shows him in the Eastern style with short curly hair, a long face and an elongated nose, says Maayan-Fanar." ("'Suddenly I Saw Eyes': Jesus’ Face Discovered in Ancient Israeli Desert Church," Haaretz Daily Newspaper, November 12, 2018, Ruth Schuster)[2].
Wilson agreed in his reply:
"For the Israelis to make the Eastern/Western distinction is plain ignorant. There are plenty of western examples of the beardless type, stretching as far west as Spain and England, all dating before the sixth century ... It’s an interesting discovery to add to my collection of examples of the beardless type, but nothing to get too excited about!"[3].

Editorial
Rex Morgan's Shroud News: My scanning and word-processing of the 118 issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, provided by Ian Wilson, and emailing them to Barrie Schwortz, for him to convert to PDFs and add to his online Shroud News archive, continued in November up to issue #115, September 1999. [Right (enlarge).], i.e ~97% completed. Issues in the archive are up to #110, November 1998.

Media release: In November I completed the simplified version of my media release, "Were the Turin Shroud radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?", and a Microsoft Word version of it, and emailed the latter to news outlets which had in the past published favourable (or at least not unfavourable) Shroud articles. But to date I have had no response.

Posts: In November I blogged 5 new posts (latest uppermost): "Shroud-like Jesus in a stained glass window (c.1150) in Chartres Cathedral, France," - 29th; "Date index 2018: The Shroud of Turin blog," - 27th; "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fifteenth century (1)," - 9th; "Date index 2017: The Shroud of Turin blog," - 8th and "`Editorial and Contents,' Shroud of Turin News, October 2018," - 5th

Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud: As previewed in October's Shroud of Turin News, on 6 November I both emailed and airmailed my "Open letter to Professor Christopher Ramsey." In that letter I proved by many examples that:

"... the Shroud of Turin existed not just 65 years [Pray Codex 1195], nor only 316 years [Constantinople 944], but at least 716 years [Edessa 544] before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! Therefore, the 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud of Turin must be wrong and cannot be salvaged." [04Oct18a]
I concluded the letter to Prof. Ramsey with:
"I therefore respectfully request that you, Professor Ramsey, commence a process of consultation with your relevant colleagues. The result of which will be a joint communication to Nature advising that the 1260-1390 date of the Shroud in its 16 February 1989 paper, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," must be wrong, since it conflicts with the overwhelming weight of the historical and artistic evidence, and that therefore the paper be retracted." [04Oct18b]
But to date I have had no response, not even an acknowledgment of receipt. I emailed a covering email with a link to that post [see 05Nov18] to one of Prof. Ramsey's online email addresses, "christopher.ramsey@rlaha.ox.ac.uk," and it never bounced back. I also that day airmailed a printed copy of the blog page to Prof. Ramsay at the Oxford Radiocarbon Dating laboratory's postal address, so he must have received it by now, ~7 weeks later. I will charitably assume that Prof. Ramsay is consulting with his colleagues about requesting Nature to retract that 1989 paper.

Updates Apart from my media release above, there were no significant updates in the background of past posts in November.

Comments: There were no comments worth mentioning in November.

My radiocarbon dating hacker theory I continued blogging an October post on my hacker theory in November: my "Media release: Were the Turin Shroud radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?"

My book: I continued making progress in November, writing a dot-point outline of my book, "Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" on my smartphone using Gmail (see 09May17 and 06Jul17). The "7. History of the Shroud" chapter is becoming large (as expected for an object that is nearly 20 centuries old!), so I am faced with a decision: do I produce a thin, low cost book, that will sell many copies, but which leaves a lot out, or do a I produce a thick, comprehensive, but high cost book that might not sell many copies? Because it might be the last major Shroud book (the last two - Oxley's and Wilson's - were 8 years ago), I have decided on the second option. When I finish scanning Rex Morgan's Shroud News hopefully by late December, I will spend that time in writing my book manuscript on my word-processor.

Pageviews: At midnight on 30 November 2018, Google Analytics [Below (enlarge)] gave this blog's "Pageviews all time history" as 985,345. This compares with 823,009 from the same time in November 2017. That is 162,336 pageviews for the past 12 months, or an average of ~445 pageviews per day. At that rate (which will probably slow because of the intervening Christmas-New Year period) this blog may pass 1 million pageviews in January 2019! Google Analytics also gave the most viewed posts for the month (highest uppermost) as: "Editorial and Contents," Shroud of Turin News, October 2018," Nov 5, 2018 - 89; Re: Shroud blood ... types as AB ... aged blood always types as AB, so the significance of this ... is unclear," Mar 18, 2011 - 81; "Shroud of Turin depicts a Y-shaped cross?," Apr 6, 2014 - 81; "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present: 1st century and Index," Jul 24, 2016 - 74 and "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fifteenth century (1)," - Nov 9, 2018 - 71.

Notes:
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Jones, S.E., 2018, "Re: 'Suddenly I Saw Eyes': Jesus’ Face Discovered in Ancient Israeli Desert Church," Email to Joe Marino, copy to Ian Wilson, 14 November 2018, 11:20 pm. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 2018, "Re: 'Suddenly I Saw Eyes': Jesus’ Face Discovered in Ancient Israeli Desert Church," Email to Stephen Jones, copy to Joe Marino, 15 November 2018, 7:39 am. [return]

Posted: 18 December 2018. Updated: 6 January 2019.

Thursday, November 29, 2018

Shroud-like Jesus in a stained glass window (c.1150) in Chartres Cathedral, France

© Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is my post on the Shroud-like Jesus in stained glass windows (c.1150) in Chartres Cathedral, France.

This discovery by Prof. Falcinelli of a realistic depiction of the Shroud's reversed `3' bloodstain (below) in one of three Shroud-like depictions of Jesus in c.1150 stained glass windows in Chartres Cathedral, is at least as significant as the `poker holes' in the Pray Codex [see 21Aug18] in proving the Shroud pre-dated by at least a century its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date. That is because while sceptics can try to dismiss the Pray Codex as merely symbolic, they cannot so dismiss the Chartres Cathedral's literal reversed `3'! And there are at least thirteen unusual features in common between three of these stained glass windows and the Shroud (see below), compared with the Pray Codex's at least fourteen [see 04Oct18a]. Yet I had not heard about it until I read that item in my scanning of Shroud News (below). So I have decided to split my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth Century" (1101-1200) into two parts 1101-1151 (1) and 1152-1200 (2), and insert a summary of these c. 1151 Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows into the first part (1).

[Above (enlarge). Photograph "CHARTRES 1.jpg," of "the crucifixion panel," in the Window of the Passion and Resurrection, Chartres Cathedral, emailed to me by Prof. Roberto Falcinelli[2].]

During my scanning early this month (November 2018) of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, issue #114, June 1999, I read the following:

"Aside from the conference [Rome, May 6-8, 1999] itself I met Roberto Falcinelli who has made the astonishing discovery that in one of the windows of Chartres Cathedral (1150 AD) is a head of Christ with Shroud features including the epsilon bloodflow on the forehead [see below]. This could hardly be a product of artistic imagination and so is a further piece of evidence which places the Shroud image well before the now discredited C14 date of 1350 [sic]. I have Falcinelli's telephotographs and hope to bring more of this to you soon"[3].
On page 13 of that issue is a black and white photograph of Prof. Falcinelli, holding a head-only extract of the above photograph.

A check of the remaining two issues of Shroud News revealed that there was nothing further about Chartres Cathedral. So I emailed Rex Morgan and Barrie Schwortz on 13 November, requesting copies of those telephotographs to post on this my blog, but received no response. So on 26 November I emailed Prof. Falcinelli with the same request and on 28 November he replied in an email attaching copies of same. He later emailed me a PDF of his paper: "https://www.academia.edu/872980/Testimonianze_sindoniche_a_Chartres-Torino_1998". The paper is in Italian, so I will use Google Translate to convert it into English to provide context to the photographs.

I have now converted Falcinelli's Italian PDF to English using Google translate. I have omitted Falcinelli's footnotes. There is a problem in that (assuming the Google translation is correct) Falcinelli's paper says the above ogival window is in "the north wall (Portal of the Kings)":

"Above the portals of the north wall (Portal of the Kings) there are more windows ancient: these are three ogival windows and date back to around 1150"[4].
when the online photos and articles I have seen state that, the Portal of the Kings is at the west wall.

But "the window of the Passion and Resurrection" [Right (enlarge)] that Falcinelli focused on (no pun intended!):

"Physically and ideally they form a triptych, proclaiming that the prophecies have come true and that Christ came from the house of David as it was announced, he was sacrificed, and he is resurrected from death. The author of these masterpieces is unknown. They are named: the Jesse window, the Incarnation window and the window of the Passion and Resurrection. The latter highlights, in various details that we will analyze and believe to report for the first time to the attention of the scholars, singular and interesting relational iconographic parallels to the image of the Shroud of Turin"[6].
is indeed, according to the caption of the photo [right], "on the left side the west wall"[7]. I had sent Prof. Falcinelli a link to this post, and he replied that "the north wall" was "a misprint" and that "the Portal of the Kings is at the west wall"[8].

To help identify each panel in this "Passion and Resurrection" window, I will use a grid reference: "L" and "R" for the left and right columns of panels, and 1 to 7 for the seven rows of panels. Thus "the crucifixion panel" above is grid reference L4.

The western stained glass windows are the oldest, dating from "some time between 1145 and 1155"[9]. This is more than a century before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud!

That the cathedral (but not the stained glass windows) exists today, is due to the bravery, beyond the call of duty, of one American army officer, Colonel Welborn Barton Griffith, Jr (1901 – August 16, 1944), "The American hero who saved Chartres Cathedral," in World War II:

"All the glass from the cathedral was removed in 1939 just before the Germans invaded France, and it was cleaned after the War and releaded before replacing. While the city suffered heavy damage by bombing in the course of World War II, the cathedral was spared by an American Army officer who challenged the order to destroy it. Colonel Welborn Barton Griffith, Jr. questioned the strategy of destroying the cathedral and volunteered to go behind enemy lines to find out whether the German Army was occupying the cathedral and using it as an observation post. With a single enlisted soldier to assist, Griffith proceeded to the cathedral and confirmed that the Germans were not using it. After he returned from his reconnaissance, he reported that the cathedral was clear of enemy troops. The order to destroy the cathedral was withdrawn, and the Allies later liberated the area. Griffith was killed in action later that day on 16 August 1944, in the town of Leves, near Chartres"[10].
Under the heading, "Iconographic Resources with the Shroud of

[Above (enlarge). "The Flagellation panel," extracted from the PDF of Prof. Falcinelli's paper above. This is located at grid reference R3 in the Window of the Passion and Resurrection, Chartres Cathedral[11].]

Turin," Falcinelli first considered "the Flagellation panel" above (R3):

"In the Flagellation panel we find the first recall [sic] elements [of the] Shroud. The Gospels narrate that Jesus was scourged by Pontius Pilate as established by ... Rome's law. Here it [he] is depicted bare-chested, bound hands and feet to one column and two executioners strike him with enormous flagrum[s]. To note: the crown of thorns to helmet placed in similitude of the Eastern royal one and the crossed arms like the Man of the Shroud that recall the iconography of the so-called `Imago pietatis' ["Man of Sorrows"]"[12].
Shroud-like features in this "Flagellation panel" mentioned by Falcinelli above include: 1) Jesus' crown of thorns is helmet-like (not wreath-like), as is the pattern of head puncture marks on the Shroud [see 08Sep13a]. This could not be derived from the Gospels' accounts of Jesus' crowning with thorns (Mt 27:27-31; Mk 15:16-20; Jn 19:1-5). 2) Jesus' hands are crossed, right over left, at the wrists, as on the Shroud (see below and 13Apr16 & 27Dec15). I have not included "bare-chested" as presumably all scourge victims were first stripped of at least their upper clothing. Additional Shroud-like features not mentioned by Falcinelli above include: 3) Two scourgers, as evident from the pattern of scourge marks on the Shroud [see 15Jul13], but not mentioned in the Gospels' accounts of Jesus' scourging (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; Lk 23:16; Jn 19:1). 4) Jesus' hands and fingers are abnormally long (as compared with those of the scourgers), as they are on the Shroud, due to them being xray images of the Shroudman's finger and hand bones [see 20Apr17].

Next, Falcinelli in his paper considered "the crucifixion panel" (L4), which is the first photograph above:

"Let's move on to the crucifixion panel. Afflicted by pain, Maria (at right of the son) and John (left), contemplate Jesus crucified. The eyes closed, the head tilted and the body hanging inert show that it [he] is dead. Further Shroud references: Christ presents a hole in the right wrist, which is the only one visible on the Shroud; the wound of the other nail is on the left palm. Both thumbs are in retraction. This same peculiarity of the nails in the wrist and in the palm of the hand is also present in a miniature of the almost coeval Pray manuscript of Budapest which depicts Christ in Majesty. Furthermore, Jesus is represented with the right foot [leg] shorter than the left and this recalls the iconography of the `Byzantine curve'"[13].
Continuing with my count of Shroud-like features, in this "crucifixion panel", as mentioned by Falcinelli: 5) Jesus has a

[Left (enlarge): Extract from "the crucifixion panel" above, showing the nail wound in Jesus' right wrist (see below) and His body bent in a "Byzantine curve" (see below).]

nail wound depiction in his (apparent - because of mirror reversal) right wrist, as on the Shroud [see below]. 6) His thumbs are retracted so they would not be visible from the back of the hand, as on the Shroud [see below]. 7) Jesus' right leg is depicted as shorter than his left, as appears on the Shroud [see below]. This is due to the Shroudman's left leg having been bent at the knee, his left foot placed over his right, and both feet transfixed to the cross by a single nail[14]. And then remaining fixed in that position by rigor mortis[15]. The

[Right (original)[16]: The frontal image of the Shroud (cropped). This is what the Byzantines and King Louis VII of France (r. 1137-80) would have seen (see below, when the Image of Edessa (the Shroud "four-doubled" - tetradiplon) was unfolded full-length. Note the nail wound in the Shroudman's apparent (because of mirror reversal) right wrist (see above); his hands are crossed, right over left, at the wrist (see above); his thumbs are not visible (see above); his hands and fingers appear to be abnormally long (see above); his abdomen is protruding (see above); and his right leg appears shorter than his left (see above).]

Byzantines thought Jesus was lame[17], not realising that the Shroudman's legs only appear to be different lengths, and so they depicted Jesus' body in a compensatory "Byzantine curve"[18] [See "c.1001b"].

A further Shroud-like feature in "the crucifixion panel" above, not mentioned by Falcinelli, is: 8) Jesus' abdomen is protruding, which was identified by French surgeon Dr Pierre Barbet (1884–1961) as evidence of the man's death by asphyxiation[19].

Falcinelli continues in his consideration of "the crucifixion panel" above (L4), with his telephotograph discovery of "a blood stream in the shape of 3" [see below] where the reversed `3' bloodstain is on the Shroud [see 08Sep13b & 30Sep15.]:

"In August of 1997 I went to Chartres to study closely the windows and to take photographs and I could make an important discovery. While I was intent on resuming [sic] some details with a powerful telephoto lens, I have noted that, in the panel of the crucifixion, on the forehead of Christ, it was clearly visible the design of a blood stream in the shape of 3 of the same type of the observable one on the shroud face. It should be noted that the blood stream is drawn as opposed to how it is visible on the Shroud positive. Perhaps the artist has it rightly interpreted as a decal by laying for the Shroud image as contact training [sic] The subsequent analysis of the shots made confirmed definitely as I observed that it is not visible or appreciable on normal typographical reproductions that I consulted in numerous publications. It seems beyond doubt that the master glazier who carried out the work could not "Invent" a detail so peculiar to the Shroud without knowing it."[20].

[Above (enlarge): Falcinelli's telephotograph (left) and his highlighting (right), of the depiction of the Shroud's reversed `3', or epsilon (ε), forehead bloodstain [see below] in the c.1150 Chartres Cathedral stained glass window, "the crucifixion panel" (L4)[21]. This is Shroud-like feature 9) in this overall "window of the Passion and Resurrection" (see above) ogival stained glass window in the west wall of Chartres Cathedral.]

The original of this reversed `3', or epsilon (ε), bloodstain is found on the forehead of the man on the Shroud (see below). So this depiction of

[Above (enlarge): The reversed `3', or epsilon (ε), and other bloodstains on the forehead and scalp of the man on the Shroud[22]. These bloodstains match the pattern of punctures by a crown (or rather cap) of thorns [see 08Sep13c].]

the Shroud's reversed `3' bloodstain at the exact same location on the face of Jesus in this c.1150 "the crucifixion panel" stained glass window in Chartres Cathedral, is yet another proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroud already existed in at least 1150, and therefore the mediaeval ... AD 1260-1390" radiocarbon date of the Shroud[23] was, and is, wrong!

Continuing with my Google Translation of Prof. Falcinelli's paper, "Testimonianze sindoniche a Chartres-Torino 1998" ("Shroud testimonies in Chartres-Turin 1998"):

"The working hypothesis that I formulate, and which I offer to the competence of historians, is the following: it is possible that, given the date of manufacture of the window in question (1150) and the visit to Constantinople by King Louis VII of France (1147), there is one relationship between this and the `model' Shroud? We believe that the hypothesis is not farfetched and that deserves further study"[24].
King Louis VII of France (r. 1137-80), enroute to Jerusalem on the Second Crusade (1147–49), stopped over at Constantinople in 1147 [see "1147a"], where he was entertained lavishly by the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (r.1143-80)[25]. The Emperor took Louis to the Blachernae palace where he was shown the Shroud and venerated it[26]. Louis was both "well-learned and exceptionally devout"[27], and given the Byzantines prohibition of literal depictions of the Shroud image[28], the short timeframe (1149-51), and that stained glass windows originated in medieval Europe in the 10th century[29], not Constantinople, it seems that Louis must have remembered the features he saw on the Shroud and on his return to France in 1149[30], had them depicted in these Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows.

Falcinelli next presents the "anointing panel" (below) in support of

[Above (enlarge): Photograph of "the anointing panel" (L5), in the Window of the Passion and Resurrection, Chartres Cathedral[31].]

his "working hypothesis" (above):

"In the anointing panel we find further and surprising confirmations to our thesis. Under the gaze of Mary and John, Joseph of Arimathea, left bare-headed and Nicodemus on the right, they lay Jesus on a stone slab supported by four columns. One of the central characters holds a yellow cup and anoints the body of Christ with one mixture of aloe and myrrh. The arms of Jesus are unequivocally crossed, on the pubic region, like the Shroud man (the right arm on the left) and not thumbs are visible. Even the facial appearance has obvious references to the Shroud"[32].
Shroud-like features in this "anointing panel" above, mentioned by Falcinelli, include: 10) Jesus' arms are crossed at the wrists, right over left, covering his pubic region; 11) His thumbs are not visible; and 12) Jesus' face has long hair and a forked beard. A shroud-like feature in this "anointing panel" not mentioned by Falcinelli, is: 13) Jesus is naked under his burial shroud. I have double-counted some of these because they are on different panels and the sceptical alternative presumably is that these are merely chance features, not based on any original model. Therefore there are at least thirteen (13) unusual features on these three Chartres Cathedral stained glass window panels, dating from c.1150, that are found on the Shroud. One of these, Shroud-like feature 9), the reversed `3', or epsilon (ε), forehead bloodstain (above), is too specific to be explained away by Shroud sceptics as merely a chance similarity.

Falcinelli concluded his paper by comparing these Shroud-like features in Chartres Cathedral's stained glass windows and other 12th century artworks:

"The iconography of this panel would seem to anticipate chronologically, as regards the Shroud references, the similar one of the Pray manuscript of Budapest which dates back to 1192. Significant iconic references similar have been reported by Prof. Gino Zaninotto [c.1936-2016] about a sketch a drawn pen, by an artist from Saxony, between the years 1230-1240 in a book kept in the Wolfenbuttel Library. In 1991 the prof. [sic] Ian Wilson proposed an interesting recording Byzantine ivory, with Shroud elements, dating back to the eleventh century. The iconographic similarities between the window of Chartres and the manuscript Pray are therefore evident and reveal a common model identifiable with the Shroud of Turin. So far I have not been able to check if even in the panel of the anointing, on the Christ's forehead, there exists the blood stream in the form of three like on the crucifix panel"[33].

Shroud-like features in common between the Pray manuscript [or codex] (1192-95) (below) and these Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows (c.1151) include: 1) Jesus hands are crossed, at the wrists,

[Above (enlarge): "The Entombment" (upper) and "Visit to the Sepulchre" (lower) in fol. 28 of the Hungarian Pray Codex (1192-95)[34].]

right over left. 2) His hands and fingers are abnormally long. 3) Jesus' thumbs are not visible. 4) There is a red mark of the same angle and location on Jesus' forehead, as the reversed `3' bloodstain on the Shroudman's forehead [see 04Oct18b]. 5) Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud [see 23Sep17].

In another of the Pray Codex's four drawings, fol. 28v (below),

[Above (enlarge): "Christ enthroned with the Angel Holding the Instruments of Torture": fol. 28v of the Pray Codex[35].]

Shroud-like features also in these Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows (c.1151) include: 6) The nail wound in Jesus' right hand is in his wrist, while its counterpart in the other hand (hidden on the Shroud) is in Jesus' palm (as per Christian tradition).

On 8 December I emailed Prof. Falcinelli, asking if he could email me a photograph of this Shroud-like sketch by an artist from Saxony, dated 1230-1240, in a book kept in the Wolfenbuttel [Herzog August] Library. Yesterday (13 December) I received an email from Prof. Falcinelli, apologising for his late response and that he will send me the photograph in few days[36]. When I receive this photograph, I will add it to this post, and if it is after I have started another post, I will add it here in the background and post a note near the top of that current post, with a link to the photograph in this post.

Below is the "Byzantine ivory, with Shroud elements, dating back to the eleventh century," which Falcinelli referred to above. Shroud-like

[Above (enlarge): "Scenes from the Passion of Christ"[37]. Part of a larger carved ivory, late 11th/early 12th century [see "c.1090"] Byzantine icon[38], in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London[39].]

features in this part of a late 11th/early 12th century Byzantine icon include: 1) Jesus' arms are crossed awkwardly at the wrists, right over left, covering His pubic region. 2) He is wrapped in a double-length shroud which may have a herringbone weave. 3) Jesus' hands and fingers are abnormally long. 4) No thumbs are visible.

In the absence of the Shroud-like sketch by an artist from Saxony, dated 1230-1240, in the Wolfenbuttel Library (see above), I have added

[Above (enlarge)[40]: Entombment of Jesus scene, part of the Verdun Altar, Klosterneuburg Monastery, made in 1181 by Nicholas of Verdun (1130–1205)[41]. The three concentric circles represent `portholes' in Jerusalem's Church of the Holy Sepulchre, from the 12th to the 15th century, so that pilgrims could see through them to where Jesus' body had been laid[42].]

the enamel panel entombment scene, by Nicholas of Verdun, dated 1181, in the altar in the Klosterneuburg monastery, near Vienna[43]. Shroud-like features in common between this 1181 altar panel and the above c.1151 Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows include: 1) Jesus hands are crossed, at the wrists, right over left. 2) His hands and fingers are abnormally long. 3) His thumbs are not visible. 4) There is a nail wound in Jesus' right wrist, while the wound in His left hand is covered by His right hand. 5) The reversed `3' bloodstain on Jesus' forehead is represented by a tuft of hair. 6. Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud.

The table below summarises the above features in common between

[Above (enlarge): Features in common between the Shroud and Shroud-like 12th century depictions of Jesus, including the above Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows, as a test of Falcinelli's hypothesis (above) that these features in common are best explained by them all having been based on the one "model": the Shroud.]

the Shroud and the above Chartres Cathedral and other Shroud-like 12th century depictions of Jesus. As can be seen above, all four twelfth century depictions of Jesus above, shared four features in common with the Shroud: 1) Hands are crossed awkwardly at the wrists, over the public region. 2) Abnormally long hands and fingers. 3) No thumbs are visible. And 5) The burial shroud is double body length. And three of the four have a depiction of the Shroud's reversed `3' bloodstain, the Victoria and Albert ivory being the exception.

Since the Shroud first appeared in undisputed history at Lirey, France in the mid-14th century, sceptics cannot claim that these depictions of Jesus were copied from the Shroud in the 12th century. So the only remaining sceptical alternatives to Falcinelli's hypothesis would seem to be that either: a) each 12th century depiction was copied from an earlier 12th century one. But not only is there is no evidence of that, they are in different countries, stylistically they are very different from each other, and the Pray Codex for one was unknown even in Hungary until it was discovered by György Pray (1723-1801) in 1770 [see 21Aug18]. The only sceptical alternative left would seem to be that these features in common between the Shroud and these four 12th century depictions of Jesus are the result of chance. But not only are there 24 features including the Shroud ((5 x 5) -1), which means the total improbability of 24 independent events would be astronomical; the reversed `3' bloodstain on the Chartres Cathedral crucifixion panel above and on the Pray Codex (below) are too specific to be reasonably

[Above: The Shroud Man's face (left)[44] compared with that of the Pray Codex (above - rotated right 90 degrees). The red mark on Jesus' forehead is exactly where the `reversed 3' bloodstain on the Shroud is, and like it it is angled in a `northeast-southwest' direction!]

explained away as merely the result of chance. Based on the above features in common between the Shroud and these 12th century depictions of Jesus, at least thirteen features in common between the Shroud and the above three c.1150 Chartres Cathedral stained glass window panels (see above), and in the absence of any viable sceptical alternative, Prof. Falcinelli's hypothesis (above), that the Shroud was the original model for these Chartres Cathedral, and other 12th century depictions of Jesus, is therefore confirmed!

Which means the Shroud was already in existence in the middle of the 12th century. The "middle of the [12th] century" is what the late Hungarian art historian Ilona Berkovits (1904-86) noted was likely to have been the date of the "miniatures," i.e. drawings, in the Pray Codex, including those above based on the Shroud:

"The Pray Manuscript was prepared at Boldva in the ancient Benedictine monastery. Its date is considered to be the end of the 12th century, between 1192 and 1195, but the style of its miniatures shows resemblance to the art associated with the middle of the century"[45].
As already pointed out above, this is more than a century before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! And, as Ian Wilson observed, "there should be no evidence of our Shroud" before 1260:
"Looking back in time from 1204, we are in a period in which, if the radiocarbon dating is to be believed, there should be no evidence of our Shroud. The year 1260 was the earliest possible date for the Shroud's existence by radiocarbon dating's calculations" (my emphasis)[46].
Both the "Byzantine curve" in the "crucifixion panel" (above), and King Louis VII's viewing of the Shroud in Constantinople in 1147 (above), confirm yet again that the Shroud was in Constantinople in the 12th century.

But then, as I pointed out in my "Open letter to Professor Christopher Ramsey" (sent 6 November 2018), the Shroud, as the Image of Edessa ("four-doubled" - tetradiplon), had arrived in Constantinople from Edessa in 944 [see "944b"], more than three centuries (~316 years) before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud [see 04Oct18c]! Moreover, before that the Image/Shroud had been continuously in Edessa since 544 [see "544"], that is more than seven centuries (~716 years) before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud [see 04Oct18d]! I concluded my "Open letter to Professor Christopher Ramsey":

"... as we have seen ... the Shroud of Turin existed not just 65 years [Pray Codex], nor only 316 years, but at least 716 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! Therefore, the 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud of Turin must be wrong and cannot be salvaged" [04Oct18e]
I therefore respectfully requested that Professor Ramsey:
"... commence a process of consultation with your relevant colleagues. The result of which will be a joint communication to Nature advising that the 1260-1390 date of the Shroud in its 16 February 1989 paper, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," must be wrong, since it conflicts with the overwhelming weight of the historical and artistic evidence, and that therefore the paper be retracted"[04Oct18f].
I both emailed and airmailed my open letter to Prof. Ramsey on 6 November, so he must have received it. But to date, nearly 6 weeks later, I have had no response from Prof. Ramsey.

Notes:
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Email, "My studies on Shroud\Chartres," from Roberto Falcinelli, 28 November 2018, 2:15 am. [return]
3. Morgan, R., 1999, "Editorial," Shroud News, No 114, June, pp.2 & 13. [return]
4. Falcinelli, R., 1998, "Shroud testimonies in Chartres-Turin 1998," Academia.edu, pp.1-12, 2. [return]
5. Geoffrion, J., 2018, "Praying with Stained Glass Windows," Pray with Jill at Chartres. [return]
6. Falcinelli, 1998, p.2. [return]
7. Geoffrion, 2018. [return]
8. Email, "My studies on Shroud\Chartres," from Roberto Falcinelli, 30 November 2018, 6:03 am. [return]
9. "Chartres Cathedral: Earlier buildings and the west façade," Wikipedia, 24 November 2018. [return]
10. "Chartres Cathedral: World War II," Wikipedia, 24 November 2018; "Welborn Griffith," Wikipedia, 8 November 2018. [return]
11. Falcinelli, 1998, p.9. [return]
12. Falcinelli, 1998, p.3. [return]
13. Falcinelli, 1998, p.4. [return]
14. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.64; Brent, P. & Rolfe, D., 1978, "The Silent Witness: The Mysteries of the Turin Shroud Revealed," Futura Publications: London, p.46; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.42; Morgan, R.H., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.103; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, pp.24-25; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 24; Bucklin, R, 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: A Pathologist's Viewpoint," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.271-279, 274; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.59; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.37; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.22; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, pp.94, 234-235; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.145. [return]
15. Barnes, 1934, p.64; Borkan, 1995, p.24; Antonacci, 2000, p.32. [return]
16. Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Horizontal" (rotated left 90°), Sindonology.org. [return]
17. Barnes, 1934, p.68; O'Connell, P. & Carty, C., 1974, "The Holy Shroud and Four Visions," TAN: Rockford IL, p.6; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1993, "Shrouded in Mystery," Shroud News, No 76, April, pp.14-21, 16; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.13, 195-196; Tribbe, 2006, p.234. [return]
18. Barnes, 1934, pp.67-68; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.195. [return]
19. Barbet, P., 1953, "A Doctor at Calvary," [1950], Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, Reprinted, 1963, p.86; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.45; Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, pp.283-311, 285; Cruz, J.C., 1984, "Relics: The Shroud of Turin, the True Cross, the Blood of Januarius. ..: History, Mysticism, and the Catholic Church," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.51; Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.53; Borkan, 1995, p.27; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.114. [return]
20. Falcinelli, 1998, p.4. [return]
21. File "Chartres-Schema volto1.JPG", emailed to me by Roberto Falcinelli, 28 November 2018, 2:15 am. [return]
22. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Face Only Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
23. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615, 611. [return]
24. Falcinelli, 1998, p.4. [return]
25. "Second Crusade: French route," Wikipedia, 3 December 2018. [return]
26. Ricci, G., 1981, "The Holy Shroud," Center for the Study of the Passion of Christ and the Holy Shroud: Milwaukee WI, p.xxxv; Crispino, D.C., 1983, "Louis I, Duke of Savoy," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 7, June, pp.7-13, 12; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.178; Iannone, 1998, p.120; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.58; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.7; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.40; Fanti, G. & Malfi, P., 2015, "The Shroud of Turin: First Century after Christ!," Pan Stanford: Singapore, p.55. [return]
27. "Louis VII of France: Early years," Wikipedia, 29 November 2018. [return]
28. de Wesselow, 2012, pp.180-181. [return]
29. "Medieval stained glass," Wikipedia, 16 July 2018. [return]
30. "Louis VII of France: Early years," Wikipedia, 29 November 2018. [return]
31. File "CHARTRES 2.jpg," emailed to me by Roberto Falcinelli, 28 November 2018, 2:15 am. [return]
33. Falcinelli, 1998, pp.4-5. [return]
34. Berkovits, I., 1969, "Illuminated Manuscripts in Hungary, XI-XVI Centuries," Horn, Z., transl., West, A., rev., Irish University Press: Shannon, Ireland, pl. III. [return]
35. Berkovits, 1969, pl. IV (cropped). [return]
36. Email, "Re[2]: Can you email me a photo of the "sketch a drawn pen, by an artist from Saxony, between the years 1230-1240 in a book kept in the Wolfenbuttel Library"?," from Roberto Falcinelli, 13 December 2018, 6:52 pm. [return]
37. "Scenes from the Passion of Christ; The Crucifixion, the Deposition from the Cross, The Entombment and the Lamentation," Victoria and Albert Museum, London. [return]
38. Wilson, 1998, p.147. [return]
39. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.160; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.151; Wilson, 1998, pp.147, 270. [return]
40. Biddle, M., 1999, "The Tomb of Christ," Sutton Publishing: Stroud UK, p.38. [return]
41. "Klosterneuburg Monastery: Verdun Altar," Wikipedia, 30 October 2018. [return]
42. Biddle, 1999, p.38; Wilson, I., 2008, "II: Nicholas of Verdun: Scene of the Entombment, from the Verdun altar in the monastery of Klosterneuburg, near Vienna," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 67, June. [return]
43. Wilson. & Schwortz, 2000, p.115; Wilson, 2008; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.182-183. [return]
44. Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Face Only Vertical". [return]
46. Wilson, 1998, p.141. [return]

Posted: 29 November 2018. Updated: 28 January 2019.