Sunday, September 12, 2021

The Shroud man and Jesus were beaten #36: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!

THE SHROUD MAN AND JESUS WERE BEATEN #36
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is part #36, "The Shroud man and Jesus were beaten," of my series, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!" For more information about this series, see the "Main index #1" and "Other marks and images #26." See also "The Shroud of Turin: 3.4. The man on the Shroud and Jesus were beaten." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Main index #1] [Previous: The Shroud is consistent with the man being Jesus #35] [Next: The Shroud man and Jesus were scourged #37]


  1. The Bible and the Shroud #33
    1. The Shroud man and Jesus were beaten #36

Jesus was struck in the face The Gospels record that Jesus was struck in the face on three occasions[2]. The first was at the night session of the Sanhedrin, when Jesus was first sentenced to death[3]. Then He was struck [Gk. rapisma = hit with the palm of the hand[4]] by one of the Jewish court officers (Jn 18:22-23)[5]. The second occasion was the morning after that session, when the sentence of death was ratified before the full Sanhedrin[6]. Then the Jewish guards blindfolded Jesus, spat in His face, struck Him [Gk. kolaphizo = to strike with the fist[7]] and asked Him to prophesy who did it (Mt 26:67-68; Mk 14:65; Lk 22:63-65)[8]. The third occasion when Jesus was struck in the face was after He had been scourged, when mock homage was paid to Him and He was crowned with thorns[9]. Then Jesus was spat on by the Roman soldiers and then struck [Gk. etupton = to strike with the hand or stick repeatedly[10]] on the head with a reed [Gk. kalamon = a reed, staff[11] (Mt 27:27-31; Mk 15:16-20; Jn 19:3)[12]. The terms used by the Gospel writers signify heavy blows with the hand, fist or rod[13].

The man on the Shroud was struck in the face The man on the

[Above (enlarge)[14]: Enrie 1931 negative photograph of the face of the man on the Shroud. The reversed `3' bloodstain is on the Shroudman's left forehead[15]. Because the negative is a left-right reversal of the positive (see below), which in turn is a left-right reversal of the man who was inside the Shroud, this negative is left-right correct for the man who was inside the Shroud. As can be seen, there is a large swelling of the right cheek and between the nose a sunken area before another swelling of the man's left cheek. His nose has also been bent towards his right. As we shall see below, artists from the 6th to the 13th century depicted these swellings of the man's cheeks and his bent nose!]

Shroud had been beaten about the face[16]. His facial wounds include: swelling of both eyebrows, a torn right eyelid, a large swelling below his right eye, a swollen nose, a triangular-shaped wound on right cheek with its apex pointing to his nose, a swelling to his left cheek, a swelling to the left side of his chin[17]. His right eye is nearly swollen shut, and his nose is twisted[18]. The swelling of the man's cheek, under his right eye-socket, was probably caused by a blow with a stick, estimated to have been about 4.5 mm. (1.75 in.) in diameter[19].

Byzantine artists in their Christ Pantocrator ("ruler over all"[20]) icons, depcted an asymmetric face of Jesus, with His cheeks accentuated and nose deformed[21] (see examples below).

Art historian, Prof. Heinrich Pfeiffer SJ, wrote:

"The Byzantine masters, who could have observed the image of the Shroud at close range, had often, in their icons and mosaics, accentuated the cheekbone, especially on one side of the face, and this corresponds to our fifth spy element, the swelling of the cheek. Thus they drew an asymmetric face with one cheek concave and a noticeable bulge of the bone, especially on one side"[22].
Below is what Byzantine artists would have seen in their looking at the the face of the Shroudman, to depict him:

[Above (enlarge)[23]: Positive photograph of the face of the man on the Shroud, showing his swollen cheeks and deformed nose.]

Below are photographs of the positive of the Shroud face (left) and its negative flipped horizontally (right) for ease of comparison.

[Above (enlarge): Durante 2002, positive photograph (left) of the Shroud face, compared with Enrie 1931 negative photograph of the same face (right), flipped horizontally. The reversed `3' bloodstain is on the Shroudman's left forehead (see above) but it appears to be his right forehead because the imprint on the Shroud is a mirror-image of the man who was inside it[24]. As we saw above, the Enrie negative is left-right correct for the man who was inside the Shroud. As can be seen, when the above image is enlarged, there is a swelling of the man's cheek under his left eye, and a sunken area between the man's nose and a swelling over the man's right cheek. His nose is swollen and has been displaced towards the right.

In the 1930s French biologist Paul Vignon (1865-1943) discovered twenty peculiarities recurring in hundreds of Byzantine depictions of Jesus beginning in the sixth century, which were features visible on the Shroud[25]. Shroud historian Ian Wilson later reduced these twenty to fifteen more certain "Vignon markings"[26]. Many of these peculiarities made no artistic sense and some were imperfections in the Shroud's weave[27].

Below is Wilson's sketch of the Shroudman's face showing the location of his 15 Vignon markings.

[Above (enlarge): "The Vignon markings-how Byzantine artists created a living likeness from the Shroud image. (1) Transverse streak across forehead, (2) three-sided `square' between brows, (3) V shape at bridge of nose, (4) second V within marking 2, (5) raised right eyebrow, (6) accentuated left cheek, (7) accentuated right cheek, (8) enlarged left nostril, (9) accentuated line between nose and upper lip, (10) heavy line under lower lip, (11) hairless area between lower lip and beard, (12) forked beard, (13) transverse line across throat, (14) heavily accentuated owlish eyes, (15) two strands of hair"[28].]

Wilson's "(6) accentuated left cheek," "(7) accentuated right cheek" and "(8) enlarged left nostril" (above) correspond to what I have above called a swelling of the man's left cheek, a sunken area between the man's nose, a swelling over the man's right cheek and his swollen and displaced nose.

And below is Wilson's 15 Vignon markings in yellow, superimposed over the positive of the Shroud face:

[Above (enlarge): Positive photograph of the Shroud face, with Vignon markings numbers 1-15 superimposed[29]. See below for comparisons of Pantocrator icons with these superimposed Vignon marking numbers.]

Christ Pantocrator icons which depict Jesus with an asymmetrical face, both cheeks swollen and a bent nose include:

■ Sixth century pantocrator in the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy (below), which was commissioned by Theodoric the Great (454–526)[30]. It has 8 Vignon markings[31].

[Above (enlarge): Christ Pantocrator, c. 529, in the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy[32]. Note Jesus' accentuated cheeks( 6) and (7) [33] and displaced nose(8)[34], as on the Shroud above!]

When the face of the above Pantocrator is compared with that of the Shroudman below (enlarged), it is evident that the 6th century artist

[Above (enlarge): Comparison of the sixth century Pantocrator mosaic, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo church, Ravenna and the Shroud face with the 15 Vignon marking numbers in yellow superimposed. This Ravenna Pantocrator has 8 Vignon markings[35]. By my count there are nine: (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (13), (14) and (15) - see above. Some Pantocrators have even more Vignon markings (see future below), but even nine is proof beyond reasonable doubt that this sixth century, c.529, mosaic was based on the Shroud. Which means the Shroud already existed 731 years before its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date and 826 years before 1355 when Bishop d'Arcis claimed that the Shroud was "cunningly painted"!]

was trying to interpret and depict the man's swollen left and right cheeks on the Shroud, which is a photographic negative[36].

■ Sixth century Christ Pantocrator in St. Catherine's Monastery, Sinai[37].

[Above (original)[38]: Extract from Christ Pantocrator, St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai (c. 550). Again, note the asymmetrical face, the swollen right cheek (the artist had evidently realised that Jesus' body would have been the left-right reverse of His image on the Shroud[39], and a sunken area between the nose and a swelling over the left cheekbone, as well as the bent nose[40], exactly as they are on the Shroud's negative image above!]

A side-by-side comparison below between the St Catherine's Sinai Pantocrator (above) and the positive face of the Shroudman (above)

[Above (enlarge): Comparison of the sixth century Christ Pantocrator in St. Catherine's Monastery, Sinai and the and the Shroud face with the 15 Vignon markings superimposed. I have been unable to find a reference to how many Vignon markings it has, but by my count it has twelve: (1), (2), (3), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (13) and (14) - see above. Particularly striking is "(13) transverse line across throat" which as Scavone pointed out below, the artist had faithfully depicted as Jesus' "garment neckline"! Again this is further proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroud was the artist's model and therefore already existed in c.550, seven centuries before the earliest radiocarbon date of the Shroud and eight centuries before the Bishop d'Arcis claimed that the Shroud had been "cunningly painted"!]

makes it plain that the sixth century artist had the Shroud before him as his model!

Historian Prof. Daniel Scavone wrote of this icon:

"St. Catherine's Monastery, tucked away and virtually isolated in the Sinai Peninsula, was a place that evaded the iconoclasts. Here still resides perhaps the earliest surviving portrait-icon of Christ, in encaustic on wood. It dates from the 6th c. A comparison of this icon with the face on the Shroud of Turin will, for many, put an end to their doubts about the Shroud. The icon is nearly perfectly congruent to the Shroud-face. Notice especially the high right eyebrow, the very hollow right cheek, and the garment neckline. The artist seems even to have rendered even the creases and wrinkles still seen on the Shroud, meaning that it must have been inspired by, i.e., copied from, the Shroud"[41].

■ Sixth century pantocrator on a silver vase found at Homs (ancient Emesa) in Syria, which has "distortions carved into the right [sic left]

[Above (enlarge)[42]: Shroud-like face on a 6th century silver liturgical vase found at the site of ancient Emesa (today's Homs) in Syria[43]. Note the deliberately carved depiction of Jesus' swollen and and bruised left (actually right) cheek, exactly as they appear on the Shroud above! See 16Feb12, 06Oct13, 09Aug15 & 07Dec16]

side of the face, where the Shroud face has two sizable bruises, the swollen cheek and the half-moon bruise below"[42].

As can be seen in the comparison below between the 6th century Homs vase pantocrator (above) and the positive face of the Shroudman (above), the 6th century artist has depicted on the vase, his own inter-

[Above (enlarge): Further striking similarities between the 6th century Emessa (Homs) vase and the Shroud face with the 15 Vignon marking numbers in yellow superimposed. Again I have been unable to find a reference to how many Vignon markings it has, but by my count it has eleven: (1), (2), (3), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (13) and (14) - see above. Again, particularly striking is its "(13) transverse line across throat" which as Scavone pointed out below, the artist had interpreted as Jesus' "garment neckline"! So again this is further proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Shroud was, directly or indirectly, the artist's model and therefore already existed in c.550, seven centuries before the earliest radiocarbon date of the Shroud and eight centuries before the Bishop d'Arcis claimed that the Shroud had been "cunningly painted"!]]

pretation of the Shroudman's swollen cheeks, including a bruised left cheek, as well as a moustache and beard which encircle his mouth. Clearly the only plausible explanation is that this sixth century artist, either directly or indirectly, had the Shroud as his model!

■ Eighth century portrait of Christ in the Catacomb of Pontianus, Rome)[45].

[Above: Closeup of the face of Jesus in the Catacomb of Pontianus[46] (see original[47]): Note the man's swollen right cheek, his nose bent towards his right and the sunken area between his nose and and a swelling of his left cheek, again exactly as they appear on the Shroud above! Also note the "starkly geometrical" three-sided topless square between Jesus' eyebrows[48], which is Vignon marking 2 above. See 25Jul07, 18Mar12, 22Sep12, 27Apr14].

As can be seen in the comparison below between the face of the 8th century portrait of Jesus in the Catacomb of Pontianus, Rome (above) and the positive face of the Shroudman (above), the artist has depicted

[Above (enlarge): More close similarities between the 8th century portrait of Jesus in the Catacomb of Pontianus, Rome and the Shroud face with the 15 Vignon marking numbers in yellow superimposed. This Pontianus Pantocrator has 8 Vignon markings[49]. By my count there are ten: (1), (2), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (13), (14) and (15) - see above.]

features found only on the Shroud, including a three-sided topless square between Jesus' eyebrows, and His swollen cheeks, particularly his (apparent) left cheek, which the artist had coloured reddish to represent the bruising of that cheek which is evident on the Shroud!

■ Tenth century Christ Enthroned fresco in the Church of Sant' Angelo in Formis, near Capua, Italy[50]. The church was built by Desiderius,

[Above (enlarge)[51]: Extract of face of Jesus from larger 11th century pantocrator fresco painted by Byzantine artists hired from Constantinople[52]. Note the accentuated cheeks, depicting the swollen cheeks of the man on the Shroud (see above)!]

the Abbot of Monte Cassino (1058–87), who later became Pope Victor III (r. 1086-87)[53]. The church's frescoes, including this Pantocrator, date between 1072 and 1087[54].

A comparison between the face of Jesus in this 10th century Pantocrator and the positive of the face of the Shroudman (below),

[Above (enlarge): Very close similarities between the face of Jesus in the 10th century Christ Enthroned fresco in the Church of Sant' Angelo in Formis, Italy, and the Shroud face with the 15 Vignon marking numbers in yellow superimposed. This Pantocrator has a claimed 13 Vignon markings[55]. By my count it has twelve: (1), (3), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (13), (14) and (15) - see above.]]

reveals the following very close similarities: stylised depictions of the reversed 3 bloodstain as a tuft of hair above and an oval shape below; as well as of the Jesus swollen left and right cheeks, where they are on the Shroud!

■ Twelfth century Christ Pantocrator mosaic in the Cathedral of Cefalu, Sicily[56].

[Above (enlarge)[57]: Face of the c.1130 bust of Christ Pantocrator on the apse of Cefal├╣ Cathedral, Sicily. As can be seen, Jesus' right cheek is swollen, there is a sunken area between his nose and a swelling over his left cheekbone, and His nose is bent[58], as they appear to be on the Shroud (above)].

A closeup comparison of the face of Jesus in this 12th century Cefalu Pantocrator mosaic with the positive of the Shroud face, as the

[Above (enlarge): Closely similar features between the face of Jesus in the 12th century Christ Pantocrator mosaic in the Cathedral of Cefalu, Sicily, and the Shroud face with the 15 Vignon marking numbers in yellow superimposed. It is claimed that this Cefalu Pantocrator has all 15 Vignon markings[59]. By my count it has thirteen: (1), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (12), (13), (14) and (15) - see above.]

artist would have seen it (above), includes these closely similar features in common: "V shape at bridge of nose" (3) as well as "accentuated left cheek" (6) and "accentuated right cheek" (7). The latter is particularly striking, because the artist has depicted a diagonal sunken area between the side of Jesus' nose and his lower left cheek, which is also on the Shroud!

■ Thirteenth century Pantocrator in Hagia Sophia Cathedral, Istanbul (formerly Constantinople).

[Above (original): Face of Christ Pantocrator, c. 1261, in the Deesis Mosaic in Hagia Sophia Cathedral, Istanbul[60]. Note again Christ's swollen left cheek and a sunken area between His nose and swollen right cheek. Again, why would there have been such a strange artistic tradition, persisting from the 6th to the 13th century, if it were not that the Shroud was the artists' model and they were trying to depict Jesus' beaten-up face as it is on the Shroud?]

Seventh and last comparison of the face of Jesus in this thirteenth century Pantocrator in Hagia Sophia Cathedral, Istanbul

[Above (enlarge): Obviously similar features between the face of Jesus in this 13th century Deesis Mosaic in Hagia Sophia Cathedral, Istanbul, and the Shroud face with the 15 Vignon marking numbers in yellow superimposed. This Pantocrator is claimed to have only 8 Vignon markings[61], but by my count it has ten: (2), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (13) and (14) - see above.]

Problem for the forgery theory. See previous three: #32, #34 and #35. We have seen above, especially in the photographic negative of the Shroud face, that the man on the Shroud has a swollen right cheek (opposite from the reversed `3' bloodstain which is on his left - see above) and a sunken left area between his nose and a swelling over his left cheekbone. In the photographic positive, which is what the artists would have seen looking at the Shroud, the sides are mirror-reversed, so the major swelling appears to be under the man's right eye, and the sunken area between the nose and a swelling over his opposite cheekbone appears to be under his left eye. Which is exactly what the various artists depicted! There would be no reason for the various artist who lived many centuries, from the sixth to the thirteenth, and thousands of kilometres apart, to depict Jesus that way, unless the Shroud was their model, directly or indirectly, and they were trying to interpret the assymetrical face, swollen cheeks and bent nose of the man on the Shroud!

We have also seen by referring to Ian Wilson's numbered sketch above, that the Shroudman's swollen cheeks and displaced nose, are Vignon markings "(6) accentuated left cheek," "(7) accentuated right cheek" and "(8) enlarged left nostril," which are among 15 Vignon markings which occur, to varying degrees, in hundreds of Byzantine depictions of Jesus' face and all 15 are features found on the Shroudman's face!

These are clearly insuperable problems for the forgery theory, and in particular for its claimed "conclusive evidence that the linen of the Shroud of Turin is mediaeval ..."[62], the 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud.. Because, as Wilson pointed out:

"... if the radiocarbon dating is to be believed, there should be no evidence of our Shroud [before 1260]. The year 1260 was the earliest possible date for the Shroud's existence by radiocarbon dating's calculations. Yet artistic likenesses of Jesus originating well before 1260 can be seen to have an often striking affinity with the face on the Shroud, insofar as anyone would have been able to make this out on the cloth itself, as distinct from the hidden photographic negative"[63]
Conclusion We saw above that according to the Gospels, Jesus was repeatedly struck in the face. And we also saw that the man on the Shroud had been struck in the face. In particular, we saw in the photographic negative of the Shroudman's face that he has very swollen cheeks and his nose is swollen and displaced, which can only be the result of severe beatings about the head and face. Moreover, we saw that from the sixth century, through to the thirteenth century, Byzantine artists all, to varying degrees, depicted the exalted and enthroned "Pantocrator" Jesus with swollen cheeks and a displaced nose! We saw that the French biologist Paul Vignon (1865-1943), from his study of hundreds of Byzantine depictions of the enthroned Jesus, identified 20 oddities, shared between most of them. Wilson reduced Vignon's 20 to 15 more certain "Vignon markings." And these 15 Vignon markings include "(6) accentuated left cheek, (7) accentuated right cheek, [and] (8) enlarged left nostril"! And although the Gospels mention that Jesus was struck in the face, they do not describe the effect of those beatings. The consistency and lack of `evolution' of these 15 Vignon markings over seven centuries, and over thousands of kilometres, can only be plausibly explained by the artists in each century referring to the existing Shroud as their model!

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, p.40. [return]
3. Ibid. [return]
4. Zodhiates, S., 1992, "The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament," AMG Publishers: Chattanooga TN, Third printing, 1994, p.1260. [return]
5. Wuenschel, 1954, p.40; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.51; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.119; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.39. [return]
6. Wuenschel, 1954, p.40. [return]
7. Zodhiates, 1992, p.874. [return]
8. Wuenschel, 1954, p.41; Hoare, R., 1978, "Testimony of the Shroud," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.40; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.52; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.122; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.44; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, p.86; Iannone, 1998, p.51; Antonacci, 2000, p.119; Guerrera, 2001, p.38; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.44, 313. [return]
9. Wilson, 2010, p.44. [return]
10. Zodhiates, 1992, p.1399. [return]
11. Bauer, W., Arndt, W.F., Gingrich, F.W. & Danker, F.W., 1979, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature," University of Chicago Press: Chicago IL, Second edition, p.398. [return]
12. Antonacci, 2000, p.119. [return]
13. Wuenschel, 1954, p.40. [return]
14. Latendresse, M., 2010, Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical. [return]
15. Wilson, 1979, p.37; Morgan, R.H., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.107; Rodante, S., 1981, "The Coronation of Thorns in the Light of the Shroud," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 1, December, pp.4-24, 8; Wilson, 2010, p.35. [return]
16. Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.2; Antonacci, 2000, pp.32, 119. [return]
17. Cameron, J. M., "The Pathologist and the Shroud," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud ," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.58; Wilson, 1979, p.36; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.171. [return]
18. Cameron, 1978, p.58; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.44. [return]
19. Barbet, P., 1953, "A Doctor at Calvary," Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, p.90. [return]
20. Zodhiates, 1992, pp.1093-1094. [return]
21. Pfeiffer, H., 1984, "The Shroud of Turin and the Face of Christ in Paleochristian, Byzantine and Western Medieval Art: Part II," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 10, March, pp.14-15; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.191-192. [return]
22. Pfeiffer, 1984, pp.14-15. [return]
23. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Face Only Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
24. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, pp.68-69; Wilson, 1979, p.30; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.267. [return]
25. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, p.58; Walsh, J.E., 1963, "The Shroud," Random House: New York NY, p.157; Green, M., 1969, "Enshrouded in Silence: In search of the First Millennium of the Holy Shroud," Ampleforth Journal, Vol. 74, No. 3, Autumn, pp.319-345; Wilcox, R.K., 1977, "Shroud," Macmillan: New York NY, p.84; Wilson, 1979, p.104; Morgan, 1980, p.114; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.15; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.20; Borkan, 1995, p.30; Tribbe, 2006, p.249; Wilson, 2010, pp.142-143. [return]
26. Wilson, 1979, p.104; Morgan, 1980, pp.114-115; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, pp.15-16; Borkan, 1995, p.30; Tribbe, 2006, p.249. [return]
27. Wilson, 1979, p.104; Adams, 1982, p.20; Antonacci, 2000, p.124; Tribbe, 2006, p.249. [return]
28. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.82e. [return]
29. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Face Only Horizontal (cropped and rotated right 90°), Sindonology.org. [return]
30. Theodoric the Great: Ravenna," Wikipedia, 22 August 2021. [return]
31. Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.77. [return]
32. "return]
33. Maher, 1986, pp.76-77; Pfeiffer, H., 1983, "The Shroud of Turin and the Face of Christ in Paleochristian, Byzantine and Western Medieval Art," Part I, Shroud Spectrum International, No. 9, December, pp.7-20, 17-18; Antonacci, 2000, pp.124-125. [return]
34. Barbet, 1953, p.76; Heller, 1983, pp.2-3; Bucklin, R., 1970, "The Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ," Medicine, Science and the Law, January; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 26; Cameron, 1978, p.58; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.44; Wilson, 1986, p.17; Iannone, 1998, pp.52-53; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.86; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.29; Guerrera, 2001, p.38; Oxley, 2010, p.171; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.138. [return]
35. Maher, 1986, p.77. [return]
36. Antonacci, 2000, p.124. [return]
37. Scavone, D., "The Shroud of Turin in Constantinople: The Documentary Evidence," in Sutton, R.F., Jr., 1989, "Daidalikon: Studies in Memory of Raymond V Schoder," Bolchazy Carducci Publishers: Wauconda IL, p.311-329, 311, 315; Borkan, 1995, p.31; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.193; Iannone, 1998, p.153; Ruffin, 1999, pp.110-111; Guerrera, 2001, pp.102, 150; Tribbe, 2006, p.21. [return]
38. "Spas vsederzhitel sinay," Wikipedia, 25 December 2011. [return]
39. Barnes, 1934, pp.68-69. [return]
40. Pfeiffer, 1984, pp.14-15; Guerrera, 2001, p.114-13. [return]
41. Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 187. [return]
42. Extract from, "Vase from Emesa," Louvre Museum, Paris, 1992 (no longer online). [return]
43. Maher, 1986, p.77; Wilson, 1986, pp.105-106; Iannone, 1998, p.153; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.141; Wilson, 2010, p.135. [return]
42. Scavone, 1991, p.189. [return]
45. Maher, 1986, p.77; Scavone, 1991, p.189; Iannone, 1998, p.153. [return]
46. "Christ Pantocrator in the catacomb of St. Pontianus, c8th century," Fr. Dcn Alexander, Pinterest. [return]
47. "File:Ponziano Wilpert.JPG," Wikimedia Commons, 25 August 2020. [return]
48. Wilson, 1979, p.103; Wilson, 1986, p.105; Wilson, 1998, p.1591; Wilson, 2010, p.142. [return]
49. Wilson, 1979, p.192b. [return]
50. Wilson, I., "The Shroud's History Before the 14th Century," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, p.39; Morgan, 1980, pp.114-115; Wilson, 1986, p.105; Borkan, 1995, p.31; Iannone, 1998, p.153; Wilson, 1998, p.141. [return]
51. Wilson, 1986, p.110a. [return]
52. "Sant'Angelo in Formis: History," Wikipedia, 26 May 2021. [return]
53. Ibid. [return]
54. "Basilica of Saint Angelo in Formis," UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2021. [return]
55. Wilson, 1979, pp.192b, 105. [return]
56. Wilson, 1979, p.102; Maher, 1986, pp.82-83; Wilson, 1986, p.105; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.193; Wilson, 1998, p.141; Tribbe, 2006, p.79. [return]
57. "File:Christ Pantokrator, Cathedral of Cefal├╣, Sicily.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 21 September 2020. [return]
58. Wilson, 1979, p.105. [return]
59. Wilson, 1979, p.102; Maher, 1986, p.83. [return]
60. "File:Christ Pantocrator mosaic from Hagia Sophia 2744 x 2900 pixels 3.1 MB.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 29 August 2021. [return]
61. Maher, 1986, p.81. [return]
62. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615, 611. [return]
63. Wilson, 1998, p.141. [return]

Posted: 12 September 2021. Updated: 27 December 2021.