Wednesday, March 9, 2022

The Shroud man and Jesus were crowned with thorns #38: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is Jesus' burial sheet!

Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is part #38, "The Shroud man and Jesus were crowned with thorns," of my series, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is Jesus' burial sheet!" For more information about this series, see the "Main index #1" and "Other marks and images #26." See also "The Shroud of Turin: 3.5. The man on the Shroud and Jesus were crowned with thorns." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Main index #1] [Previous: The Shroud man and Jesus were scourged #37] [Next: The man on the Shroud and Jesus were crucified #39]

  1. The Bible and the Shroud #33
    1. The Shroud man and Jesus were crowned with thorns #38

The man on the Shroud had been crowned with thorns The

[Right (enlarge)[2]: Bloodstains from puncture marks caused by a crown of thorns on the front (lower) and back (upper) of the Shroudman's head. Note the bloodstains on the back of the man's head (upper) are consistent with a cap, or helmet, of thorns, not a circlet (see below) The apparent image between the two head images is a water stain from extinguishing the 1532 fire[3]. Under the water stain there is a gap of about 6½ inches (~16.5 cms) between the two head images[4]. Evidently this was to accommodate "the face cloth [Gk. soudarion] that had been on [epi] Jesus' head" (Jn 20:6-7), i.e. the Sudarium of Oviedo[5].]

Shroudman had been crowned with thorns (see above)[6]. But it wasn't a circlet crown (see below) as portrayed by artists of the Middle

[Left (enlarge)[7]: Extract from "Christ Crowned with Thorns," by Dieric (Dirk) Bouts (c.1420–75). Even though Bouts may have seen the Shroud, he continued the traditional medieval depiction of the crown of thorns as a circlet, not a cap or helmet of thorns (see below) as indicated by the bloodstains over the back of the Shroudman's head (see above)]

Ages[8]. Rather, the man on the Shroud wore an Eastern style cap[9], or helmet, of thorns (see below)[10], forced down on his head by a Roman soldier[11] and bound around his head[12]. Only that would account for the pattern of puncture wounds over the Shroudman's head[13]:

"The multiple puncture marks with attendant rivulets of blood over the scalp, extending from the centre of the forehead towards the front round to the level of the ears at the back of the head, would suggest a clump of thorny twigs being pressed down upon the head, rather than a circlet, which artists frequently symbolize as a 'crown of thorns'"[14]

[Above (enlarge): "Helmet" of thorns in the permanent exhibition of the Shroud of Turin in the Pontifical Institute Notre Dame of Jerusalem Center[15].]

The puncture marks match the spines of Zizyphus spina Christi, a

[Right (enlarge): "Ziziphus ... spina-christi ... meaning `covered with Christ's-thorn.' ... Ziziphus spina-christi is one of several candidates for Jesus' crown of thorns, hence its name: `They dressed Him up in purple, and after twisting a crown of thorns, they put it on Him' (Mark 15:17)"[16].]

thorn-bearing tree which is common in Judea[17].

The origins of the reversed 3, or epsilon-shaped, bloodflow down the man's forehead from a thorn puncture wound (see "V" below) and an arterial wound (see "A1" below) correspond exactly with a branch of the frontal vein, and the frontal branch of the superficial temple artery,

[Above (enlarge)[18]: "The epsilon-shaped forehead clot lies exactly over the frontal vein, while the arterial wound numbered A1 ... precisely corresponds with the frontal branch of the superficial temple artery"[19].]

respectively[20]. This shows the distinction between venous and arterial blood, which was discovered by Andrea Cesalpino (1524-1603) in 1873[21], ~238 years after the Shroud first appeared in undisputed history in 1355 at Lirey, France, and ~333 years after the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date!

And part of Jesus' crown of thorns might exist today! Since at least the year 409, a relic which purports to be Jesus' crown of thorns (see below) was venerated in Jerusalem[22]. St. Paulinus of Nola (354-431)

[Above (enlarge)[23]: The Crown of Thorns, a circlet of plaited rushes[24], its thorns having been distributed over the centuries as relics[25]. John F. Cherry, an archeologist (not a botanist), claims the rushes are of Juncus balticus, which is native to northern Britain, the Baltic region, and Scandinavia[26]. But apart from it being highly unlikely (to put it mildly) that Northern European rushes would be used in 4th-5th century Jerusalem to fake Jesus' crown of thorns when local rushes were available, the late Prof. Avinoam Danin (1939–2015), author of Flora of Israel Online, identified the rushes as Juncus acutus, which has a wide distribution, including Israel[27]!]

wrote that, "The thorns with which Our Saviour was crowned was held [in Jerusalem] in honor together with the Holy Cross and the pillar of the scourging"[28]. Even earlier than that, in the second - early third

[Above (enlarge)[29]: Extract of "An early representation of the Crowning of Christ ... this fresco, in the Praetextatus Catacombs, and dated to the first years of the IIIrd century, does represent the Mocking of Christ. The figure at the right wears a purple robe; on his head are twiggy branches which the soldiers seem to be hitting with sticks"[30]. In this no later than early third century fresco, Jesus is depicted with a cap or helmet of thorns, just as the Shroudman wore on his head: a thousand years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date!]

century Catacombs of Praetextatus, there is "a rare depiction ... of Christ being crowned with thorns"[31]! The "preeminent in ... learning" St. Vincent of Lerins (d. 445) wrote, "They placed on His head a crown of thorns. It was in fact, in the shape of a pileus [hat, helmet], so that it touched and covered His head in every part"[32]. The Roman statesman and scholar, Cassiodorus (c. 485 – c. 585) wrote of the Crown of Thorns being at Jerusalem in his day, "There [at Jerusalem] we may behold the thorny crown, which was set upon the head of the Redeemer"[33]. Various pilgrims to Jerusalem recorded that the Crown of Thorns was in the Basilica of Mount Sion[34] (destroyed in 614 by the Persians), the Piacenza Pilgrim in the 6th century, and a monk Bernard in 870 states that the crown was still at Mount Sion[35].

About 1063, presumably due to the threat of the rising Seljuk Muslim Empire, the Crown of Thorns was transferred to Constantinople[36], the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Before the 1204 Sack of Constantinople by soldiers of the Fourth Crusade (1202–04), French crusader knight Robert de Clari (1170-1216), who wrote of seeing the Shroud in Constantinople [see "1216"], also wrote of seeing the Crown of Thorns in Constantinople's Pharos Chapel:

"The Holy chapel ... was so rich and noble that there was not a hinge nor a band nor any other part such as is usually made of iron that was not all of silver, and there was no column that was not of jasper or porphyry or some other rich precious stone. ... Within the chapel were found many rich relics. There ... was the blessed Crown with which he was crowned, and which was made of reed with thorns as sharp as the points of daggers ..."[37].
After the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, one of the Fourth Crusade leaders, Baldwin VI (1172-c.1205), who became Emperor Baldwin I (r. 1204–05), carried off the Crown of Thorns to Venice[38]. In 1238, Emperor Baldwin II (1228-1273) (not a descendant of Baldwin I) offered the Crown of Thorns to King Louis IX (1214-1270) (Saint Louis) of France[39]. The crown was then in the hands of the Venetians as security for a loan of 13,134 gold pieces[40]. At Baldwin II's request, Louis IX paid out the loan to the Venetians for the discount equivalent of 10,000 gold pieces[41]: 135,000 livres tournois[42] (1 livres tournois = 80.88 grams of fine silver[43], so 135,000 = 10,918.8 kilograms of fine silver)! In 1239, two Dominican monks, one who had seen the Crown of Thorns in Constantinople, carried the Crown first by sea to France and then overland to Sens[44], about 100km (62 miles) from Paris[45]. On 10 August 1239, Louis IX, accompanied by many prelates and his entire court, met the Crown's returning party five leagues (about 16 kilometres or 10 miles) outside of Sens[46]. Then Louis and his brother Robert I of Artois, both dressed humbly and barefoot, carried the Crown into Sens to the Cathedral of St.

[Above (enlarge)[47]: "King Louis IX Carrying the Crown of Thorns," Stained glass panel, c. 1245-48, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.]

Stephen[48]. The next day, 11 August 1239, Louis returned to Paris and later that day the Crown arrived and was taken by Louis and his brother amid an enthusiastic crowd chanting hymns and prayers to Notre Dame Cathedral and afterward to the Chapel of St. Nicholas within the precincts of the Royal Palace[49]. Later that same year the Crown of Thorns was taken to a chapel in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, about 19 miles (31 kms) west of Paris, where Baldwin II formally presented the Crown of Thorns to Louis IX[50]. In

[Above (original)[51]: Extract from "Louis IX places the crown of thorns at Sainte-Chapelle (illuminated manuscript from 1480s)"[52].]

1248 the Sainte Chapelle was completed and Louis IX installed the Crown of Thorns in its reliquary within it[53]. There the Crown of Thorns remained until the French Revolution (1789-99), when in 1791 it was carried to the Abbey of St. Denis; then in 1793 the Crown was deposited in the Hotel des Monnaies and then in 1794 it was placed in the Bibliothèque Nationale, after which in 1804 the Crown was taken to the Cathedral of Notre Dame[54]. There the Crown of Thorns remained for ~215 years until 15 April 2019 when a fire gutted the 12th century cathedral[55]. But due to the heroics of Fr Jean-Marc Fournier [Right (enlarge)[56]], the chaplain of the Paris Fire Brigade, the Crown was rescued[57] and moved to the Louvre Museum, where it is today[58].

Is the Crown of Thorns relic in the Louvre part of Jesus' cap of thorns (see next)? Given that there is a ~379 year gap between Jesus' crowning with thorns in AD 30 and the earliest known mention of the the Crown of Thorns relic in Jerusalem in AD 409 (see above), it is impossible to know for certain. It could be an early copy from memory of Jesus' crown of thorns. But it seems highly likely that the disciples Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus who took Jesus' dead body down from His cross and buried Him in Joseph's tomb (Mt 27:57-60; Mk 15:43-46; Lk 23:50-53; Jn 19:38-41) , after removing the crown of thorns from Jesus' head, would not have thrown it away but would have kept it as a tangible link to their dead Master. The first mention of the crown of thorns in 409, if it was Jesus', is earlier than the Shroud's c.593 and the Sudarium of Oviedo's c.570! Certainly King Louis IX, who paid the equivalent of 10.9 tonnes of fine silver for it (see above) believed that it was Jesus' crown of thorns. I believe the louvre Crown of Thorns is indeed part of Jesus' crown of thorns, but I would like to see tests done on the rushes and on at least one of the thorns that had been given away by Louis as relics. Unlike the Shroud's linen, radiocarbon dating of one of the rushes and a thorn from the Crown of Thorns relic in the Louvre should be accurate. If they date from the first-century it would be strong evidence that the Crown of Thorns relic is part of Jesus' crown of thorns!

Jesus was crowned with thorns The Gospels record that Jesus was crowned with thorns (my emphasis)[59]:

Mt 27:27-31. "27Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the governor's headquarters, and they gathered the whole battalion before him. 28And they stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him, 29and twisting together [plexantes "having plaited"[60].] a crown of thorns, they put it on his head and put a reed in his right hand. And kneeling before him, they mocked him, saying, `Hail, King of the Jews!' 30And they spit on him and took the reed and struck him on the head. 31And when they had mocked him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes on him and led him away to crucify him."

Mk 15:16-20. "16And the soldiers led him away inside the palace (that is, the governor's headquarters), and they called together the whole battalion. 17And they clothed him in a purple cloak, and twisting together a crown of thorns, they put it on him. 18And they began to salute him, `Hail, King of the Jews!' 19And they were striking his head with a reed and spitting on him and kneeling down in homage to him. 20And when they had mocked him, they stripped him of the purple cloak and put his own clothes on him. And they led him out to crucify him."

Jn 19:1-5.1Then Pilate took Jesus and flogged him. 2And the soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on his head and arrayed him in a purple robe. 3They came up to him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and struck him with their hands. 4Pilate went out again and said to them, `See, I am bringing him out to you that you may know that I find no guilt in him.' 5So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, `Behold the man!'
The soldiers had placed a crown of thorns on Jesus' head, clothed Him in a purple robe and put a reed in his hand, pretending to address him as king, bowing down to him in mock homage[61]. Then, to further scoff at him, they made a crown out of thorns and forcefully placed it on his head[62]. The form of the crown is not described but the soldiers must have weaved it roughly of thorn branches with no artistic aim (see below)[63]. Their aim rather was of cruel mockery of Christ's claim to

[Above: An artist's impression of how Jesus would have appeared after His crowning with thorns[64].

be the King of the Jews (Mt 27:11; Mk 15:2; Lk 23:3; Jn 18:33-36; 19:19-21)[65]. The soldiers took the reed and kept striking him on the head[66]. Note that the crown of thorns was still on Jesus' head when He was brought back before Pilate after His scourging. Therefore Jesus may have worn the crown of thorns on the Cross[67].

The forehead, temple, and scalp contain a major network of highly sensitive nerves[68]. These nerves are tributaries of the Trigeminal Nerve and the Greater Occipital Nerve, which conducts pain perception from the front half of the head, and the back half of the head, respectively[69]. These major nerves in turn divide almost infinitesimally throughout the skin of the scalp[70]. Stimulation or irritation of branches of these two major nerves causes intense pain[71]. For example, irritation of only one of the tiny branches of the trigeminal nerve which supply the teeth can result in a very painful toothache[72]. A clinical condition associated with irritation of the trigeminal nerve is called Trigeminal Neuralgia[73]. This condition causes paroxysmal bouts of pain to the face, which sufferers describe as "knifelike stabs," "electric shocks," or "jabs with a red-hot poker"[74]. Trigeminal neuralgia is among the worst pain a human can experience[75].

[Above: The major nerve pathways of the head (yellow), including the Trigeminal Nerve and Greater Occipital Nerve[76] which would have conducted the additional agony that a cap of thorns would have caused the man on the Shroud to experience.]

The soldiers filed past Jesus, taking the reed from Him and striking it down on the crown of thorns (Mt 27:30)[77]. A cap of interwoven thorn twigs would have placed a large number of thorns in contact with the entire top of the head: front, back, and sides[78]. The blows from the reed on the cap of thorns would have directly irritated the nerves bringing on severe pains resembling a hot poker or electric shock[79]. The traumatic shock from scourging (see part 21) would have been enhanced by the paroxysmal pains across Jesus' face[80]. The throbbing bolts of pain would have recurred along the way to Calvary and would have been triggered by walking and falling, the pressure of the thorns against the cross, and from the shoves and blows by the soldiers, and during the crucifixion itself[80].

Crowning with thorns was not part of Roman crucifixion procedure[81]. Nor was crowning or capping with thorns ever a part of any other culture's penal procedure throughout human history[82]. The only mention of a crowning with thorns in all of ancient literature is that found in the Gospel accounts of the passion of Jesus of Nazareth[83]. No other crucifixion victim but Jesus is known to have been crowned with thorns[84]. Hence the crowning with thorns of the man on the Shroud is proof beyond reasonable doubt that he is Jesus[85]!

Problem for the forgery theory. See previous three: #35, #36 & #37. Problems for the forgery theory due to the crown of thorns include:

• No medieval or earlier artist had depicted Jesus wearing a cap of thorns[86]. Where traditional Christian art depicted Jesus wearing a crown of thorns it was a circlet type of crown (see above)87]. A cap of thorns would therefore be non-traditional and non-European and so would offend the sensibilities of medieval Europeans rather than impress them[88]. Moreover, this information would not be common knowledge to a medieval forger for centuries to come[89].

• No medieval artist has approached the physiological realism of the cap of thorns bloodflows on the Shroud[90]. Only a modern artist who has a thorough knowledge of the physiology of coagulation could portray the `reversed 3' bloodflow[91]. Even then, some mistake would betray it as a work of his imagination[92]. So the `reversed 3' bloodflow alone is enough to prove that the Shroud is Christ's and yet it is but one such proof among many others[93]. As the French biology professor, artist and sindonologist Paul Vignon (1865-1943) observed of the reversed `3' bloodflow, "No painter, in his most elaborate work, has ever risen to such exactitude":

"Let us turn now to another wound, the reproduction of which would have required even greater ingenuity and skill. We allude to the large drop of blood visible on the forehead above the left eyebrow. This drop springs from a definite point, indicated by its darker colour ... This dark point corresponds to one of the wounds made by the crown of thorns. The blood which has flowed therefrom has met in its course the two wrinkles of the forehead, and has, by this slight opposition, been forced to spread itself out, forming two small horizontal pools; thence it continued to flow, until it ended in a tear of blood close to the eyebrow, and having thus flowed, it dried upon the skin. Now any drop of blood, drying thus, upon a substance into which it does not penetrate, takes, when coagulated, a sort of basin-like shape, a section of which we give here ... The border or brim of the basin is formed by the fibrine of the blood, containing the red corpuscles in its coagulum; the centre is composed of the serum, which in drying takes a dull brown tint. Here, as the liquid part of the serum evaporates, the convexity of the centre is depressed. The contour of the drop of blood preserves, however, the same shape as it had when it was fresh. Now this description applies exactly to the blood-drop on the forehead. In the parts where the blood has flowed, and where it has accumulated in sufficient quantity, it is bordered by a dark edge. The centre of the little stream, and the centre also of the terminal tear, are of a lighter tint. This drop of blood is reproduced not only with the greatest minuteness and delicacy, but with entire faithfulness to scientific detail. No painter, in his most elaborate work, has ever risen to such exactitude, as a glance at any of the numerous representations of Christ, Crowned with Thorns, will show us"[94].
• The cap of thorns bloodflows on the Shroud reveal a knowledge of the distinction between arterial and venous blood, which was not known until the 16th century (see above) [95].

Conclusion Both the man on the Shroud and Jesus were scourged with a Roman flagrum (see #37), crowned with thorns, and as we shall see, underwent a Roman crucifixion. But there is no record of any other Roman crucifixion victim but Jesus having been crowned with thorns, nor any reason why any other would have been. As we saw above, Jesus was crowned with thorns in mockery of His claim to be the King of the Jews. And as a Google search reveals, no one but Jesus (since King Zedekiah of Judah (r. 597–586 BC)), has claimed to be the King of the Jews. As agnostic art historian Thomas de Wesselow (who accepts that the Shroud is Jesus', but not that He rose from the dead), pointed out:

"The bloodstains on the head, then, are traces of a crown of thorns, removed from the head of a man who was crucified in the Roman manner and buried according to the custom of the Jews. Historically, we know of only one Roman Jew who was crucified wearing a crown of thorns: Jesus. The implication is that the Shroud is the very cloth in which Jesus was wrapped for burial (my emphasis)[96]!
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56. "5:20 AM · Apr 16, 2019 from Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris·Twitter for iPhone." [return]
57. "A brave chaplain and a human chain saved holy relics from Notre Dame Cathedral fire," CBS News, 17 April 2019. [return]
58. "Crown of thorns," Wikipedia, 11 March 2022. [return]
59. Wilson, 1979, p.52; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, p..85; Iannone, 1998, p.54; Antonacci, 2000, pp.119-120; Guerrera, 2001, p.38. [return]
60. Green, J.P., Sr., ed., 1986, "The Interlinear Bible: One Volume Edition," [1976], Hendrickson Publishers: Peabody MA, Second edition, p.765. [return]
61. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.122; Borkan, 1995, p.26; Antonacci, 2000, pp.119-120. [return]
62. Ibid. [return]
63. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, pp.41-42. [return]
64. Ricci, 1981, p.83. [return]
65. Wuenschel, 1954, p.42; Robinson, 1978, p.77; Wilson, 1979, p.37; Morgan, 1980, p.108; Zugibe, F.T., 1988, "The Cross and the Shroud: A Medical Enquiry into the Crucifixion," [1982], Paragon House: New York NY, Revised edition, p.19; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, pp.71-72; Tribbe, 2006, p.236; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.44; de Wesselow, 2012, p.149. [return]
66. Wuenschel, 1954, p.41. [return]
67. Barbet, 1953, p.95. [return]
68. Antonacci, 2000, p.33. [return]
69. Zugibe, F.T., 2005, "The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry," M. Evans & Co.: New York NY, 2005, p.33. [return]
70. Ibid. [return]
71. Ibid. [return]
72. Ibid. [return]
73. Zugibe, 2005, p.34. [return]
74. Ibid. [return]
75. Ibid. [return]
76. "The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck," (extract), Wikipedia, 23 January, 2007. [return]
77. Zugibe, 2005, p.36. [return]
78. Ibid. [return]
79. Ibid. [return]
80. Ibid. [return]
81. Ricci, G., 1977, "Historical, Medical and Physical Study of the Holy Shroud," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, p.67. [return]
82. Wilson, 2010, p.44. [return]
83. Bennett, 2001, p.85. [return]
84. Ricci, 1977, p.67; Ricci, 1981, p.80; Iannone, 1998, p.54; Antonacci, 2000, p.120; Tribbe, 2006, p.236; de Wesselow, 2012, p.149. [return]
85. Wilson, 1979, p.52. [return]
86. Iannone, 1998, p.70. [return]
87. Robinson, 1978, p.78. [return]
88. Wilcox, R.K., 1977, "Shroud," Macmillan: New York NY, pp.170-171. [return]
89. Wilcox, 1977, p.171. [return]
90. Green, M., 1969, "Enshrouded in Silence: In search of the First Millennium of the Holy Shroud," Ampleforth Journal, Vol. 74, No. 3, Autumn, pp.319-345; de Wesselow, 2012, p.130. [return]
91. Barbet, 1953, pp.96-97. [return]
92. Barbet, 1953, p.97. [return]
93. Barbet, 1953, p.97. [return]
94. Vignon, P., 1902, "The Shroud of Christ," University Books: New York NY, Reprinted, 1970, pp.29-30. [return]
95. Wilson, 1986, p.20; Antonacci, 2000, p.26; Tribbe, 2006, p.99. [return]
96. de Wesselow, 2012, p.132. [return]

Posted 9 March 2022. Updated 6 June 2022.

Tuesday, March 8, 2022

Date index 2022: The Shroud of Turin blog

The Shroud of Turin blog
© Stephen E. Jones

This is the date index to the 2022 posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog. The posts are listed in reverse date order (recent uppermost). For further information on this date index series see the Main Index. The linked subject headings of future 2022 posts will be added to this page in the background.

[Main index] [Previous: 2021] [Next: 2023]


[Above (enlarge)[2]: Dr. John Jackson (left) about to begin STURP's five-day examination of the Shroud, from 8th to 13th October, 1978. This will be in a future post, "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twentieth century (4)".]

05-Jun-22: The Shroudman and Jesus were crucified #39: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is Jesus' burial sheet!
29-May-22: Ashe, Geoffrey. Turin Shroud Encyclopedia.
22-May-22: Shroud of Turin News, January - April 2022
16-Apr-22: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twentieth century (3)
04-Apr-22: Shroud of Turin News, July - December 2021
09-Mar-22: The Shroud man and Jesus were crowned with thorns #38: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is Jesus' burial sheet!
08-Mar-22: Date index 2021: The Shroud of Turin blog
11-Feb-22: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twentieth century (2)
11-Jan-22: Barbet, Pierre. Turin Shroud Encyclopedia

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Wilson, I. & Miller, V., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.46a. [return]

Posted 8 March 2022. Updated 19 June 2022.