Tuesday, November 16, 2021

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twentieth century (1)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #25, "Twentieth century" (1) of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see the Index #1. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. This page was initially based on Ian Wilson's 1996, "Highlights of the Undisputed History: 1900."

[Index #1] [Previous: 19th century #24] [Next: 20th century (2) #26]

20th century (1) (1901-39).

[Above (enlarge)[2]: Sepia print of a negative photograph of the Shroud face taken by Giuseppe Enrie in 1931 [see 1931b below]:

"`Were those the lips that spoke the Sermon on the Mount and the Parable of the Rich Fool?'; `Is this the Face that is to be my judge on the Last Day?'"[3].

1901 November 15. Roman Catholic historian Canon Ulysse Chevalier (1841–1923) receives from the French Academie des Inscriptiones et Belles-Lettres, a gold medal of 1,000 francs for his fraudulent (see "1923" below)[4] monograph, Le Saint Suaire de Turin, est-il l'original ou une copie? ("The Shroud of Turin, is it the original or a copy?") [see 1899] attacking the authenticity of Shroud[5].

1902a April 21 (afternoon), Agnostic anatomy professor Yves Delage

[Right (enlarge)[6]]. From the anatomical details of the Shroud-man's image in Secondo Pia (1855–1941)'s negative photo-graphs, Delage realised that the Shroud could not have been produced by an artist and therefore was Jesus' burial shroud[7]!

(1854–1920), presents a paper on the Shroud to the Academy of Sciences, Paris, arguing for the Shroud's medical and general scientific convincingness, and stating his opinion that it genuinely wrapped the body of Christ[8].

1902b April 21 (evening) Secretary for the physics section of the Academy, Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907), inventor of thermo-chemistry, and a militant atheist, orders Delage to rewrite his paper (for publication in the Comptes rendus de l' Acadmie des Sciences [Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences]) so that it treats only on the vaporography of zinc and makes no allusion to the Shroud or to Christ[9].

1902c April-May. Publication of French biologist and Roman Catholic colleague of Delage, Paul Vignon (1865-1943)'s [Left[10].] important pro-authenticist book, Le linceul du Christ: étude scientifique (Masson et Cie, Paris)[9], followed in the same year by its English translation, "The Shroud of Christ" (Archibald Constable, Westminster)[12].

1903 Publication of English anti-Shroud Jesuit, Fr. Herbert Thurston (1856–1939)'s influential but fraudulent article, "The Holy Shroud and the Verdict of History"[13].

1904a Church historian Adolf von Harnack (1851–1930) realised that in the Liber Pontificalis (Book of the Popes) the request from Lucio Britannio rege that Pope Eleutherus (r. 174-189) send missionaries to his realm, "Britannio" was not Britain as the English historian Bede (c. 673-735) assumed but Britium, short for Britio Edessenorum the

[Above (enlarge)[14]: The ruins of Edessa's citadel, within the modern city of Sanliurfa, Turkey.]

citadel of Edessa (above)[15]. [See "205]." So the King Lucius was not a non-existent 3rd century Christian King Lucius of Britain, but Edessa's King Abgar VIII (r. 177-212), whose full name was King Lucius Aelius Septimius Megas Abgarus VIII[16].

1904b 15 September. Birth to King Victor Emmanuel III (1904-46) and Queen Elena of Montenegro (1873-1952), their only son, Prince Umberto II (1904–83), who would become the last King of Italy, reigning for only 34 days (9 May-12 June 1946)[17].

1912 Fr Herbert Thurston (see above) wrote an article on the Shroud for the Catholic Encyclopedia, the unofficial guidebook of the Catholic faith[18]. In the article, which is still online[19], Thurston presented the false and indeed fraudulent arguments of Canon Chevalier (see above)[20], that the Shroud was a painting, `proved' by the 1389 Memorandum of Bishop Pierre d'Arcis [see "1389e"][21]. Thurston went further and provided his own `scientific' argument (which has been removed from the online article):
"It appears to me quite conceivable that the figure of our Lord may have been originally painted in two different yellows, a bright glazed yellow for the lights and a brownish yellow for the shadows. What chemist would be bold enough to affirm that under the action of time and intense heat (like the fire of 1354 [sic 1532]) the two yellows may not have behaved very differently, the bright yellow blackening, the brown yellow fading?"[42].
But Vignon had already refuted that colour inversion theory in 1902[23]. Neither Thurston nor Chevalier, had never seen the Shroud, and they refused to accept the evidence of those who had, that the Shroud image was not painted[24]. But despite the falsity, and indeed fraudulence, of Thurston's encyclopedia article, very few Catholics, and indeed very few Christians, believed in the Shroud after it appeared[25]. Thurston's article set a seal on the standing of the Shroud in the English speaking world[26]. It wasn't until 1968, fifty-six years later, that Thurston's article was replaced by a balanced, factual one, one written by pro-authenticist, Fr Adam Otterbein (1915-98)[27]. Otterbein concluded his article with:
"There are still many unanswered questions, but the accumulation of evidence from different fields of knowledge presents a formidable argument in favor of authenticity. The rapid progress of science and scholarship has made a new exposition of the shroud advisable"[28].
1914 28 June. Assassination by a Serbian nationalist of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (1863–1914) and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg (1868-1914)[29]. In response, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and Russia entered into an alliance with Serbia[30]. Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy were in their already established Triple Alliance and by July France, Russia and Britain had entered an opposing Triple Entente[31]. By August the two coalitions were at war[32]. Italy decided to stay out of the war on the grounds that Triple Alliance was defensive[33]. However, Italy's real motive was Italian

[Right (enlarge)[34]. "Italian ethnic regions claimed in the 1930s"].

irredentism[35]: completing the unification of Italy by inclusion within it of areas of other countries where ethnic Italians and/or Italian-speaking individuals formed a majority or substantial minority[36].

1915 May 3. Following negotiations with Austria and the Triple Entente (see above) for territorial concessions at the end of the war to fulfil Italy's irrendentist claims, which Austria rejected but the Triple Entente partially accepted, Italy revokes its membership of the Triple Alliance and prepares to declare war against Germany and Austria-Hungary[37].

1918 6 May. In response to the threat of German aerial bombing, the Shroud is removed from Turin's Royal Chapel and taken to Turin's Royal Palace, where it is secretly placed inside a locked strongbox within a strengthened small room two floors below ground level[38]. After the war the Shroud is removed from the strongroom in Turin's Royal Palace and taken to be kept in Turin Cathedral[39].

1920 7 October. Death of Prof. Yves Delage (1854–1920)[40]. "His honesty remains for us a precious souvenir, an example for our days"[41].

"For while he [Yves Delage] did not believe in a divine Christ, he still admitted the historical existence of Jesus, and believed that the marks on the relic had been made by His dead body. In the face of the bitter attacks that followed his bold espousal of the relic's cause, he held to that belief unwaveringly. Such integrity and clarity of mind concerning the two most agitated questions of the day-religion and science-were not exactly common in fin de siecle [end of century] Paris. They are not common today"[42].
1922a 6 February. Achille Ratti (1857–1939), onetime mountaineering companion of Paul Vignon (see above)[43], becomes Pope Pius XI (r. 1922-39)[64]. Ratti was surely the most pro-Shroud Pope ever. In 1931 at the exhibition of the Shroud to mark the wedding of Prince Umberto and Princess Marie Jose of Belgium (1906-2001), he declared:
"We say, not as the Pope, but as a scientist, we have personally followed all examinations of the Shroud and we are persuaded that the Holy Shroud is authentic. All arguments against the authenticity of the Shroud do not hold. In fact, the Holy Shroud alone is sufficient evidence that this linen was not made by human hands"[45].
Ratti saw the Shroud at its 1898 exposition[46] and as Pope he authorised a special 1933 exposition to commemorate 1900 years [sic] since the death and resurrection of Jesus[47].

1922b 31 October. Following the March on Rome (28–30 October) of 30,000 Fascists, King Victor Emmanuel III appointed Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) Prime Minister[48]. Within five years, Mussolini would transform Italy into a totalitarian state with himself as its Dictator[49].

1923 Death of Canon Ulysse Chevalier (1841-1923) (see above)[50]:

"Though a Catholic priest and professor of history at the Catholic university of Lyon ... Chevalier maintained an independent critical attitude even on religious questions. In the controversy on the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin (sudario), he worked by tracing back the history of the cloth, which was undoubtedly used as a shroud, but he argued was not produced before the 14th century and was probably no older ... In 2006 French historian Emmanuel Poulle wrote in a peer-reviewed journal that Ulysse Chevalier showed in this case intellectual dishonesty ... Chevalier deliberately did not correctly mention the Papal bulls of antipope Clement VII issued in 1390. In fact Clement VII never opted for the forgery thesis"[51].

1924 Paul Vignon (see above) is appointed professor on the Faculty of Philosophy of the Institut Catholique de Paris, where until his death in 1943 he occupied the Chair of "Philosophy of Zoology and Introduction to the Philosophy of Biology"[52].

1930 8 January. Marriage in Rome of Prince Umberto II (1904–83) and Princess Marie Jose of Belgium (1906-2001)[53].

1931a 4-24 May. Twenty-one day public expostion of the Shroud to

[Left (enlarge): A poster advertising the exposition of the Shroud from 4-24 May, 1931[54].]

commemorate the royal wedding[55]. Two million view the Shroud[56]!

1931b 21-23 May. Turinese professional photographer Giuseppe Enrie (1886-1961)[57] photographs the Shroud (see above and below), with much improved photographic equip-ment[58], and confirms the 1898 findings of Secondo Pia [see "1898a"]

[Above (enlarge): Sepia print of Enrie's 1931 photograph of the Shroud on the steps of Turin Cathedral[59].]

that the Shroud image is a photographic negative[60] (see below). The

[Above (enlarge)[61]: Comparison of Pia's (left) and Enrie's (right) negative photographs of the Shroud face, showing that Enrie (1931) confirmed Pia's (1898) finding that the Shroud image is a photographic negative!]

~76 year-old Secondo Pia and the ~66 year-old Paul Vignon were Enrie's assistants[62]! Enrie's photographs proved that the Shroudman's image was not painted, because so much finer was their resolution that each thread of the cloth could be distinctly seen and that there was no paint or pigment covering them, nor clogging of the spaces between the threads[63]! Enrie's photographs were the basis of many Shroud studies, including those of Vignon, Barbet, STURP, Filas, Whanger and Danin (see future)[64].

1931c From study of Enrie's Shroud face photograph (see above), Paul Vignon (see above)[65], developed his "Iconographic Theory"[66] which proposed that the similarities betwen the Shroud face and Christian depictions of Jesus' face back to the 5th century, are because the artists had the Shroud as their model[67]!

1932a Dr Pierre Barbet (1884–1961), Chief Surgeon at St. Joseph's

[Right (enlarge)[68] Dr Pierre Barbet. Note: photos of "Pierre Barbet" which look like that below are of a writer who adopted "Pierre Barbet" as a pseudonym.]

Hospital, Paris[69], and a Roman Catholic[70], began research on the Enrie photographs[71], with a focus on the "Five Wounds of Christ"[72]: a nail wound in each hand, a spear wound in the side, and a nail wound in each foot[73]. Barbet had noted that on the Shroud the exit wound of the nail was in the man's left wrist, not the back of his palm[74] (see below). Although

[Above (enlarge): The nail exit wound and bloodstain on the back of the left hand of the man on the Shroud[75]. Only one nail wound is visible because the corresponding wound in the right wrist (indicated by blood flows down his right forearm) is covered by his left hand[76]. Note the thumbs are not visible (see below why); that these are xray images of the man's finger and hand bones [see 20Apr17a] and that the man's left thumb bones can be seen through the flesh of his left hand [see 20Apr17b]!]

Christian tradition, based on a simplistic interpretation of "hands" in Lk 24:39 & Jn 20:20,25,27, located the hand nail wounds in Jesus' palms[77], it was self-evident to Barbet that nails through the palms could not support the weight of a man hanging on a cross, but would tear through the palm's weak vertical structures[78]. Barbet confirmed this by experiments with freshly amputated arms of cadavers at St Joseph Hospital[79]. When such amputated arms were each suspended by a nail through the palms and weight added to simulate a man's body hanging on a cross, the nails tore through the palms[80]. Next

[Above (enlarge)[81]: "Destot's space ... The space in the wrist bounded by the hamate, capitate, triquetral and lunate bones. This place is referred to as a place where the nails of Jesus Christ crucifixion pierced his wrist"[82]. See also 07Dec13.]

Barbet experimented with driving a large nail through the wrists of amputated arms at the location indicated on the Shroud, which he knew was "Destot's space" (see above)[83]. Barbet expected the nail to crush one or more of the surrounding wrist bones[84], but instead, in repeated experiments, the nail entered Destot's space and pushed aside the wrist bones without crushing any of them[85]! Moreover, the nail was held fast by the four wrist bones surrounding Destot's space and the transverse carpal ligament[86]. Truly Jesus, the Man on the Shroud, is "the Lamb who was slain from the foundation of the world" (Rev 13:8)! Barbet also found that when he drove the nail into the Space of Destot the thumb retracted into the palm, due to the nail damaging the median nerve[87]. Barbet then realised that is why on the Shroud the thumbs are not visible (see above)[88]. "Could a forger have imagined this?". Barbet asked[89], and the answer clearly is no! Finally, to dispose of the armchair criticism of the late Dr Frederick T. Zugibe (1928-2013) (Barbet did the experiments-Zugibe didn't), that:

"Barbet made another serious error, claiming that when he drove the nail through Destot's Space, anywhere from 1/2 to 2/3 of the trunk of the median nerve was severed. This is not anatomically possible, because the median nerve is not located in the area of Destot's Space but instead runs along the wrist on the thumb side and along the thenar furrow into the palm of the hand"[90].
Admittedly, Barbet was verbally imprecise when he wrote:
"Dissections showed me that the trunk of the median was always extensively injured by the nail. It was divided and crushed ... sometimes in its half, its third or two thirds" (my emphasis)[91].
"Now, dissections have revealed to me that the trunk of the median nerve is always seriously injured by the nail; it is divided into sections, being broken sometimes halfway and sometimes two-thirds of the way across, according to the case" (my emphasis)[92].
But it is obvious (and should have been to Zugibe if he hadn't been blinded by his prejudice against Barbet) from an xray of the head of the large Roman nail in Figure IV of Barbet's "A Doctor at Calvary"

[Above (enlarge): (Left) Xray showing how the large, square, Roman nail forced outwards the bones surrounding Destot's space[93]. (Right) Extract of a drawing of the nerves in the hand. "A" and "B" are the muscular and digital branches of the median nerve and "C", "D" and "E" are the dorsal, superficial and digital brances of the ulnar nervee[94]. The red square shows the approximate location of the large, square Roman nail. As can be seen, the nail would have forced the bones surrounding Destot's Space outward, crushing and cutting the delicate branches of the median and ulnar nerves.]

(above left) that the hand bones being forced outwards by the nail would have crushed and cut the delicate median and ulnar nerves. So Zugibe's argument againt Barbet on this point is merely verbal, not real! If Barbet (or his English translator) had been more verbally precise, he would have written, "the median nerve is always seriously injured by the hand bones displaced by the nail" and it would be clear that in this Zugibe had no real point.

1932b 25 December. Pope Pius XI (r. 1922-39) (see above), declares 1933-34 is to be a Holy Year to commemorate the nineteenth centenary of the death of Christ[95]. However the most likely date of Jesus' death is 7 April 30[96].

1933 24 September to 15 October 15: At the request of Pope Pius XI the

[Left (enlarge)[97]: Poster advertising the 1933 Exposition.]

Shroud is exhibited as part of the celebrations for Holy Year[98]. The young Salesian priest Fr. Peter Rinaldi (1910-93), fluent in French and English, as well as Italian, acts as interpreter[99]. On the final day, 15 October, the Shroud is held out in daylight on the steps of the cathedral where Dr. Pierre Barbet views it from a distance of less than a yard (0.91 metre)[100]. He writes:

"I saw that all the images of the wounds were of a color quite different from that of the rest of the body, and this color was that of dried blood which had sunk into the stuff. There was, thus, more than the brown stains on the Shroud reproducing the outline of the corpse. The blood itself had colored the stuff by direct contact. It is difficult for one unversed in painting to define the exact color, but the foundation was red ('mauve carmine' said M. Vignon, who had a fine sense of color), diluted more or less according to the wounds"[101].
1934 June. Fr. Peter Rinaldi, having returned to the USA from the 1933 exposition, publishes "The Holy Shroud," in The Sign, the first ever USA magazine article on the Shroud[102]. This sparks such interest in the Shroud that it was the start of the involvement of many Shroudies in the USA[103].

1935 3 October. Italy, under Prime Minister Benito Mussolini (r. 1922–43) and King Victor Emmanuel III (r. 1900-46), invade Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War (1935-37)[104]. On 7 May King Victor Emmanuel III proclaims himself Emperor over the new Italian province of East Africa[105].

1937 March. An article, "The problem of the Holy Shroud," by Paul Vignon (see above), translated by Fr Edward Wuenschel (1899-1964), is published in Scientific American[106]. In it Vignon, with positive and negative photographs of the Shroud, points out that the image is a photographic negative, and therefore not a painting:

"The figures on the Shroud, in fact, are not paintings at all. As already stated, they are negative images, and the idea of a negative became known only through the invention of photography in the 19th Century. No artist of any earlier period, therefore (certainly none of the 14th Century and, above all, none before the 5th), could have conceived the idea of painting a negative"[107].
In the article Vignon also outlined his Iconographic Theory:
"It is quite certain that the figures on the Shroud are not paintings of the 14th Century. There are many representations of Christ, notably the image of Edessa, which could have been derived only from the Shroud. A careful study of these copies, which I completed recently, shows that the present Shroud of Turin was in Constantinople during the 12th Century, and that the face visible upon it served as a model for artists as early as the 5th. The artists did not copy slavishly, but tried to interpret the face, translating the mask-like features into a living portrait, which was still a recognizable copy of the original. This disposes of the only positive objection ever brought forward in the name of history"[108].

1938 Publication of Paul Vignon's "Le Saint Suaire de Turin devant la science, l' archologie, l' histoire, l' iconographie, la logique ("The Holy Shroud of Turin in the Light of Science, Archaeology, History, Iconography and Logic"[109]), which sets out Vignon's Iconographic Theory[110].

1939a 7 April. Italy invades Albania[111] and Victor Emmanuel III assumes the title, King of the Albanians[112].

1939b 3-4 May. First National Congress on Shroud Studies is held in Turin, with some twenty papers presented[113].

1939c 1 September. Germany, under Adolf Hitler (r. 1933-45), invades Poland, triggering World War II[114].

1939d 7 September. Due to fear of Allied bombing[115] and that Hitler might confiscate the Shroud[116], the Archbishop of Turin Cardinal Maurilio Fossati (r. 1930-65), had the Shroud secretly taken in an ordinary box to the Sanctuary of Montevergine, in southern Italy[117].

[Right (enlarge): The Benedictine monastery at Montevergine, Italy, where the Shroud was secretly kept during World War II, from 25 September 1939 to 29 October 1946[118].]

The King approved the plan because enroute the Shroud was hidden in the Royal Palace in Rome[119]. Only the Prior and three others are told that the box contained the Shroud[120]. It remained there, hidden under a side altar for seven years and a month[121]. During the war the Nazis had searched for the Shroud but were told by Cardinal Fossati that the Savoys had removed it[122]. See future 31 October 1946 on the return of the Shroud to Turin.]

To be continued in part #26, "Twentieth century" (2) of this series.

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Vignon, P., 1939, "Le Saint Suaire de Turin: Devant La Science, L'archéologie, L'histoire, L'iconographie, La Logique," Masson et Cie. Éditeurs: Paris, Second edition, plate I. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.189. [return]
4. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.185-186; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.151-152; Markwardt, J., 2001, "The Conspiracy Against the Shroud," BSTS Newsletter, No. 55, June 2002. [return]
5. Walsh, J.E., 1963, "The Shroud," Random House: New York NY, p.57; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, pp.54-55. [return]
6. Portrait of Professor Delage (1911-12), by Mathurin Méheut (1882–1958)," Station Biologique de Roscoff, France. [return]
7. Brent, P. & Rolfe, D., 1978, "The Silent Witness: The Mysteries of the Turin Shroud Revealed," Futura Publications: London, p.36; Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, p.4; Antonacci, 2000, p.4; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.51. [return]
8. McNair, P., "The Shroud and History: Fantasy, Fake or Fact?," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud ," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.28; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.298-299. [return]
9. Wilson, 1998, p.299. [return]
10. Extract from de Gail, P., 1983, "Paul Vignon," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 6, March, pp.46-50, 46. [return]
11. McNair, P., "The Shroud and History: Fantasy, Fake or Fact?," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.28; Zeuli, T., 1984, "Jesus Christ is the Man of the Shroud," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 10, March, pp.29-33, 31; van Cauwenberghe, A., 1992, "The 1902 Concealment," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 41, December, pp.13-19, 15. [return]
12. Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.54; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, pp.100. [return]
13. McNair, 1978, p.28; Wilson, 1998, p.245; Markwardt, 2001. [return]
14. Extract from "Edessa citadel in Urfa, Turkey (Google Maps)," Virtual Globetrotting, 2016. [return]
15. Wilson, I., 1996, "Joseph of Arimathea, the Holy Grail and the Edessa Icon," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 44 , November/December; Scavone, D.C., 2002, "Joseph of Arimathea, The Holy Grail & the Edessa Icon," BSTS Newsletter, No. 56, December. [return]
16. Scavone, D., 1997, "British King Lucius and the Shroud," Shroud News, No. 100, February, pp.30-39, 35; Scavone, D.C., 2010, "Edessan sources for the legend of the Holy Grail," Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, ENEA Frascati, Italy, 4-6 May 2010, pp.1-6, p.3. [return]
17. "Umberto II of Italy," Wikipedia, 28 November 2021. [return]
18. Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.23 [return]
19. Thurston, H. (1912). "The Holy Shroud (of Turin)." In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Co: New York, New Advent, 2020. [return]
20. Scavone, 1989, p.23 [return]
21. Nelson , H., 1993, "Rush To Judgement," Shroud News, No 76, April, p.6. [return]
42. O'Rahilly, A. & Gaughan, J.A., ed., 1985, "The Crucified," Kingdom Books: Dublin, p.51; Wilcox, R.K., 2010, "The Truth About the Shroud of Turin: Solving the Mystery," [1977], Regnery: Washington DC, p.122. [return]
23. Vignon, P., 1902, "The Shroud of Christ," University Books: New York NY, Reprinted, 1970, p.1113; Wilcox, 2010, pp.122-123. [return]
24. Wilcox, 2010, p.122. [return]
25. Scavone, 1989, p.23. [return]
26. Smith, P., 1988, "The Place of Shroud News in Sindonology," Shroud News, No 50, December, pp.22-24, 23. [return]
27. Wilcox, 2010, pp.122, 123. [return]
28. Wilcox, 2010, p.123. [return]
29. "World War I," Wikipedia, 23 November 2021. [return]
30. Ibid. [return]
31. Ibid. [return]
32. Ibid. [return]
33. Ibid. [return]
34. "Italian irredentism," Wikipedia, 21 April 2021. [return]
35. "1914 in Italy: August," Wikipedia, 21 April 2021. [return]
36. "Italian irredentism," Wikipedia, 21 April 2021. [return]
37. "1915 in Italy: April," Wikipedia, 31 March 2021. [return]
38. "1915 in Italy: April," Barberis, A., 1987, "The Secret Chamber: An Episode in Shroud History," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 22, March, pp.15-17, 16; Wilson, 1998, p.299. [return]
39. Rinaldi, P.M., 1983, "I Saw the Holy Shroud," Don Bosco Publications: New Rochelle NY, p.81. [return]
40. "Yves Delage," Wikipedia, 21 January 2021. [return]
41. van Cauwenberghe, 1992, p.18. [return]
42. Walsh, 1963, p.95. [return]
43. Walsh, 1963, pp.50-61; Crispino, D.C., 1982, "Commemorations," Shroud Spectrum International, No, 2, March, pp.33-35, 33-34; van Cauwenberghe, 1992, p.18. [return]
64. "Pope Pius XI," Wikipedia, 30 October 2021. [return]
45. Van Haelst, R., 1988, "First Belgian Touring Exhibition," Shroud News, No 46, April, pp.8-12, 10. [return]
46. Crispino, 1982, p.33; van Cauwenberghe, 1992, p.18. [return]
47. Crispino, 1982, pp.33-34; Van Haelst, 1988, p.10. [return]
48. "Benito Mussolini," Wikipedia, 26 November 2021. [return]
49. Ibid. [return]
50. "Ulysse Chevalier," Wikipedia, 2 July 2021. [return]
51. Ibid. [return]
52. de Gail, 1983, p.47. [return]
53. "Umberto II of Italy: Marriage and issue," Wikipedia, 28 November 2021 & "Marie-José of Belgium: Marriage and children," Wikipedia, 29 November 2021. [return]
54. "Poster exhibition litografia Turin Shroud Exposition 1931 100 Cm X 70cm Sindone Holy Shroud," www.todocoleccion.net. [return]
75. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, p.29; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.56; Wilson, 1998, p.300; Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.27; Guerrera, 2001, p.22. [return]
56. Adams, 1982, p.56; Wilson, 1998, p.300. [return]
57. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, pp.24-25; Drews, 1984, p.7; de Wesselow, 2012, p.21. [return]
58. Adams, 1982, p.56; Drews, 1984, p.7. [return]
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Posted: 15 November 2021. Updated: 23 April 2022.