Thursday, July 27, 2017

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Eleventh century

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #11, "Eleventh century," of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. See also 04May14 and 11May14. For more information about this series see part #1, "1st century and Index." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Index #1] [Previous: 10th century #10] [Next: 12th century (1) #12]

11th century (1001-1100).

[Above (enlarge): "Scenes from the Passion of Christ"[2]. Part of a larger carved ivory panel in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London[3]. Note that Jesus' arms are crossed awkwardly at the wrists, right over left, over His loins[4], exactly as they are on the Shroud[5]. And Jesus is lying on a double-length cloth[6] which has a repeating pattern of Xs similar to those in icons of the Image of Edessa (i.e. the Shroud "doubled in four" = tetradiplon) and hinting at the Shroud's herringbone weave[7]. Yet this is a late 11th/early 12th century Byzantine icon[8], an early example of the genre which the Byzantine Greeks called Threnos[9], or Lamentation, the main feature of which is Jesus wrapped in a large cloth compatible with today's Turin Shroud[10]. [See "c.1090" below]. This alone is proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroud already existed more than a century before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud!]

c. 1001a The Russian Orthodox cross uniquely has a footrest, or suppedaneum[11], angled with the left side higher than the right[12].

[Right (enlarge): Russian cross with angled footrest, late 12th century[13].

This matches the Shroud, in that the man on the Shroud's left leg (which when facing the Shroud appears to be his right leg because of mirror reversal[14]), appears to be shorter than the other[15].

This is due to his left foot having been superimposed over his right[16], and both feet fixed by a single nail[17]. The man's left leg was therefore bent more and remained fixed in that position after death by rigor mortis[18].

[Left (enlarge): The man on the Shroud's apparent right leg (left leg because of mirror reversal) appears to be shorter than his right[19].]

This presumably is the source of the 11th century Byzantine legend that Jesus actually had one leg shorter than the other and therefore was lame[20].

As this form of the cross is universal among the Russians[21] it must date from near the beginning of the national conversion to Christianity, when missionaries in 988 came from Constantinople[22] bringing a copy of the full-length Shroud, in `icon evangelism'[23].

c. 1001b Closely related to the Russian cross is the "Byzantine curve"

[Right (enlarge): "Byzantine Crucifix of Pisa," ca. 1230[24]. Note that Christ's right leg (corresponding to the Shroud's left leg) is shorter than the other leg and His body is curved (the "Byzantine curve") to compensate.]

in Byzantine Christian iconography[25]. After the year 1000, a striking change occurred in Byzantine depictions of Christ on the Cross[26]. Christ's two feet were nailed separately at the same level but his left leg is bent (based presumably on the Byzantines realising that the Shroud's image is laterally inverted) which meant that Jesus' body needed to curve to His right to compensate[27]. This "Byzantine curve" became the established form of Eastern depictions of Christ at the beginning of the eleventh century and made its way also into the West and became the recognized form in Italy in the early mediaeval period[28]. As with the strange design of the Russian cross, so this strange belief that Jesus had to have a curved body on the Shroud because one leg was shorter than the other and the Romans would have crucified Jesus' feet at the same level[29], has its most likely common origin in the Shroud[30]. But then again that means the Shroud was known in the Byzantine world (the centre of which was Constantinople), soon after the year 1000, nearly three centuries before 1260, the earliest possible radiocarbon date of the Shroud[31]!

1011 Pope Sergius IV (r. 1009-12) consecrates an altar in Rome dedicated to the sudarium[32]. This is thought to be a reference to the coming to Rome of its Veil of Veronica[33], which was purported to be

[Above (original): Excerpt from a poor quality distance photograph of Rome's Veronica icon[34], which the Vatican now refuses to allow to be seen or photographed up close because it has so deteriorated[35].]

an imprint of Jesus' face on the veil of a Jerusalem woman named Veronica who supposedly wiped Jesus' bloody and sweaty face with it as He was being led to the site of His crucifixion[36]. But there is no mention of that in the Gospel accounts (Mt 27:31-35; Mk 15:20-25; Lk 23:26-33; Jn 19:16-18)[37]. That there never was a woman called Veronica is evident in the name itself, which is a compound of Latin vera "true" + Greek eikon "image") = "true image"[38]. The Veronica's veil legends seem to have arisen in 7th and 8th centuries, when knowledge of the Edessa Cloth/Shroud image had become widespread[39]. In the early twentieth century, Joseph Wilpert (1857-1944), a German Catholic priest and archaeologist, examined the Vatican's Veronica icon in St Peter's Basilica and found on it brown stains but no clear image[40]. Similarly, Hungarian artist Isabel Piczek (1927–2016) in 1946, when still a teenager, was surprisingly shown the Veronica in St. Peter's, and as she described it:

"On it was a head-size patch of colour, about the same as the [Turin] shroud, slightly more brownish. By patch, I do not mean that it was patched, just a blob of a brownish rust colour. It looked almost even, except for some little swirly discolorations ... Even with the best imagination, you could not make any face or features out of them, not even the slightest hint of it"[41].
Earlier artists' copies of the Veronica icon indicate it was a copy of the face on the Cloth of Edessa/Shroud[42] specially made for Rome shortly before the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches went their separate ways[43]. Indeed, when Makarios of Magnesia, c. 410, retold the Veronica legend, he called her a "Princess of Edessa"[44]! This supports my proposal that, "the Veronica story" may be "a contemporary parallel to [or even earlier than] the Abgar V story of Jesus wiping his face on a towel [see "50"], to explain how Jesus' image came to be on the Image of Edessa (the Shroud tetradiplon = `four-doubled')" (see my 06Mar17). It has been claimed that Rome's Veronica icon disappeared when the troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (r. 1519-1556) mutinied and sacked Rome and the Vatican in 1527[45]. But in 1616-17 six official faithful "tone for tone, blotch for blotch" copies of the Veronica in St Peter's were commissioned by Pope Paul V (r. 1605-1621) to be painted by an amateur artist who was also a canon of St Peter's, Pietro Strozzi[46]. And at least three of Strozzi's copies have survived: "The Holy Face of Vienna," "The Holy Face of San Silvestro," and "The Holy Face of Genoa" (see my 03Sep12)[47]. So this 1527 looted Veronica was evidently only one of the many copies of that icon[48].

c. 1050a The mid-eleventh-century Old French "Life of Saint Alexis"[49], the first masterpiece of French literature, contains the passage:

"Then he [Alexis of Rome (d.412)] went off to the city of Edessa Because of an image he had heard tell of, which the angels made at God's commandment"[50]

[Left: Miniature and text of the "Chanson de St Alexis" or "Vie de St Alexis," in the St. Albans Psalter (c. 1120-1145)[51].]

As philologist Linda Cooper has shown in a scholarly paper[52], the "image" referred to is the Image of Edessa, and from the various versions of St. Alexis's life it is clear that this was the Shroud[53]. See ["977"] for a 10th century "Life of St. Alexis" which used the word "sindon," the same word used in the Gospels for Jesus' burial shroud[54] (Mt 27:59; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53)!

c. 1050b Eleventh-century mosaic bust of Christ Pantocrator, i.e. "Ruler of all"[55], in the narthex of the catholicon church (c. 1010) within the Hosios Loukas monastery[56] near the town of Distomo, Greece[57].

[Right (enlarge): Christ Pantocrator, c. 1050, Hosios Loukas monastery, Greece[58].]

The late art historian, Professor Kurt Weitzmann (1904-93), who specialised in Byzantine and medieval art[59], noted that this icon had facial "subtleties" similar to the sixth-century Christ Pantocrator icon portrait in St. Catherine's monastery, Sinai[60] [see "550"]. In particular Prof. Weitzmann noted:

"...the pupils of the eyes are not at the same level; the eyebrow over Christ's left eye is arched higher than over his right ... one side of the mustache droops at a slightly different angle from the other, while the beard is combed in the opposite direction ... Many of these subtleties remain attached to this particular type of Christ image and can be seen in later copies, e.g. the mosaic bust in the narthex of Hosios Lukas over the entrance to the catholicon ... Here too the difference in the raising of the eyebrows is most noticeable ..."[61].

Those facial "subtleties" that Prof. Weitzmann noted were "attached to this particular type of Christ image and can be seen in later copies" are Vignon markings (see 11Feb12) which are all found on the Shroud (see below)!

[Above (enlarge): Positive photograph of the Shroud face, with Vignon markings numbers 1-15 superimposed[61a].

1075 On 14 March 1075 the ark or chest (Arca Santa) in which the

[Above (enlarge)[62]: The Holy Chest (or Arca Santa) in which the Sudarium was transported from Jerusalem in 614[63], via Alexandria[64], to Cartagena and Seville in Spain in 616[65]; taken to the Monastery of San Vicente near Oviedo in 761[66], deposited in the Holy Chamber (Camara Santa), which is within today's Oviedo Cathedral, by King Alfonso II (r. 783, 791-842) in c.812[67], opened by Bishop Ponce (1025–1028) in 1030[68] and again opened by King Alfonso IV (1040–1109) in 1075[69].]

Sudarium of Oviedo was kept was officially opened in the presence of King Alfonso VI (r. 1077-1109), his sister Doña Urraca (c.1033–1101), Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (c. 1040–1099) (aka El Cid) and a number of bishops[70]. This official act was recorded in a document which is now kept in the archives of the cathedral in Oviedo[71]. But as we saw

[Above (enlarge): "Comparison of the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin"[72]. "The most striking thing about all the stains [on the Sudarium of Oviedo] is that they coincide exactly with the face of the image on the Turin Shroud."[73].]

in ["614"], the bloodstains on the face and back of the head of the Sudarium of Oviedo are so similar in appearance to those on the corresponding parts of the Shroud, that the two cloths must have been in contact with the same wounded body within the same short time period[74]. And since the Sudarium has been in Spain since the early seventh century, and certainly since 1075, this is further evidence that the "mediaeval ... AD 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud[75] was wrong[76]!

c. 1080 Eleventh-century Christ Pantocrator mosaic in the dome of the monastery church of Daphni near Athens, Greece[77]. It has 13

[Left (enlarge): Christ Pantocrator mosaic from Daphni, Greece[78].]

of the 15 Vignon markings[79]. Some of the markings (for example, the three-sided, or topless square) are stylized having been rendered more naturalistic by a very competent artist[80].

c. 1087 The Pantocrator in the apse of Sant'Angelo in Formis church, near Capua, Italy, had previously been cited by Wilson and others to have been tenth century, which I had followed. But according to Wikipedia, the "church was built in the eleventh century by Desiderius, the abbot of Monte Cassino," who became Pope Victor III (c. 1026–1087)[81]:

"The church was built in the eleventh century by Desiderius, the abbot of Monte Cassino ... the decoration was carried out by Byzantine (Greek) artists hired from Constantinople and the decoration of Sant'Angelo displays a mingling of the Byzantine (Eastern) and Latin (Western) traditions. The frescos were painted by Greek artists and by Italian pupils trained in their methods"[82].
This "Christ enthroned" fresco[83] has 14 out of the 15 Vignon

[Above (enlarge): Extract of Christ's face which is part of a larger 11th century fresco in the church of St. Angelo in Formis, Capua, Italy[84].]

markings that are on the Shroud[85], many of which are just incidental blemishes on the cloth[86]. These include:

"... a transverse line across the forehead, a raised right eyebrow, an upside-down triangle at the bridge of the nose, heavily delineated lower eyelids, a strongly accentuated left cheek, a strongly accentuated right cheek, and a hairless gap between the lower lip and beard ..."[87].

One of these, the upside-down triangle at the bridge of the nose (VM 3)[88] is particularly important because it has no logic as a natural

[Above (enlargee): Upside-down triangle at the bridge of the nose on the Shroud, just below the base of the `topless square'[89].]

feature of the face, yet it recurs on several other pre-1260 depictions of Jesus' face, for example, the eleventh-century mosaic Pantocrator in the dome of the church at Daphni, near Athens (see above enlarged), where, being a mosaic, pieces of black material have been specially selected and arranged into the shape of a triangle[90].

c. 1090 Late eleventh/early twelfth century Byzantine ivory of the threnos (Greek for lamentation) scenes of Jesus (see above and right for context). This is an example of a dramatic change in depictions of Jesus' burial which began about the beginning of the eleventh century[91].

[Right (original): Full carved ivory panel in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London[92], showing scenes of: crucifixion (top), deposition (middle) and burial threnos (bottom).]

Before the eleventh century Jesus had been traditionally depicted as being buried wrapped in linen strips like an Egyptian mummy[93]. But from the early eleventh century, in threnos (lamentation) burial scenes[94], Jesus' began to be be depicted lying full-length[95] in front of the Cross as the central figure[96] and His body about to be enveloped in a double full-length white shroud[97]. In these depictions Jesus' right hand is crossed over the left at the wrists as it is on the Shroud[98]. This sudden new artistic development coincides with the discovery after the Image of Edessa arrived in Constantinople in 944 [see "944b"] that behind its face panel was the full-length Shroud "doubled in four" (tetradiplon)[99].

1092 A letter dated 1092 purporting to be from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081 to 1118) (aka Alexius I Comnenus) to Robert II of Flanders (c.1065- 1111)[100]. In the letter

[Left (enlarge): Portrait of Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (1056-1118), from a Greek manuscript[101].]

the Emperor appealed for help to prevent Constantinople falling into the hands of the pagans[102]. The letter listed the relics "of the Lord" in Constantinople including, "the linen cloths [linteamina] found in the sepulchre after his Resurrection"[103]. Although historians regard the letter as a forgery[104], it may not be, since Robert had made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1086 and had spent some time with Alexius I in Constantinople, and there is no reason why the two had not remained in touch[105]. Besides, even if Alexius I did not write the letter, this need not invalidate its description of the relics which were then in the imperial collection[106]. See below on the appeal by the same Emperor for Western help to prevent Anatolia from falling into the hands of Muslim forces.

1095 Start of the First Crusade (1095–1099) which sought to regain the Holy Land taken in the Muslim conquests of the Levant (632–661)[107]. The crusade was called for by Pope Urban II (r. 1088-1099), in response to an appeal by Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081 to 1118) who requested western help to repel the invading Seljuk Turks from Anatolia[108]. See above on the 1092 appeal by the same Emperor for Western help to prevent Constantinople from falling into the hands of Muslim forces. The crusade climaxed in the recapture of Jerusalem in 1099[109]. In 1098 Edessa was captured by Christian forces under Baldwin of Boulogne (1058-1118) who became the first ruler of the County of Edessa and then the first King of Jerusalem (r. 1098–1100)[110].

[Right (enlarge): "Baldwin of Boulogne entering Edessa in February 1098," by J. Robert-Fleury (1840)[111].]

Edessa became an important part of the Crusader presence in the Middle East[112] until its recapture by Muslim forces in 1144[113]. [See "1144"]. An important consequence for Shroud history of the Christian capture of Edessa in the First Crusade is that Byzantine texts about Edessa became better known in the West[114]. Among these were the Abgar story[115] [See "c.1130"].

c. 1100 Late eleventh century portable mosaic, "Christ the Merciful"[116], in the former Ehemals Staatliche Museum[117], now Bodemuseum, Berlin.

[Left (enlarge): "Christ the Merciful" mosaic icon (1100-1150) in the Bodemuseum, Berlin[118].]

By my count this icon has 12 (1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15) of the 15 Vignon markings including a wisp of hair where the reversed `3' bloodflow is on the Shroud, a topless square, wide open staring eyes, a forked beard and a line across the throat, but they are more stylized[119].


"... if the radiocarbon dating is to be believed, there should be no evidence of our Shroud [before 1260]. The year 1260 was the earliest possible date for the Shroud's existence by radiocarbon dating's calculations. Yet artistic likenesses of Jesus originating well before 1260 can be seen to have an often striking affinity with the face on the Shroud ..."[120].
Continued in the next part #12 of this series.

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page.[return]
2. "Scenes from the Passion of Christ; The Crucifixion, the Deposition from the Cross, The Entombment and the Lamentation," Victoria and Albert Museum, London. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.160; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.151; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.147, 270. [return]
4. Wilson, 1979, p.160. [return]
5. Wilson, 1991, p.151; Wilson, 1998, p.270; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.183. [return]
6. Wilson, 1991, p.151. [return]
7. Scavone, D.C., 1999, "Greek Epitaphoi and Other Evidence for the Shroud in Constantinople up to 1204," in Walsh, B., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.204-205. [return]
8. Wilson, 1998, p.147. [return]
9. Wilson, 1991, p.151; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.195. [return]
10. Wilson, 2010, p.182. [return]
11. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.47. [return]
12. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.65. [return]
13. The Adoration of the Cross," Second half of the 12th century, "Christian Art: Icons, Murals, Mosaics," The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia, 2 April 2014. [return]
14. Barnes, 1934, p.64. [return]
15. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.196. [return]
16. Ibid. [return]
17. Barnes, 1934, p.64. [return]
18. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.196. [return]
19. Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical". [return]
20. Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.111. [return]
21. Barnes, 1934, p.65. [return]
22. Barnes, 1934, pp.65-66. [return]
23. Wilson, 2010, pp.136-137, 151-152. [return]
24. "Byzantine Master of the Crucifix of Pisa," Wikipedia, 14 April 2017. [return]
25. Barnes, 1934, p.66. [return]
26. Barnes, 1934, pp.66-67. [return]
27. Barnes, 1934, p.67. [return]
28. Barnes, 1934, pp.67-68. [return]
30. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.195. [return]
29. Barnes, 1934, p.68. [return]
31. Wilson, 1998, p.141. [return]
32. Wilson, 1998, p.269; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.7; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.37. [return]
33. Bulst, 1957, p.40; Wilson, 1979, p.109. [return]
34. "St. Peter's Basilica: St Veronica Statue," February 6, 2010. [return]
35. Bulst, 1957, p.41; Wilson, 1991, pp.183-187; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 1998, p.63. [return]
36. Wilson, 1979, pp.97, 106; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, pp.25-26; Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee ofork NY, pp.265-266; Wilson, 1991, p.25; Guerrera, 2001, p.7; Oxley, 2010, p.36. [return]
37. Bulst, 1957, p.12; Guerrera, 2001, p.7. [return]
38. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, pp.25-26; Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, 1983, p.71; Cruz, J.C., 1984, "Relics: The Shroud of Turin, the True Cross, the Blood of Januarius. ..: History, Mysticism, and the Catholic Church," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.53; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.191; Ruffin, 1999, p.59; Guerrera, 2001, p.7. [return]
39. Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, pp.283-311, 287; .287; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 50. [return]
40. Bulst, 1957, p.41; Antonacci, 2000, p.265; Oxley, 2010, p.37. [return]
41. Wilson, 1991, p.185. [return]
42. Bulst, 1957, p.40. [return]
43. Borkan, 1995, p.35; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.191; Wilson, 1998, pp.269-270. [return]
44. Scavone, 1991, p.195. [return]
45. Wilson, 1979, p.107; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.129; Antonacci, 2000, p.265; Oxley, 2010, p.37. [return]
46. Wilson, 1991, pp.106-113; Oxley, 2010, p.37. [return]
47. Wilson, 1991, pp.111-114. [return]
48. Wilson, 1991, p.47; Antonacci, 2000, p.265; Bennett, 2001, p.87. [return]
49. Bauer, B.L.M. & Slocum, J., 2013, "Old French Online: Lesson 3," Linguistics Research Center in The College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at Austin, 11 December. [return]
50. Wilson, I., 1987, "Recent Publications," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter 16, May, p.14. [return]
51. "St. Albans Psalter," Wikipedia, 1 July 2017. [return]
52. Cooper, L., 1986, "The Old French Life of Saint Alexis and the Shroud of Turin," Modern Philology, Vol. 84, No. 1, August, pp.1-17. [return]
53. Wilson, 1987, p.14. [return]
54. Wilson, 1998, p.269. [return]
55. Ruffin, 1999, p.110; Zodhiates, S., 1992, "The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament," AMG Publishers: Chattanooga TN, Third printing, 1994, pp.1093-1094. [return]
56. "Hosios Loucas (Stiris)," Pausanias Project, January 5, 2015. [return]
57. "Hosios Loukas," Wikipedia, 15 June 2017. [return]
58. Ibid. [return]
59. "Kurt Weitzmann," Wikipedia, 1 May 2017. [return]
60. Wilson, 1986, p.107. [return]
61. Weitzmann, K., 1976, "The Monastery of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai: The Icons," Princeton University Press: Princeton NJ, p.15, in Wilson, 1986, p.107. [return]
61a. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Face Only Horizontal (cropped and rotated right 90°), [return]
62. "Arca Santa," Wikipedia, 29 November 2016. [return]
63. Bennett, J., 2001, "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, p.194. [return]
64. Bennett, 2001, p.194. [return]
65. Bennett, 2001, p.194. [return]
66. Bennett, 2001, p.195. [return]
67. Bennett, 2001, p.195. [return]
68. Bennett, 2001, pp.195-196. [return]
69. Bennett, 2001, p.196. [return]
70. Guscin, M., 1998, "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, p.17. [return]
71. Guscin, 1998, p.17. [return]
72. Bennett, 2001, p.122. [return]
73. Guscin, 1998, p.27. [return]
74. Adler, A.D., 1996, "Updating Recent Studies on the Shroud of Turin," in Adler, A.D. & Crispino, D., ed., 2002, "The Orphaned Manuscript: A Gathering of Publications on the Shroud of Turin," Effatà Editrice: Cantalupa, Italy, pp.81-86, 83. [return]
75. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615, 611. [return]
76. Adler, A.D., 2000, "The Shroud Fabric and the Body Image: Chemical and Physical Characteristics," in Adler & Crispino, 2002, pp.113-127, 124. [return]
77. Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.77. [return]
78. "Daphni Monastery," Wikipedia, 7 May 2017. [return]
79. Maher, 1986, p.77. [return]
80. Wilcox, R.K., 1977, "Shroud," Macmillan: New York NY, p.84; Wilson, 1979, p.104. [return]
81. "Pope Victor III," Wikipedia, 25 June 2017. [return]
82. "Sant'Angelo in Formis," Wikipedia, 3 January 2017. [return]
83. Wilson, 1991, p.47. [return]
84. Wilson, 1986, p.110A. [return]
85. Wilson, 1979, p.102. [return]
86. Wilson, 1991, p.47. [return]
87. Wilson, 1991, p.165. [return]
88. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.82e. [return]
89. "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Face Only Vertical". [return]
90. Wilson, 1991, p.165. [return]
91. Morgan, R.H., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.37; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.26. [return]
92. "Scenes from the Passion of Christ," Victoria and Albert Museum, London. [return]
93. Wilson, 1979, pp.158-159; Wilson, 1986, p.114; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, p.79. [return]
94. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.119. [return]
95. Morgan, 1980, p.37. [return]
96. Iannone, 1998, p.119. [return]
97. Adams, 1982, p.27; Iannone, 1998, p.119. [return]
98. Adams, 1982, p.27. [return]
99. Morgan, 1980, pp.37-38. [return]
100. Wilson, 1979, pp.166-167. [return]
101. "Alexios I Komnenos," Wikipedia, 7 August 2017. [return]
102. Ricci, G., 1981, "The Holy Shroud," Center for the Study of the Passion of Christ and the Holy Shroud: Milwaukee WI, p.xxxv; Scavone, D., "The Shroud of Turin in Constantinople: The Documentary Evidence," in Sutton, R.F., Jr., 1989, "Daidalikon: Studies in Memory of Raymond V Schoder," Bolchazy Carducci Publishers: Wauconda IL, pp.311-329, 318. [return]
103. Currer-Briggs, N., 1989, "Letters," BSTS Newsletter, No. 22, May, pp.11-12; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.177. [return]
104. Wilson, 1979, p.314n31. [return]
105. Crispino, D.C., 1989, "Questions in a Quandary," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 31, June, pp.15-19, 17. [return]
106. Wilson, 1979, p.314n31. [return]
107. "First Crusade," Wikipedia, 5 August 2017. [return]
108. Ibid. [return]
109. "Siege of Jerusalem (1099)," Wikipedia, 30 June 2017. [return]
110. "Baldwin I of Jerusalem," Wikipedia, 14 July 2017. [return]
111. "File:Baldwin of Boulogne entering Edessa in Feb 1098.JPG," Wikipedia, 23 March 2017. [return]
112. Oxley, 2010, p.33. [return]
113. "Siege of Edessa," Wikipedia, 12 June 2017. [return]
114. Scavone, D.C., 2002, "Joseph of Arimathea, the Holy Grail and the Edessa Icon," Collegamento pro Sindone, October, pp.1-25, p.6. [return]
115. Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.88. [return]
116. Wilson, 1979, p.160H. [return]
117. Ibid. [return]
118. Mosaic icon, "Christ the Merciful (1100-1150), in Museum of Byzantine Art, Bode Museum, Berlin, Germany: Wikipedia (translated by Google). [return]
119. Wilson, 1979, p.104. [return]
120. Wilson, 1998, p.141. [return]

Posted 27 July 2017. Updated 19 March 2022.

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