Wednesday, July 13, 2022

Prehistory of the Shroud (AD 29-600). Turin Shroud Encyclopedia

Turin Shroud Encyclopedia
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones

Prehistory of the Shroud #16a

This is the twenty-second installment of "Prehistory of the Shroud (AD 29-600)," part #16a of my Turin Shroud Encyclopedia. See also 24Jul16. For more information about this series, see part #1 and part #2. Bible verses are from the English Standard Version (ESV) unless otherwise indicated. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Index #1] [Previous: Ashe, Geoffrey #15] [Next: Prehistory #16b]

Both Chapter 9, "Prehistory of the Shroud (AD 29 - 1354)" and Chapter 10, "History of the Shroud (1355-present)" are becoming bottlenecks to my writing the dot-point outline of my book, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" off the top of my head. See 06Jul17, 03Jun18 & 04Apr22. So I am going

[Right (enlarge [SU91]): The planned cover of my book.]

to write an outline of both chapters as articles in this my Turin Shroud Encyclopedia. I will use in-line referencing to save time and it may be incomplete - the primary purpose of this outline is to help me write my book. I will also set it in a framework of each century from the 1st to the 14th, but I may not use that format in my book. If this page grows too long I will split it into "Prehistory of the Shroud #16a," "#16b," etc.

1st century (AD 29-100)
AD 29-30 The Letter of Lentulus, contains a Shroud-like description of Jesus by a claimed eye-witness contemporary! See 23Oct21. The Letter purports to be written to the Roman Senate by "Lentulus, the Governor of the Jerusalemites"[LLW]. It claims that Jesus "still lives," which would mean it was writen during Jesus' public ministry, from AD 29-30[FHB, 418,468]. The Letter itself doesn't claim to have been written by Publius Lentulus. It was a 1680 English translation which listed the author as "Publius Lentulus", a Prefect in Judea at the time of Tiberius Caesar (14-37)[LLW]. "Lentulus" was the surname of an ancient Roman family. The Letter's description of Jesus is Shroud-like: "His hair is ... over his shoulders" and "parted in two on the top of the head" and "His beard is ... divided at the chin." Also surprisingly Shroud-like is the Letter's: "His hair is of the colour of the ripe hazel-nut ... His ... face ... [has] a slightly reddish complexion"[LLW]. Sceptics had pointed out that if the Shroudman's hair was black as "a Palestinian Jew in his thirties" would have been [sic], then his hair would be white on the Shroud negative photograph[NJ07, 140]. But in fact both the negative and positive of the Shroud face (below) show a hair colour intermediate between black and white, which is consistent

[Above (enlarge): Comparison of positive (left)[LDP] and negative (right)[LNN], Shroud face photographs. If the Shroudman's hair had been black, it would appear white on the negative and dark on the positive, as the reversed 3 bloodstain does. But if his hair had been white, it would appear black on the negative and white on the positive. But it appears grey on the negative and brown on the positive, indicating the man's hair was reddish. See below on Jesus' hair and beard being reddish-brown in the 6th century Rossano Gospels]

with the Shroudman's hair having been reddish. Significantly, Israel's King David (c. 1040–970 BC), Jesus' ancestor through His mother Mary (Lk 3:23-31), was "ruddy" (1Sam 16:12; 17:42), the Hebrew word admowniy meaning "reddish (of the hair or the complexion)"[DBH]. The Letter was discovered in 1421 by an obscure Giacomo Colunna, a member of the ancient and powerful Colonna family[SCW]. He found the Letter in an ancient Roman document sent to Rome from Constantinople[LLW]. It was written in golden letters on red paper and richly bound, but has since been lost[LLW]. It is plausible that the Letter could have been found in the archives of an ancient Roman family such as the Colonna family. Historians near in time to the finding of the Letter in 1421 accepted it as authentic. In 1899 the eminent German textual critic, Ernst von Dobschütz (1870–1934) listed over 75 historical manuscripts from Germany, France, and Italy that include the Letter of Lentulus in variant forms"[LLW]. The Letter is dismissed as a forgery because no "Governor of Jerusalem ... is known to have been called Lentulus, and a Roman governor would not have addressed the Senate." But this is a fallacious Argument from Silence. Few sources have survived of Pontius Pilate's AD 26-36 rule in Judea and he is "the best-attested governor of Judaea"[PPW]! There was then a dual system of Roman government, with governors appointed by the Emperor for overall military and financial administration and consuls appointed by the Senate for civil and judicial administration[PNR]. Lentulus' odd title, "the Governor of the Jerusalemites" supports that his sphere of authority was only over the people of Jerusalem. So if Lentulus was the civil governor of Jerusalem in Jesus' time, appointed by the Roman Senate, he would have written to the Roman Senate to inform them about Jesus. If there was a Governor of Jerusalem, appointed by and reporting to the Roman Senate, that would explain the Jewish religious leaders' leverage over Pilate: "From then on Pilate sought to release him [Jesus], but the Jews cried out, `If you release this man, you are not Caesar's friend. Everyone who makes himself a king opposes Caesar.'"(Jn 19:12). Problems of the Letter being a forgery include: Who was the forger? What would be the point of the forgery? Why stop at one forgery? Why would a forger choose an obscure name like "Lentulus"? Most (if not all) apocryphal writings which purport to be from a person, that person had a first name and was well-known in the early church, e.g. "The Gospel of Philip," "The Gospel of Thomas," etc. What would be the point of forging a letter purporting to be from someone with no first name? If Lentulus was well=known to the Senate he would not need to include his surname, but a forger would have. Why would a forger claim that the Letter was "sent to Rome from Constantinople"? Why not simply claim that ever since Lentulus sent the Letter to the Roman Senate, it had been in Rome? Why would a forger create the Letter "written in golden letters on red paper"? That would make it a self-evident copy of Lentulus' Letter, not the original, because Lentulus would have written his Letter to the Senate on first century writing materials, either papyrus, parchment or vellum. Although the Letter doesn't claim to be written by a "Publius" Lentulus, there was a Publius Lentulus who had been elected as a Roman Consul during the reign of the Emperor Augustus (27 BC-14 AD)[LLW], so it would not be surprising if that Publius Lentulus had been appointed by the Senate to govern Jerusalem itself.

30 Fri 7 Apr. - Jesus is crucified (Mt 27:35; Mk 15:24; Lk 23:33; Jn 19:18). - Died on cross (Mt 27:50; Mk 15:37; Lk 23:46; Jn 19:30). - Face covered with face cloth - Gk soudarion (Jn 11:44; 20:7) while still

[Left (enlarge): How the the Sudarium of Oviedo ("the face cloth, which had been on Jesus' head" - Jn 20:7) was placed over the head in a vertical position (e.g. on a cross) "First Position"; then wrapped aroud the head when the body was horizontal (e.g. taken down from a cross) "Second Position"; and finally removed from the head (e.g. before being wrapped in a shroud) "Third Position" [BJ01, 118]. See 08May18.]

on the cross. - Joseph of Arimathea bought a linen shroud (Mk 15:46). - Joseph took down Jesus' body from cross (Mt 27:58-59; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53; Jn 19:38-39). - Wrapped Jesus' body in a linen shroud (Mt 27:59; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53). - Nicodemus had prepared Jesus' burial loculus (Heb. kochim) with 75 pounds (34 kgs) weight of mixed myrrh and aloes (Jn 19:40). - Laid in new tomb (Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53; Jn 19:38-42). - Wrapped Jesus' body with linen strips (othonia) and spices (aroma) (Jn 19:40 NIV). - Rolled a large stone across the entrance of the tomb (Mt 27:60; Mk 15:46; Lk 24:2; Jn 20:1).

Sun 9 Apr. - Before dawn. - Jesus is resurrected (Mt 28:5-6; Mk 16:5-6; Lk 24:4-6; Jn 20:1-3). - Jesus' body changed state (1Cor 15:51-53; Php 3:21). - Emitted intense light radiation (Mt 17:2; Mk 9:2-3; Lk 9:28-31). - Became `mechanically transparent' (Jn 20:19,26) [JJ91, 339]. Dawn. - Women disciples enter tomb and find Jesus' body not there (Mt 28:1,6; Mk 16:1-6: Lk 24:1,3-4; Jn 20:1-2). - Peter and John enter tomb (Jn 20:3-6,8). - They see the linen strips [othonia] (Lk 24:12; Jn 20:6 NIV), which had tied Jesus' hands and feet (Jn 11:44; 19:40 NIV), lying by themselves (Lk 24:12; Jn 20:6 NIV). - And the face cloth [soudarion], which had been on [epi] Jesus' head, not lying with the linen cloths but folded up in a place by itself (Jn 20:7). - No Shroud [sindon][BW57, 83-84]. Jesus had taken it with him out of the tomb. - He would later give it to the "servant of the priest" (i.e. the Apostle John - see below).

c. 60 Shroud-like fresco of Jesus in profile in the Orpheus Cubiculum

[Right (enlarge)[MRH86, pl. 1]: Sketch by Thomas Frank Heaphy (1813-73) of a fresco in the ceiling of the earliest section of the Catacomb of Domitilla, dated to the time of Nero (54–68). Jesus is depicted in profile naked with a white cloth over his shoulder. Presumably sitting up at His resurrection with the Shroud still partly covering Him! If so, this is the earliest, mid-first century, depiction of the Shroud! See 05Jun21]

part of the Catacomb of Domitilla, Rome[SS93, 28]. Jesus has shoulder length hair and a beard, a white cloth is over His right shoulder. The Italian archaeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi (1822–94) who opened this and many Roman catacombs, dated that section to the time of Nero. So there would have been Christians alive then who had seen Jesus, making this Shroud-like depiction of Him an independent confirmation that the Shroudman is Jesus!

c. 70 Water stains on the Shroud exactly match the pattern of water stains produced by folding a linen cloth of the Shroud's dimensions and

[Left (enlarge): Large water stains on the Shroud (left) were discovered by Aldo Guerreschi and Michele Salcito not to have been caused by water to extinguish the 1532 fire (only the small water stains were), but exactly match the pattern of the Shroud having been folded (top right) and hididen in a part-filled first century earthenware jar (bottom right). See 05Apr18.]

putting it in a partly water filled first century earthenware jar, identical to one found at Masada, the Jewish fortress overthrown by the Romans in AD 74[GS02]! This is evidence both that the Shroud is first century and that it had to be hidden in its early centuries from Christianity's Jewish and Roman enemies.

Second century (101-200)
c. 110 Gospel of the Hebrews. The apocryphal[BA34, 50; BM95, 36] Gospel according to the Hebrews (or Gospel of the Hebrews), originated in early Jewish-Christian circles at the end of the first or beginning of the second century[BW57, 87; GM69]. The Gospel was highly regarded by some early Church Fathers because it was believed by them to be the original of St Matthew's Gospel[GM69, HT78, 75]. The Gospel was originally composed in Hebrew or Aramaic, and translated into both Greek and Latin by St. Jerome (c. 342-420)[DR84, 105; JG16, 10]. The original of the Gospel of the Hebrews and Jerome's translations of it have since been lost and today only fragments of it exist in the writings of Church Fathers[HT78, 75, SD89, 74]. One of those fragments is in Jerome's Latin De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men), written by him in Bethlehem in 392[RC99, 52]:

"The Gospel also which is called the Gospel according to the Hebrews, and which I have recently translated into Greek and Latin and which also Origen often makes use of, after the account of the resurrection of the Saviour says, `but the Lord, after he had given his grave clothes [sindon] to the servant of the priest, appeared to James ...'"[GM04, 17-18, JG16, 10]
Even in his Latin text, Jerome retained the the Greek word sindon[DR84, 105, GM04, 17-18], to make it clear that it was Jesus' shroud that he gave to "the servant of the priest." See my 23Nov14 that "the servant of the priest" was a pseudonym of the Apostle John: a) John was a Jewish priest and b) John was a servant in the High priest's house.

Historian Dan Scavone pointed out that, "second century writers knew about the Shroud in their day. They disagree about who saved it from the tomb, but they agree that it had been saved":

"In the second century (about 100-200 A.D.), several accounts were written about the life of Christ ... they are valuable source materials for that time. Most importantly, these texts say that Jesus' shroud was removed from the tomb and saved. Writers of the second century, therefore, knew of the existence of this sheet in their own day. The first of these apocryphal books is called the Gospel of the Hebrews ... We have only fragments from it, for most of it has been lost over the centuries. One key surviving passage says, `After the Lord gave his shroud to the servant of the priest ... he appeared to James.' The Acts of Pilate is another apocryphal book of the second century. It states that Pilate and his wife preserved the shroud of Jesus. It suggests that they were sorry for their part in his death and were now Christians. These two books along with the Gospel of Peter, The Acts of Nicodemus, and The Gospel of Gamaliel, show us that second century writers knew about the Shroud in their day. They disagree about who saved it from the tomb, but they agree that it had been saved"[SD89, 74]

Third century (201-300)
c. 245 . Earliest known Christian house-church at Dura-Europos,

[Left (enlarge)[FDW]: Remains of the former earliest known house church.]

Syria, is now thought to have been destroyed in the Syrian civil war of 2011[DCW]. This, and the earliest known purpose-built Christian church (below), as well as the water stains on

[Right (enlarge[RPW]). Ruins of the earliest known purpose-built Christian church at Aqaba, Jordan, dated c. 295[PBW].]

the Shroud matching exactly it having been kept in a first-century earthenware jar (see above), as well as the DNA evidence 18Oct15), show that in these early centuries the Shroud would have circulated among small, scattered Christian congregations in the strictest secrecy, `under the radar' of history.

Fourth century (301-400)
338 St. Nino (c. 296-338) was a Greek Christian woman, born in Cappadocia, in today's eastern Turkey, around 296[RC99, 53]. Nino moved with her parents to Jerusalem when she was twelve[RC99, 53]. Soon after, Nino's father, a Roman army officer named Zabulon, became a monk and abandoned his wife Sosana and child Nino, to join a monastic community in Jordan[BP28, 163; SNQ]. Then Nino's mother Sosana was ordained a deaconess and left Nino in the care of an old woman, Sara Niaphor[SNQ]. Sara raised Nino in the Christian Faith and related to her the stories of Christ's life and His suffering on earth[SNQ]. Hearing from Sara that Christ's seamless Robe was in Georgia in southeastern Europe, Nino travelled to Georgia[SNQ]. Through her preaching and miracles of healing, Nino converted to Christianity Queen Nana, the wife of King Mirian III of Iberia (r. 284–361) and then the King himself[BP28, 166-7; SNQ]. Through Nino's preaching the pagan Kingdom of Iberia (Georgia) converted to Christianity[RC99, 53]. Shortly before she died in 338, Nino dictated her life story to her friend Salome of Ujarma[BP28, 169; RC99, 53]. In the earliest version of her life story, which dates from the fifth century, Nino mentions the Shroud[RC99, 53] Reminiscing about her early life in Jerusalem, Nino recounted:

"And they found the linen [othonia] early in Christ's tomb, whither Pilate and his wife came. When they found it. Pilate's wife asked for the linen, and went away quickly to her home in Pontus; and she became a believer in Christ. Some time afterwards the linen came into the hands of Luke the Evangelist, who put it in a place known only to himself. Now, they did not find the Sudarium [sudari], but it is said to have been found by Peter, who took it and kept it. but we know not if it has ever been discovered. The crosses are buried in the city of Jerusalem though no man knows in what place; when it shall please God, they also shall appear"[GM04, 20; RC99, 53]
The story about Pilate's wife becoming a Christian is based on Mt 27:19[GM04, 20]:
"Besides, while he [Pilate] was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent word to him, `Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered much because of him today in a dream'"
But there is no evidence that Pilate , his wife or Luke had anything to do with the Shroud[GM04, 20]. Indeed, that Nino never saw the Shroud or the Sudarium, or even knew where they were[RC99, 53], suggests that she was told those false stories because she was not entitled to know where the Shroud and Sudarium were. But it is significant that Nino distinguished between the graveclothes [othonia] and the napkin [sudari], or cloth, that covered or went around Jesus' head[RC99, 53]. St. Nino's account is proof that in fourth-century Jerusalem people knew of the Shroud's existence[SD89, 75].

c. 400 A Christ Pantocrator ("Ruler of All") (below), which is part of a

[Left (enlarge)[MPW]: Extract of the c.400 Pantocrator in the Catacomb of Saints Marcellinus and Peter, Rome. Although Jesus' Shroud-like face does not have the Vignon markings of later Byzantine icons, it is such a radical departure from the "beardless Apollo" depictions of Jesus then current, the simplest explanation is that the artist had seen the Shroud in the 4th century! See 04Oct16.]

larger fresco in the Catacomb of Saints Marcellinus and Peter (not the Apostle), in Rome[CMP], "shows a very striking similarity to" the "image on the Cloth of Turin" and yet is dated "about 400"[BW57, 41]!

Fifth century (401-500)
c. 450 The Acts of Pilate or Gospel of Nicodemus, in its current form, is thought to date from around the 4th or 5th century[GNW]. It contains the best-known early non-Biblical references to Joseph of Arimathea. According to that Gospel, on the first Easter Saturday, Joseph is seized by Jewish leaders and locked up, because he had asked Pilate for the body of Jesus, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and placed it in a tomb (Mt 27:57-60; Mk 15:43-46; Lk 23:50-53; Jn 19:38-42)[SD02]. But on the next day, he had mysteriously disappeared from his cell. Joseph later related how angels had lifted up the prison at its four corners and how Jesus had released him and had proved his identity by showing him the linen shroud and face napkin still in the tomb[SD02]:

"Full of fear I fell to the ground. And someone took me by the hand and raised me up from the place where I had fallen ... And he ... said to me: Do not fear, Joseph. Open your eyes and see who it is who speaks with you ... And I said to him: Who are you, Lord? He replied: I am Jesus, whose body you asked for from Pilate, whom you clothed in clean linen, on whose face you placed a cloth, and whom you placed in your new cave, and you rolled a great stone to the door of the cave. And I asked him who spoke to me: Show me the place where I laid you. And he took me and showed me the place where I laid him. And the linen cloth lay there, and the cloth that was upon his face. Then I recognized that it was Jesus" (my emphasis)[HE12, 466]
This is evidently based on Jn 20:6-7 where Peter and John enter the empty tomb and see the "linen cloths" [othonia] and the "face cloth" [soudarion]. But in this fourth or fifth century writing, the Shroud and face cloth (Sudarium of Oviedo) are known to still exist. Otherwise what would be the point of writing about them if they had ceased to exist four centuries earlier?

Sixth century (501-600)
544 The Syrian-born historian, Evagrius Scholasticus (c. 536-594), recorded that in this year the Edessa Cloth (the Shroud "four-doubled' - tetradiplon) (see below) having been used as a protective palladium to ward off a determined attack on Edessa by the Persian king Chosroes [Khosrow I (r. 531-79)][WI79, 137]. In this Siege of Edessa, Khosrow I ordered a huge mound of timber built, which was gradually pushed forward in order to enable his men to scale Edessa's high walls[WI79, 137]. As a counterattack the Edessans decided to tunnel under their walls in an attempt to set fire to the mound from below before it could be maneuvered into position[WI79, 137]. At this point the Edessa cloth was deployed[WI79, 137]. In Evagrius' words:

"The mine was completed; but they [the Edessans] failed in attempting to fire the wood, because the fire, having no exit whence it could obtain a supply of air, was unable to take hold of it. In this state of utter perplexity they brought out the divinely made image not made by the hands of man [Gk. acheiropoietos], which Christ our God sent to King Abgar [sic see "50"] when he desired to see him. Accordingly, having introduced this sacred likeness into the mine and washed it over with water, they sprinkled some upon the timber ... the timber immediately caught the flame, and being in an instant reduced to cinders, communicated with that above, and the fire spread in all directions" (emphasis added)[AM00, 136-137; EEH]
This account is the entry of the Image of Edessa/Mandylion into history[SEW, WI79, 137] See "544".

c. 550 Christ Pantocrator, St Catherine's monastery, Sinai. This encaustic (hot coloured wax) on wood[SD91, 186-187] icon of Christ

[Above (enlarge): The Vignon markings on the face of the Shroud[WI78, 82E] compared with that of the icon of Christ Pantocrator, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai. By my count there are at least eleven of the fifteen Vignon markings on this mid-sixth century icon which are also on the face of the Shroud[16Feb12]. See "550".]

Pantocrator ("ruler of all")[RC99, 150] at the isolated Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, escaped the iconoclasm[SD91, 186] of of the eighth through ninth centuries [see "723" and "842"]. Dated c. 550[WW91, 306; TF06, 17], this icon was a gift from the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (c.482–565), who built the monastery between 548 and 565[WW91, 306]. This is the earliest surviving painted icon of Christ[SD91, 186]. It is nearly perfectly congruent to the Shroud-face, for example the high right eyebrow, the hollow right cheek, and the garment neckline[SD91, 186]. So marked are these oddities, that the late Princeton University art historian, Professor Kurt Weitzmann (1904-93), while making no connection with the Shroud, remarked of this icon that:

"... the pupils of the eyes are not at the same level; the eyebrow over Christ's left eye is arched higher than over his right ... one side of the mustache droops at a slightly different angle from the other, while the beard is combed in the opposite direction ... Many of these subtleties remain attached to this particular type of Christ image and can be seen in later copies ..."[WK76, 15; in RC99, 110-111 & WI86, 110-111]

c. 560 Codex Purpureus Rossanensis. "The Rossano Gospels ... at the cathedral of Rossano in Italy, is a 6th-century illuminated manuscript

[Right (original): Extract from "Miniature of the Last Supper" from the Rossano Gospels"[FRW]. Jesus' face is very Shroud-like in this c.560 miniature. Significantly, His hair and beard are reddish-brown (which agrees with Lentulus' description above) while the younger Apostles' hair is black.]

Gospel Book written following the reconquest of the Italian peninsula by the Byzantine Empire [in 540]. Also known as Codex purpureus Rossanensis due to the reddish (purpureus in Latin) appearance of its pages, the codex is one of the oldest surviving illuminated manuscripts of the New Testament"[RGW] ... very similar to the Shroud, is the `Apostelcommunion', the `Communion of the Apostles' of the 6th century, originating in Constantinople ... The twelve apostles are completely different to Christ. But the Christ represented possesses all the noted [Vignon markings] features"[VC90, 12-13].

c. 575 Homs vase. This sixth century Byzantine style[WI79, 102; WI98, 141] silver vase from Homs (ancient Emesa), Syria[IJ98, 153] has a medallion face of Jesus[MRW86, 77; WI98,141] which bears a strong resemblance to the face on the Shroud[WI86, 105; RC99, 110-111] in

[Left: Face of the Shroudman on the sixth century Homs vase[VFE]

many of the Vignon markings and other respects[SD91, 184-189]. These similarities include, "the narrowness of the face; the distortions carved into the right side of the face, where the Shroud face has two sizable bruises, the swollen cheek and the half-moon bruise below; and the `light-bulb' shape of the head on its outer edge"[SD91, 189-190].

c. 600 Mosaic depiction of the Image of Edessa[WI10, 1-2] (below),

[Above (enlarge[WI10, plate 19a]): Shroud-like mosaic depiction of the Image of Edessa, dated sixth-seventh century, from a house near Sanliurfa (ancient Edessa). See 13Mar16 that this 6th-7th century Image of Edessa mosaic has at least 9 Vignon markings, and 1 non-Vignon marking, found on the Shroud face! See also 07Dec16].

i.e. the Shroud "four-doubled' (tetradiplon) (see below), hacked out of a wall of a house in Bireçik, a town on the banks of the Euphrates River about 73 km (45 miles) west of Sanliurfa (ancient Edessa)[DP16, 140; WI10, 2]. Shroud scholars Ian Wilson and Mark Guscin were in Sanliurfa museum in 2008 when they were shown the above 6 by 8 inch (~15 x ~20 cms) mosaic depiction of the Image of Edessa[WI10, 2]. They dated the mosaic between the sixth and seventh centuries[WI10 2, 138], which meant it was not only the earliest-known depiction of the Image of Edessa, it came from near the ancient city after which the Image of Edessa was named[WI10, 2]!

Seventh century (601-700)
c.620 The Acts of Thaddaeus, a 7th century[GM09, 145] Greek update of the Abgar V legend [see "50"], described Jesus' image as having been imprinted on a tetradiplon ("four-doubled") which was a sindon ("linen sheet"):

"And Ananias [Abgar V's courier], having gone and given the letter, was carefully looking at Christ, but was unable to fix Him in his mind. And He knew as knowing the heart, and asked to wash Himself; and a towel4 was given Him; and when He had washed Himself, He wiped His face with it. And His image having been imprinted upon the linen ... 4Lit., doubled in four."[RD51, 558]
In the Greek, "towel" is tetradiplon, i.e. tetra "four" + diplon "doubled," and "linen" is sindon, a large linen sheet[BW57, 82-83]. See below and my 2012, "Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin" as well as

[Above (enlarge): Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin illustrated: The full-length Shroud of Turin (1), is doubled four times (2 through 5), resulting in Jesus' face within a rectangle, in landscape aspect (5), exactly as depicted in the earliest copies of the Image of Edessa, the 11th century Sakli church, Turkey (6) and the 10th century icon of King Abgar V of Edessa holding the Image of Edessa, St. Catherine's monastery, Sinai (7). See WI77, 44; WI79, 120-121, 307; DR84, 36-37; WI86, 112-113, 145; SD89, 82; WI91, 141-142; PM96, 174; IJ98, 104-105, 115; WI98, 152; RC99, 54-55; AM00, 132-133, WS00, 110-111; GV01, 2-3; OM10, 23-24, 2-3; DT12, 186-187].]

my 2017 "The date of Ian Wilson's tetradiplon = `doubled in four' Shroud experiment," for how doubling the Shroud four times, with the face always uppermost, results in the face centred in landscape aspect, exactly as it is in copies of the Mandylion/Image of Edessa! This is proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroud was already in existence as the Mandylion/Image of Edessa `four-doubled' in the 7th century, at least six centuries before its earliest 13th century radiocarbon date! See "c. 620".

633 The Mozarabic Rite of Roman Catholics living under Muslim rule in Iberian Spain[MZW], likely originated in the sixth century under St Leandro, Bishop of Seville (c.534–601), who had lived in Constantinople from 579-582[GM69; GM98, 17]. So Leandro would have been aware of the Image of Edessa/Shroud's discovery in 544 (see above)[GM98, 17]. The rite was given its final form in 633 at the Fourth Council of Toledo, Spain[MZW]. Its Illatio or preface states: "Peter ran to the tomb with John and saw the recent imprints [vestigia] of the dead and risen one on the linens [linteaminibus]"[GM69; WI79, 93; GM98, 17; RC99, 56; GV01, 42]. This is the first mention that Jesus' surviving grave wrapping showed an image[SD89, 76]!

692. In this year Byzantine Emperor Justinian II (668–711) minted

Right (enlarge) Gold solidus coin[MM], minted 692-95 by Byzantine Emperor Justinian II[WI92; WW98, p.16]. The face of Jesus on the coin has many "Vignon markings" features found on the face of the man on Shroud, including wrinkles in the Shroud cloth, proving beyond reasonable doubt that the 7th century designer of this coin had the Shroud as his model! See 24Jan17a.]

tremissis and solidus coins bearing an image of Jesus' face[AM00, 128]. The coins were the first to bear Jesus' image[WW91, 308]. As can be seen below, Jesus' face on the Justinian II c. 692 gold solidus

[Above (enlarge): Comparison of positive (left) of the Shroud face (enhanced)[SSF] and a Justinian II 692 gold solidus coin (above cropped). It is obvious that the engraver of this late 7th century coin based his design on the face of the man on the Shroud: ~568 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! And ~663 years before the Shroud first appeared in 1355, in undisputed history, at Lirey, France!]

coin above, bears a striking resemblance to the face of the man on the Shroud[PM96, p.195; SD89, 84-85]. Prof. Giulio Fanti identified 12 "remarkable similarities" between the Justinian II c. 692 gold solidus coin above and the face of the man on the Shroud:

"(1) Wavy hair and asymmetry between the right side (shorter) and the left side (longer). (2) High-arched left eyebrow due to a hematoma. (3) Reversed "3"-shaped forehead wound interpreted as a lock of hair at the center of the forehead. (4) Very close, large, round eyes. (5) Contusion next to the right eye. (6) Protruding cheekbones because of swelling. (7) Flattened and slightly curved nose. (8) Long mustache. (9) Sparse beard on the right side due to tear. (10) Bipartite and asymmetrical beard. (11) A gap in the beard below the lower lip. (12) Same shape of the wrinkle on the neck (double-lined) interpreted as the edge of the dress"[FM15, 112-114].
Fanti calculated that, the "engraver would have had only seven chances in one billion of billions [7.26 x 10-18 = 0.00000000000000000726] of different possibilities of hitting these features all together without having seen the Shroud"[FM15, 114, 374]!

To be continued in the twenty-third installment of this post.

AM00. Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY.
BA34. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London.
BJ01. Bennett, J., 2001, "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA.
BM95. Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter.
BP28. Beecher, P.A., 1928, "The Holy Shroud: Reply to the Rev. Herbert Thurston, S.J.," M.H. Gill & Son: Dublin.
BW57. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI.
CMP. "Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter," Wikipedia, 28 March 2022.
DBH. "132. admoni, "Strong's Exhaustive Concordance," Bible Hub, 2022.
DCW. "Dura-Europos church," Wikipedia, 16 July 2022.
DP16. Dayvault, P.E., 2016, "The Keramion Lost and Found: A Journey to the Face of God," Morgan James Publishing: New York NY.
DR84. Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD.
DT12. de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London.
EEH. Evagrius, Ecclesiastical History, in Migne, Patrologia graeca, Vol. 86, 2, 2748-49.
FDW. "File:Doura Europos domus ecclesiae front.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 27 September 2020.
FHB. Finegan, J., 1964, "Handbook of Biblical Chronology: Principles of Time Reckoning in the Ancient World and Problems of Chronology in the Bible," Princeton University Press: Princeton NJ.
FM15. Fanti, G. & Malfi, P., 2015, "The Shroud of Turin: First Century after Christ!," Pan Stanford: Singapore.
FRW. "File:Rossano Gospels - Last Supper and Washing the feets.jpg," (cropped), Wikimedia Commons, 24 November 2020.
GM04. Guscin, M., 2004, "The History of the Sudarium of Oviedo: How It Came from Jerusalem to Northern Spain in the Seventh Century A.D., Edwin Mellen Press: Lewiston NY.
GM09. Guscin, M., 2009, "The Image of Edessa," Brill: Leiden, Netherlands & Boston MA.
GM69. Green, M., 1969, "Enshrouded in Silence: In search of the First Millennium of the Holy Shroud," Ampleforth Journal, Vol. 74, No. 3, Autumn, pp.319-345.
GM98. Guscin, M., 1998, "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, pp.16-17.
GNW. "Gospel of Nicodemus," Wikipedia, 8 April 2022.
GS02. Guerreschi, A. & Salcito, M., 2002, "Photographic and computer studies concerning the burn and water stains visible on the Shroud and their historical consequences," IV Symposium Scientifique International du CIELT, April 25-26, 2002, Paris, France, pp.1-14.
GV01. Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL.
HE12. Hennecke, E., 2012, "New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and Related Writings," SCM Press: London.
HT78. Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY.
IJ98. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY.
JG16. Jerome and Gennadius, 2016, "Lives of Illustrious Men," Aeterna Press: Summerville SC.
JJ91. Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.325-344.
LLW. "Letter of Lentulus," Wikipedia, 17 April 2022.
LDP. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical,"
LNN. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical,"
MM. "Money Museum." No longer online.
MPW. "File:ChristPeterPaul detail.jpg," Wikimedia, 15 January 2015.
MRH86. Morgan, R., 1986, "The Holy Shroud and the Earliest Paintings of Christ," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia.
MRW86. Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY.
MZW. "Mozarabic Rite," Wikipedia, 11 August 2022.
NJ07. Nickell, J., 2007, "Relics of the Christ," The University Press of Kentucky: Lexington KY.
OM10. Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK.
PM96. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta.
PNR. "Procurator (ancient Rome)," Wikipedia, 24 February 2022.
PBW. "Aqaba Church," Wikipedia, 9 February 2020.
PPW. "Pontius Pilate," Wikipedia, 13 July 2022.
RC99. Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN.
RD51. Roberts, A. & Donaldson, J., eds, 1951, "The Ante-Nicene Fathers: The Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325," Vol. VIII: The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and Epistles, The Clementina, Apocrypha, Decretals, Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents, Remains of the First Ages, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted 1974.
RGW. "Rossano Gospels," Wikipedia, 4 April 2022.
RPW. "File:Early church of Aqaba02.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 19 September 2020.
SCW. "Sciarra Colonna," Wikipedia, 4 March 2021.
SD02. Scavone, D.C., 2002, "Joseph of Arimathea, The Holy Grail & the Edessa Icon," BSTS Newsletter, No. 56, December.
SD89. Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA.
SD91. Scavone, D.C., 1991, "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, 1991, pp.171-204.
SEW. "Siege of Edessa (544)," Wikipedia, 16 July 2022.
SNQ. "Saint Nino (Nina), Equal of the Apostles, Enlightener of Georgia," The Orthodox Church in America, 14 January 2008.
SS93. Morgan, R.H., 1993, "New Evidence for the Earliest Portrait of Jesus," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 42, December, 28.
SSF. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Face Only Vertical,"
SU91. "Shroud University - Exploring the Mystery Since 33 A.D.," Shroud of Turin Education Project, Inc., Peachtree City, GA.
TF06. Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition.
VC90. Van Cauwenberghe, A., 1990, "A Tentative Account of Comparative Iconography," translated by Victoria Harper, First published in La Lettre Mensuelle du CIELT, Paris, October 1990. In Shroud News, No 63, February 1991, pp.12-15.
VFE. "Vase from Emesa," Louvre Museum, Paris, 1992 (no longer online).
WI77. Wilson, I., 1977, "The Shroud's History Before the 14th Century," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, pp.31-49.
WI78. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London.
WI79. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition.
WI86. Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London.
WI91. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London.
WI92. Wilson, I., 1992, "The Shroud Face on a Coin Precisely Datable to 692-5 AD," BSTS Newsletter, No. 30, Dec/Jan, pp.2-4, 2-3.
WI98. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY.
WK76. Weitzmann, K., 1976, "The Monastery of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai: The Icons," Princeton University Press.
WS00. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London.
WI10. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London.
WW91. Whanger, A.D. & Whanger, M.W., "A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of Turin," in Berard, 1991, pp.303-324.
WW98. Whanger, M.W. & Whanger, A.D., 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN.

Posted 13 July 2022. Updated 14 August 2022.

Monday, June 20, 2022

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twentieth century (4)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #28, "Twentieth century" (4) of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see the Index #1. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. This page was initially based on Ian Wilson's 1996, "Highlights of the Undisputed History: 1900."

[Index #1] [Previous: 20th century (3) #27] [Next: 21st century #29]

20th century (4) (1978-79).

[Above (enlarge)[2]: Dr. John Jackson (left foreground) about to begin STURP's five-day examination of the Shroud, from 8th to 13th October, 1978 (see below)]

1978a 20 January. Cardinal Anastasio Ballestrero (r. 1977-89), the Archbishop of Turin, announces that the Shroud is to be publicly exhibited from 27 August to 8 October of this year, with an International Congress to be held in Turin on the last two days[3].

1978b March. Publication of the first, Doubleday, edition of Ian Wilson's book, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ?"[4]. In the book Wilson

[Right (enlarge)[5]: Ian Wilson's 1978 first book on the Shroud. Although published over 40 years ago, it is still, in my opinion, the most important book on the Shroud ever written. Primarily because in it Wilson showed that the 6th century Image of Edesssa / Mandylion and the Shroud were one and the same (see below)!]

showed that the 6th-10th century Image of Edesssa / Mandylion, was the Shroud, folded in eight, with the face one-eighth of the Shroud being the face of Jesus in the Image of Edessa, in landscape aspect (see my "Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin")!

"The consistent appearance of the head in this manner [in ... landscape aspect] on artists' copies of the Mandylion therefore suggests one thing-that the artists were deliberately trying to reproduce a curiosity of the original. If the Shroud was the Mandylion, was this the manner in which it appeared in the early centuries? This speculation takes on more credibility in the light of a piece of information gleaned from a text of the sixth century, the period when the Mandylion first came to light in Edessa. The text gives a description of how the image was thought by those of the time to have been created by Jesus on the linen of a cloth he had used to dry his face. This text, as translated in Roberts and Donaldson's voluminous Writings of the Ante-Nicene Fathers, at first sight seems totally uninformative:
And he ... asked to wash himself, and a towel was given to him; and when he had washed himself he wiped his face with it. And his image having been imprinted upon the linen ...[6]
But, as a footnote reveals, one word in the passage gave the translators some difficulty. In order to convey the sense evident from the description, they used the word `towel.' But they were careful to point out that this is not the literal meaning of the strange Greek word used in the original text. The actual meaning is `doubled in four.' [tetradiplon][7]. The discovery is intriguing. Could the sixth-century writer have been trying to convey that the cloth he saw was literally `doubled in four' - i.e., that it was a substantially larger cloth, the folds perhaps being actually countable at the edges but otherwise inaccessible? The only logical test is to try to `double in four' the Turin Shroud to see what effect is achieved. This is not a difficult task. One simply takes a full-length print of the cloth, doubles it, then doubles it twice again, producing a cloth `doubled in four' sections. The head of Christ appears on the uppermost section, curiously disembodied, exactly as on artists' copies of the Mandylion. Furthermore, it appears on the cloth in landscape aspect, again exactly as on artists' copies of the Mandylion"[8].
In 1984 STURP's John Jackson tested and confirmed Wilson's theory by a STURP 1978 raking light photograph which revealed ancient foldmarks showing that the Shroud had been folded in eight with the face one-eighth showing the Shroudman's face in landscape aspect [see 15Sep12], as the Image of Edessa/Mandylion was (see future).

1978c April. The Turin authorities approve in principle the testing that had been requested by the American scientists in September 1977 (see "1977f"), to immediately follow the public exposition in October[9].

1978d. May. Nuclear physicist Thomas (Tom) F. d'Muhala (1940-),

[Left (enlarge): Tom d'Muhala at the 2005 Dallas Shroud Conference, ©2005 Barrie M. Schwortz Collection, STERA, Inc[10]. d'Muhala who at 82 is still alive (as far as I know), is an unsung hero of STURP's 1978 examination of the Shroud[11]. As both a nuclear physicist and a businessman[12], d'Muhala registered "The Shroud of Turin Research Project," as a non-profit corporation and coined the acronym "STURP"[13], He was President of STURP[14] and its "administrator, findraiser, coordinator" and "expedition leader"[15]. A "great bear of a man"[16] who admitted that originally "science was my God"[17], d'Muhala became a Christian through the Shroud and in 2007 produced a video, "The Case for Christ's Resurrection." d'Muhala never lost faith in the Shroud after the "1260-1390" radiocarbon dating, as at least one STURP member did - see his address, "Where Do We Go From Here?" at the 1996 Esopus Conference.]

President of Nuclear Technologies Corporation of Amston, Connecticut, names and incorporates"The Shroud of Turin Research Project," with the acronym "STURP"[18].

1978e 3-4 June. In Colorado Springs, STURP meets for the first time in a a conference to plan their scientific testing of the Shroud[19].

1978f July. STURP's Eric Jumper, Ken Stevenson and John Jackson co-author an article in The Numismatist, "Images of Coins on a Burial Cloth?"[20]. They report that a three-dimensional relief of a Shroud face photograph produced by a VP-8 Image Analyzer revealed objects resting on the eyes which resembled small disks or `buttons,' circular, about the same size and flat[21]. Jumper, et al., note that the object on the right eye was more noticeable[22]. They propose that the 3-D objects visible on the eyes of the Shroudman [see part #27] are coins[23]. In particular, working with Ian Wilson, they propose that they were[lepton coins struck in the reign of Pontius Pilate (r. 26-37), because of their size, shape, and markings[24].

1978g July-August. Giovanni Tamburelli (1923-90), a professor of electrical communications at the University of Turin[25], after seeing Jackson, et al.'s three-dimensional images from poor-quality photographs of the Shroud, commence computer processing of higher quality Shroud photographs[26]. By Fourier transformation[27] computer processing of photographs of the Shroud face[28] at the Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomunicazioni (CSELT) in Turin[29], Tamburelli independently confirms that the Shroud image is both three-dimensional[30] and that there was a coin over the right eye[31]. However, Tamburelli was unable to determine whether the object over the left eye was a coin[32]. After Prof. Tamburelli's death in 1990 his work is continued by a University of Turin team supervised by Prof. Nello Balossino[33]. [See 18Apr20].

1978h 6 August. Death of Pope Paul VI (r. 1963-78), who had been expected to visit Turin to view the Shroud during the period of the expositions[34]. He is succeeded on 26 August by Pope John Paul I (r. 1978) who, however, died 33 days later[35].

1978i 26 August. The Shroud is exhibited at an inaugural Mass on the

[Right (enlarge)[36]: Turin's Cathedral of St. John the Baptist during the 1978 exhibition.]

first day of a five-week-long period of expositions, until 8 October[37], commemorating the 400th anniversary of the Shroud in Turin[38]. It

Left (enlarge)[39]: The Shroud displayed in its bullet-proof glass, inert gas filled, temperature and humidity controlled, container, above the high altar in Turin Cathedral during the 1978 exposition[40].]

is the first public exposition of the Shroud since 1933[41]. During the five weeks the Shroud is publicly displayed, more than 3.5 million visitors view the cloth[42].

1978j 1 September. Among the pilgrims who view the Shroud on this day is Karol, Cardinal Wojtyla of Poland (1920-2005), shortly to become Pope John Paul II (r. 1978-2005)[43].

1978k 2-3 September. STURP meets in Amston, Connecticut, to finalize their plans, after Turin had agreed to a twenty-four hour test period on 9 October[44]. This meeting would become known as the "Dry Run" and was the first time that the entire team had assembled together[45]. They review their planned experiments and test their equipment, including a special table designed to hold the Shroud[46]. They each sign a confidentiality agreement, insisted on by Turin, to formally become a member of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP)[47]. After the meeting, the equipment is packed into 72 crates, weighing about 4 tons, and air-freighted to Turin via Milan[48].

1978l 28 September. Sudden death of Pope John Paul I (r. 26 August-28 September 1978)[49]. He was rumored to have been intending a private visit to the exposition before its close[50].

1978m 29 September. The STURP team departs the United States for Turin under a cloud of doubt, concerned that the death of the Pope John Paul I the night before might cause the cancellation of their testing[51].

1978n 30 September. The STURP team arrives in Turin and is told that their 24 hours to examine the Shroud had been extended to 120 hours[52]. But some of their luggage is lost and Italian Customs authorities hold all their test equipment, refusing to release it[53]. One particularly delicate piece of x-ray equipment needs to be filled with liquid nitrogen or it will be damaged beyond repair[54]. The problem was that the crates containing STURP's test equipment were consigned to the care of STURP's interpreter Fr. Peter Rinaldi (1910-93) in Turin[55]. He was born in Turin and it was felt that this would be a convenient way of handling the consignment[56]. But Fr Rinaldi had since 1935 been a Pastor of Corpus Christi Church, Port Chester, USA[57], so he did not qualify as an Italian resident[58]. Through Fr Rinaldi STURP was told that their equipment would have to be impounded in Milan for 90 days before it could be released[59]!

1978o Early October. En route to Turin to take part in the Second International Symposium on the Shroud (see below), Harry E. Gove (1922-2009) stops off in Oxford to inform Prof. Edward Hall (1924-2001) of Oxford about the possibility of radiocarbon dating the Shroud[60]. Although Hall does not yet have an AMS facility, he expresses himself and his colleagues as being very enthusiastic to 'get in on the act'[61].

1978p 1-5 October. The STURP team, originally planning to use the week to set up and test their equipment, spends their time holding planning meetings three times a day[62]. Fr Rinaldi appealed to the Minister of Commerce in Rome and secured the transfer of the equipment from Milan to Turin[63]. But the Customs Department in Turin demanded a substantial bond to be posted before they would release the equipment[64]. Cardinal Ballestrero then guaranteed the bond from Turin Cathedral funds and at last STURP's equipment was released[65]!

1978q 5 October. The truck bearing the 72 crates of STURP's equipment [Right (enlarge)[66].] finally enters the courtyard of the Royal Palace[67]. The team begins the task of unloading the truck and moving the crates of instruments into the Royal Palace's Hall of Visiting Princes, five days behind schedule[68]. The first piece of equipment opened by the STURP team is the delicate x-ray device requiring liquid nitrogen and to everyone's amazement, there is just enough of the cold liquid remaining in the device to keep the delicate tube functioning, days beyond its rated capacity[69]!

1978r 6-7 October. The STURP team works around the clock to prepare the palace and unpack and setup their equipment[70]. A number of team members leave the palace to attend the Symposium (see below)[71].

1978s 7-8 October Second International Symposium on the Shroud is held at the Istituto Bancario (Banker's Institute) San Paolo, Turin[72]. Papers are presented by Ian Wilson, Dr Robert Bucklin (1916-2001), Jackson and Jumper, Max Frei (1913-83), amongst others[73]. Papers by Gove on his new AMS method of carbon dating the Shroud and Walter McCrone (1916-2002) also on carbon dating, are included in the Proceedings but not presented[74].

1978t 8 October. The Shroud is removed from public display and

[Left (enlarge)[75]: The Shroud is unwrapped on STURP's table in Turin's Royal Palace so that STURP can begin its 120 hours of intensive scientific examination.]

taken through the Guarini Chapel into the Hall of Visiting Princes within Turin's Royal Palace[76]. Thus begins a five-day period of examination, photography and sample taking by STURP[77]. Max Frei, Prof. Giovanni Riggi (1935-2008), Prof. Pierluigi Baima-Bollone (1937-) and others carry out independent research programs in parallel[78]. During this time the Shroud is lengthily submitted to photographic floodlighting, to low-power X-rays and to narrow band ultraviolet light[79]. Dozens of pieces of sticky tape are pressed onto its surface and removed[80]. A side edge is unstitched and a fibre-optic

[Right (enlarge). ©1978 Barrie M. Schwortz Collection, STERA, Inc.[81]. STURP's Ray Rogers (1927–2005) (left) and John Jackson (centre) look at the underside of the Shroud, after the backing cloth sewn on in 1534 had just been unstitched by Giovanni Riggi (right).]

endoscope is inserted between the Shroud and its backing cloth to examine the underside, which has not been seen in over 400 years[82]. It was immediately apparent that while the body image did not penetrate to the underside, the blood had stained right through-further evidence that the image was not painted[83]! The bottom edge (at the foot of the frontal image) is also unstitched and examined[84]. Riggi microvacuums the dust in the space between the Shroud's underside

[Left (enlarge) ©1978 Barrie M. Schwortz Collection, STERA, Inc.[85]: Prof. Giovanni Riggi (back to camera) inserts a special vacuum nozzle between the Shroud underside and its Holland Cloth backing, to gather dust, pollen and other particulate matter which had been sealed in that space for over 440 years[86].]

and its Holland Cloth backing which was sewn on to the Shroud in 1534, as part of the repairs to the damage caused by the 1532 fire[87]. Riggi's dust samples have been used in Shroud research[88]. including identification of plant and human DNA which "would be ... compatible with the historic path followed by the Turin Shroud during its presumed journey from the Near East"[89]! [see 18Oct15, 25Oct15, 10Nov15, 24Nov15, 30Nov15 & 04Dec15]. Baima Bollone obtains sample of Shroud bloodstain by mechanically disentangling warp and weft threads in the area of the 'small of the back' bloodstain on the Shroud's dorsal image[90]. He would later confirm that he had detected the presence of blood preserved unaltered (see future). Through ultraviolet fluorescence photography the scourge marks were observed to contain many finely spaced lines or scratches, consistent with a flogging of real human skin[91]. On the dorsal foot imprint STURP's examination discovered an abundance of microscopic dust or dirt, atypical of the rest of the image, which was likely transferred to the Shroud from the feet of a barefoot man[92]. These subliminal details cannot reasonably be ascribed to a hypothetical forger because he himself could not see them and there was no reason to put them there since no one else could see them either[93]! In June 1982 (see

[Right (enlarge). Max Frei (independent from STURP) taking sticky-tape samples from the Shroud at the start of the STURP scientific examination in 1978, with STURP's Ray Rogers looking on[94]:

future) Max Frei would publish the results of his identification of pollen taken by tape uplift (which he pioneered) from the Shroud in 1973 [see 1973a & 1973d] and 1978[95]. As summarised by Bulst, "Pollens from 58 species of plants have been found on the Shroud [by Frei]. But only 17 of these, i.e., less than one-third, grow in France or Italy"[96]!

1978u 8-12 October. STURP continues its around-the-clock examination of the Shroud, performing dozens of tests, taking thousands of photographs, photomicrographs, x-rays and spectra[97]. A total of 120 continuous hours of testing is done, with team members working on different parts of the Shroud simultaneously[98]. This is the most in-depth series of tests ever performed on the Shroud[99].

1978v 13 October. STURP completes its scientific work during the evening of this day[100]. The Shroud is returned to its casket the following morning[101].

1978w 15 December. McCrone visits Ray Rogers at Los Alamos and Rogers trustingly loans McCrone all 32 of the sticky tape samples that Rogers had taken from the Shroud[102], on the condition that McCrone would only cut small sections of the tapes for microscopy[103].

1978x 25 December (Christmas Day). McCrone begins examination of image samples from the Shroud[104]. McCrone falsely claimed that half the tapes were his: "When I returned to Chicago with the tapes, I split them into two duplicate sets - one for Ray and one for me"[105]. But they weren't even Rogers' tapes - they were STURP's! And McCrone was lying because on his own admission he worked on all 32 of the tapes: "Careful study of each of these 32 tapes, micrometer by micrometer, over a period of months"[106]. See 05Jan16 for Rogers' own account of the damage McCrone inflicted on STURP's tapes. McCrone initially refused to return STURP's tapes to Rogers but under threat of legal action by STURP's lawyers[107], McCrone first returned to Rogers the more damaged half of the tapes[108]. And then after a visit to his Chicago laboratory by STURP's Ray Rogers, John Jackson and Eric Jumper, McCrone returned to them the remaining "all slides, bits and pieces of those tape slides"[109]. Even then McCrone was lying because he kept back one Shroud "slide 3-CB" and afterwards he "was forced by threats of legal action to return even that tape"[110]. Later McCrone self-evidently falsely claimed that he was not "very bright" and was "conned out of my set of tapes" by STURP[111]! On the tapes McCrone discovered a small quantity of iron oxide and since this was found more on the blood areas of the Shroud, McCrone concluded that it was red pigment used by an artist[112]. The STURP team did not accept McCrone's conclusions, because he did not take their findings into consideration[113]. Jackson pointed out that it was not surprising to find iron oxide in the blood areas of the Shroud because iron is a component of blood[114].

1979a1 Yesterday, 11 July 2022, I emailed Sudarium of Oviedo expert Mark Guscin and asked him, "Can you tell me the date or the month in 1979 when: 1. Giulio Ricci, and 2. Max Frei, visited the Sudarium of Oviedo?" See the next two "Date unknown"s. He replied this morning, 12 July 2022, "... I'll check and get back to you." If and when Guscin does get back to me with the dates, I will replace the "Date Unknown"s with the date or month of each and reorder those parts of my chronology below. If it's after I start my next post (which will be "Prehistory of the Shroud of Turin"), I'll update this post in the background.

1979a Date unknown. Vatican archivist Giulio Ricci (1913-95) again (see 1965) examines the Sudarium of Oviedo ("the face cloth [Greek soudarion] that had been on Jesus’ head" - Jn 20:7)[115]. This time he examines the back side of the cloth which is the side that was against the face[116]. Ricci again observes that the blood stain pattern on the Sudarium closely resembles that on the Shroud[117]. Ricci confirms that one end of the Sudarium was tucked behind the head, and the rest of it was placed across the face and 'part of it folded back on itself so that there is a double image of blood stains, one of which is the reversal of the other[118].

1979b Date unknown. Max Frei (1913-83) takes 46 sticky tape pollen samples from the Sudarium of Oviedo[119]. On the Sudarium Frei identified the pollen of 13 plants, four of which do not grow in Europe while are frequently encountered in Palestine, in the deserts, in salt places or on rocks and five others are Mediterranean plants that grow also in Palestine[120]. On the Sudarium the pollen of plants that instead indicate a presence of the Shroud in Anatolia and Constantinople are not present and this can be explained by a different route of the two relics to get in Europe[121]. The presence on the Sudarium of pollen of Phoenix dactylifera [date palm], Ceratonia siliqua [carob], Tamarix africana and Acacia albida could mean a trip of the Sudarium through North Africa[122].

1979c February. Gove and colleagues write to Archbishop Ballestrero of Turin, formally offering to radiocarbon date the Shroud using their new method[124].

1979d 24-25 March. STURP holds its 'First Data Analysis Workshop' on the Shroud, in Santa Barbara, California[125]. According to their preliminary findings, the image shows no evidence of the hand of an artist; the body image does not appear to be any form of scorch; and the blood image was probably present before the body image[126]. Walter McCrone claims he has found evidence of an artist[127], but McCrone's views are not shared by STURP, thus beginning a highly polarized, long-term, adversarial relationship between McCrone and STURP[128].

1979e July. Israeli archaeologist Rachel Hachlili (1935-2019) reports her findings from excavations at `En Boqeq, Israel, near Jericho of rock tombs which date from the first century BC to the first century AD[129]. In one of the tombs, a skull contained two bronze coins of Herod Agrippa I (r. 37-44 AD) and in a skull in another tomb, a bronze coin of Herod Archelaus (r. 4 BC-AD 6) (see Mt 2:22-23), were found[130]. Hachlili states, "The coins originally must have been placed on the eyes of the deceased ... this practice was followed often[131]. These tiny coins would pass through the eye socket into the skull as a body's soft tissue decomposed[132]. But after Hachlilli became aware that Shroud researchers were using her findings as support for there having been coins over the eyes of the Shroudman, Hachlili changed her interpretation and claimed that the coins she found at Jericho had been placed in the mouth, not on the eyes[133]. However, it is not possible for a coin to drop from the mouth into the skull when a body is in an ordinary, supine position because the foramen magnum-the only hole through which a coin could pass-would be blocked by cervical vertebrae[134]. Coins placed in the mouth would ultimately fall into the throat or the upper thorax, but not the skull[135]. Exhumed burials have revealed loose teeth in the mouth, the shoulders and among the ribs but no teeth have been found inside the skull[136]. Experiments have demonstrated that it is possible for coins to fall into the skull through the upper eye sockets only and not through the mouth[137]

1979f August. Fr Francis Filas (1915-85) photographs an enlargement of the Shroud face which he had used in television programs[138]. This enlargement in turn had been made from a second-generation sepia print based on an original 1931 Enrie photographic plate[139]. To his surprise, Filas noticed a design over the right eye, that he had never seen before[140]. Filas took the photo to Michael Marx, a Chicago numismatist who had previously volunteered his professional coin identification services to Filas[141]. After Marx had scanned the photograph with his magnifier, he called Filas' attention to four curving Greek capital letters, "UCAI"[142]. On Marx's advice, Filas then obtained Frederic Madden's 1864 History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament[143]. Filas then noticed on the coin over the right eye a lituus or astrologer's staff in the same location and angle of a lepton coin minted by Pontius Pilate after AD 29[144]. Filas assumed that the "UCAI" was a misspelling of "IOUKAICAROC" ("of Tiberius Caesar"), the Roman Emperor Tiberius Casesar (r. AD 14-37)[145]. However, in 1988 the Italian numismatist Mario Moroni showed [see 18Apr20] that there was no need to resort to a misspelling, as Filas had misinterpreted the orientation of the lituus, and the coin over the Shroudman's right eye was a Pontius Pilate dilepton, minted in AD 29 (and Jesus was crucified in AD 30)! Nevertheless, it was Filas who discovered that there were Greeks letters over the right eye of the man on the Shroud which were part of the inscription of "of Tiberius Caesar" on a Pontius Pilate lepton coin and therefore the man on the Shroud is Jesus!

1979g 12-14 October. The STURP team meets at Los Alamos National Laboratory near Albuquerque, New Mexico, to review, compare and correlate data from the various tests performed on the Shroud and celebrate the first anniversary of their examination[146]. Reports are presented for each experiment and each team member provides an update of his work[147]. Father Francis Filas presents his Coin Theory" for the first time[148].

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Wilson, I. & Miller, V., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.47. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.303. [return]
4. de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.22; Email from Ian Wilson to S.E. Jones, "RE: What was the month of publication of your book, `The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ?,' Doubleday & Company, 1978?" 25 June 2022, 6:41 am. [return]
5. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Victor Gollancz: London, front cover. [return]
6. Roberts, A. & Donaldson, J., eds, 1951, "The Ante-Nicene Fathers: The Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325," Vol. VIII: The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and Epistles, The Clementina, Apocrypha, Decretals, Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents, Remains of the First Ages, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted 1974, p.558. [return]
7. Roberts & Donaldson, 1951, p.558.n4. [return]
8. The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ?" Doubleday & Co: Garden City NY, pp.99-100. [return]
9. Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.130. [return]
10. Email from Barrie Schwortz, "RE: Could you email me the original photograph of Tom d'Muhala?," 22 June 2022, 2:29 am. [return]
11. Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, pp.55-67. [return]
12. Heller, 1983, pp.55, 62. [return]
13. Heller, 1983, pp.61-62, 76. [return]
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16. Heller, 1983, p.55. [return]
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20. Jumper, E., Stevenson, K. & Jackson, J., 1978, "Images of Coins on a Burial Cloth?," The Numismatist, July, Vol. 91, No. 7, pp.1349-1357; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.204. [return]
21. Iannone, 1998, p.35. [return]
22. Iannone, 1998, p.35. [return]
23. Stevenson, K.E., 1999, "Image of the Risen Christ: Remarkable New Evidence About the Shroud," Frontier Research Publications: Toronto ON, p.130. [return]
24. Stevenson, 1999, p.130. [return]
25.Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.223; Tribbe, 2006, p.131. [return]
26. "A three dimensional image," Santa Sindone, 31 July 2018. [return]
27. Balossino, N., 1998, "The image on the Shroud: Results of Photography and Information Technology," Neame, A., transl., St Pauls: Ireland, pp.15-17. [return]
28. Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.51; Tribbe, 2006, p.143. [return]
29. Moretto, 1999, p.51. [return]
30. Tamburelli, G., 1985, "An Image Resurrection of the Man of the Shroud," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 15, June, pp.2-6; Moroni, M., "Pontius Pilate's Coin on the Right Eye of the Man in the Holy Shroud, in the Light of the New Archaeological Findings," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, p.275; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.223; Balossino, 1998, p.1; Iannone, 1998, pp.34-35; Moretto, 1999, p.51; Baima-Bollone, P., "Images of Extraneous Objects on the Shroud," in Scannerini, S. & Savarino, P., eds, 2000, "The Turin Shroud: Past, Present and Future," International scientific symposium, Turin, 2-5 March 2000," Effatà: Cantalupa, p.130. [return]
31. Moroni, 1991, p.275; Guerrera, 2001, p.96. [return]
32. Tamburelli, G., 1982, "Reading the Holy Shroud, called the Fifth Gospel, with the Aid of the Computer," Shroud Spectrum International, March, pp.3-11, 5. [return]
33. "A three dimensional image," Santa Sindone, 31 July 2018. [return]
34. Wilson, 1998, p.303. [return]
35. Wilson, 1998, p.303; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.60. [return]
36. Brooks, E.H., II., Miller, V.D. & Schwortz, B.M., 1981, "The Turin Shroud: Contemporary Insights to an Ancient Paradox," Worldwide Exhibition: Chicago IL, p.2. [return]
37. Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 21; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, pp.12, 184; Guerrera, 2001, p.235; Borkan, 1995, p.21; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.184; Wilson, 1998, p.303; Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.35; Guerrera, 2001, p.60; Tribbe, 2006, p.8. [return]
39. Brooks, Miller & Schwortz, 1981, p.3. [return]
40. Wilson, 1979, p.237; Heller, 1983, p.79; Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Allanheld: Totowa NJ, p.1; Borkan, 1995, p.21. [return]
41. Wilson, 1998, p.303; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.6. [return]
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48. Wilson, 1979, p.239; Brooks, Miller & Schwortz, 1981, p.4; Murphy, C., 1981, "Shreds of evidence: Science confronts the miraculous - the Shroud of Turin," Harper's, Vol. 263, November, pp.42-65, 50; Heller, 1983, p.79; Antonacci, 2000, p.47; Guerrera, 2001, p.60; Tribbe, 2006, pp.131-132; Wilson, 2010, p.55. [return]
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58. Oxley, 2010, p.208. [return]
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60. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, pp.26-27; Wilson, 1998, p.304. [return]
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81. Email 30 June 2022 2:45 am, from Barrie Schwortz to S.E. Jones, "RE: Could you email me the original of the photo of Ray Rogers, John Jackson and Giovanni Riggi looking at the underside of the Shroud?" [return]
82. Wilson, 1998, p.304. [return]
83. Wilson, I. & Miller, V., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.61. [return]
84. Wilson, 1998, p.304. [return]
85. Email 3 July 2022 3:30 am, from Barrie Schwortz to S.E. Jones, "RE: Could you email me the original of your photo of Giovanni Riggi vacuuming the dust between the underside of the Shroud and its Holland Cloth backing?" [return]
86. Schwortz, B., 1978, "1978 Examination Photographs," [return]
87. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.61; Gove, 1996, p.44; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, pp.71, 206; Wilson, 1998, pp.95-96; Wilson, 2010, p.61; Fanti, G. & Malfi, P., 2015, "The Shroud of Turin: First Century after Christ!," Pan Stanford: Singapore, p.179. [return]
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115. Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of Turin," in Berard, 1991, pp.303-324, 312. [return]
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118. Whanger, 1991, p.312. [return]
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124. Wilson, 1998, p.305. [return]
125. Wilson, 1998, p.305. [return]
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128. Wilson, 1998, p.305. [return]
129. Borkan, 1995, p.49 n.129; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
130. Borkan, 1995, p.49 n.129; Iannone, 1998, p.205; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
131. Hachlili, R., 1979, "Ancient Burial Customs Preserved in Jericho Hills," Biblical Archaeology Review 5.4, July, 28-35, 34-35; Borkan, 1995, p.49 n.129; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
132. Borkan, 1995, p.49 n.129; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
133. Hachlili, R. & Killebrew, A., 1983, "Was the Coin on Eye Custom a Jewish Burial Practice in the Second Temple Period?," Biblical Archaeologist, 46 (3), pp.147-153; Iannone, 1998, p.205; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
134. Meacham, W., 1986, "On the Archaeological Evidence for a Coin-on-Eye Jewish Burial Custom in the First Century A.D.," Biblical Archaeologist, 49, March, pp.56-59, 57; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
135. Meacham, 1986, p.57; Borkan, 1995, p.49 n.129; Iannone, 1998, p.205; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
136. Meacham, 1986, p.57; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
137. Moroni, 1991, pp.279-80; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
138. Filas, F.L., 1980, "The Dating of the Shroud of Turin from Coins of Pontius Pilate," Cogan Productions: Youngtown AZ, p.3. [return]
139. Filas, 1980, p.3. [return]
140. Filas, 1980, p.3. [return]
141. Filas, 1980, p.3. [return]
142. Filas, 1980, p.3. [return]
143. Filas, 1980, p.4. [return]
144. Filas, 1980, p.4; Baima-Bollone, P., "Images of Extraneous Objects on the Shroud," in Scannerini, S. & Savarino, P., eds, 2000, "The Turin Shroud: Past, Present and Future," International scientific symposium, Turin, 2-5 March 2000," Effatà: Cantalupa, p.131. [return]
145. Filas, 1980, p.4; ; Borkan, 1995, p.28. [return]
146. Wilson, 1998, p.305. [return]
147. Wilson, 1998, p.305. [return]
148. Wilson, 1998, p.305. [return]

Posted 20 June 2022. Updated 18 July 2022.