Saturday, April 16, 2022

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twentieth century (3)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #27, "Twentieth century" (3) of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see the Index #1. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. This page was initially based on Ian Wilson's 1996, "Highlights of the Undisputed History: 1900."

[Index #1] [Previous: 20th century (2) #26] [Next: 20th century (4) #28]

20th century (3) (1969-1977).

[Above (enlarge): Photograph of the Shroud hanging vertically in a frame at the 1973 exposition (see below), taken by author Robert K. Wilcox (1943-)[2].]

1969 The Archbishop of Turin, Cardinal Michele Pellegrino (r. 1965-77), after consulting with Pope Paul VI (r. 1963-78) and the Shroud's owner, ex-king Umberto II (1904-83), secretly appoints an 11-member Commission of Italian experts to advise on the preservation of the Shroud and on specific testing, including carbon-14 dating[3], which might be under-taken[4]. It was the first scientific investigation of the Shroud[5]. Three members of the Commission were priests, five were scientists, one was a historian and the other a former director of art galleries[6]. Not until 1976 were the names of the Commission members made public, hence it has been called "the Secret Commission"[7], but it later became evident who they were[8]. They included Dr Giovanni Battista Judica-Cordiglia (1939-), an expert in technical photography and lecturer in Forensic Medicine at the University of Milan, who took the first colour photograph of the Shroud [Right (enlarge)[9]], as well as black and white and Woods light photographs[10]. On 16 June the Shroud is secretly taken out of its casket for its state of preservation to be studied for 3 days, 16-18 June, by the team of experts[11]. They examine, photograph and discuss for three days, but do no direct testing[12]. The Commission did not publish its findings until 1976[13], which included that the cloth was in good condition, precautionary measures to be taken to preserve the Shroud from deterioration and proposals for further scientific research[14]. While one member, Noemi Gabrielli (1901-79), retired Director of the art galleries of Piedmont, insisted that the image was a painted forgery[15], the majority concluded that the cloth could have come from the area and time of Christ and could not be dismissed as a fake relic[16]. The Commission's Vice-President, Rev. Jose Cottino, stated that extensive photographic and other tests had been made, and while no definitive traces of blood had been found, nothing had been discovered which contradicted that the Shroud had wrapped the body of Christ[17].

1969b September. Fr. Maurus Green (1919–2001), publishes in the Ampleforth Journal his seminal article on the Shroud: "Enshrouded in Silence," in which "he effectively set down the guidelines for all future research on the Shroud's history."[18].

1970. Prince Victor Emmanuel of Savoy (1937-), the only son of ex-king Umberto II (1904-83), marries champion water skier Marina Ricolfi-Doria (1935-) in a Las Vegas civil ceremony, having consulted neither of his parents, nor invited them to attend[19]. In doing so he broke a centuries-old Savoy family tradition, requiring the crown prince always to consult his father concerning his choice of marriage partner, leaving Umberto with no option but to formally disinherit his son[20]. Further scandals involving the Prince confirmed Umberto's decision to bequeath the Shroud to the Roman Catholic Church upon his death, which occurred in 1983[21]. [See future "1983"].

1972. 1 October. An attempt is made to set fire to the Shroud by an unknown individual who breaks into the Royal Chapel after climbing over the Palace roof[22]. The Shroud, which is kept wrapped around a velvet-covered staff within successive caskets of wood, iron, asbestos, and silver, survives the arson attempt[23].

1973a. A new Commission of experts, comprising a few members of the 1969 Commission[24], the Turin Scientific Commission, is set up by Cardinal Pellegrino[25]. On 4 October the Commission first met before the Shroud hanging vertically in a frame[26] (see above) in the Hall of the Swiss, within Turin's Royal Palace[28]. Among the new Commission members are Belgian textile expert, Professor Gilbert Raes (1914-2001) of the Ghent Institute of Textile Technology[29]. And also Max Frei-Sulzer (1913-83) the recently retired founder, and for 25 years Director, of the Zurich Police Scientific Laboratory and a former Professor of Criminalistics at the University of Zurich[30]. In 1955 Frei had published an article on the falsification of photographs, so he was among the experts called to testify before a notary that the photographs of the Shroud taken by Dr Judica-Cordiglia in 1969 (see above) were genuine[31]. While inspecting the Shroud to compare it with the 1969 photographs, Frei, whose Ph.D was in Botany[32], noticed pollen spores in the dust on the Shroud's surface and within its weave[33]. Being the inventor of the sticky tape uplift method of obtaining forensic evidence[34], Frei asked for, and was granted, permission to take dust samples from the Shroud[35]. As a pioneer forensic scientist, Frei knew that pollen grains trapped in a fabric can indicate its past whereabouts so might help establish the historical locations of the Shroud[36]. Being a Zwinglian Protestant Frei was initially sceptical of the Shroud's authenticity[37], so his original motive likely was to prove that the Shroud had only ever been in Europe.

1973b. 22 November. The Shroud is displayed in the Hall of the Swiss, in preparation for its first ever television showing[38]. International journalists and researchers on the subject, including the USA's Fr Adam Otterbein (1916-98) and Fr Peter Rinaldi (1911-93) as well as Britain's Dr. David Willis (-1976), Fr. Maurus Green (1919-2001) and Ian Wilson (who emailed me that it is his head in the bottom right of the above photo!) and Robert Wilcox, are allowed to view the Shroud directly during this time[39]. Wilson recorded his eye-witness experience of seeing the Shroud for the first time:

"By lunch-time on 22 November [1973], I found myself, with some thirty others, being given a brief preliminary introduction by Turin's then archbishop, Cardinal Michele Pellegrino. The group was escorted up a grand marble staircase of Turin's Royal Palace and into a huge, frescoed hall, the Hall of the Swiss. At the far end of this the Shroud hung upright in a simple oak frame, its fourteen- foot length brilliantly illuminated by high-powered television lights. Then came the second shock. It did not look at all as I had expected. Everything that I knew of the Shroud up to this point - and I thought I knew quite a lot - had been based on black-and-white photographs that, whether they are in positive or negative, make it look a lot darker than it really is. To see the original's faintness and subtlety was really quite breath-taking. Framed by the burns and patches from the other fire in which the Shroud came perilously close to destruction - a similarly ruinous chapel blaze while it was being kept at Chambery in 1532 - there was the familiar `body image' that to me was the Shroud's central mystery. If you stood back you could make it out readily enough: a bearded face, a pronounced chest, crossed hands, legs side by side, together with, as one looked up at the back-of-the-body image, a long rope of hair, taut shoulders and buttocks, and soles of the feet. But the image colour was the subtlest yellow sepia, and as you moved in closer to anything like touching distance (and I saw to my astonishment that the cloth was unprotected by any glass), it seemed virtually to disappear like mist. Because of the lack of outline and the minimum contrast to the ivory-coloured background, it became wellnigh impossible to `see' whatever detail you were trying to look at without stepping some distance back again. To me, as a practising life-painter and an enthusiast of art history, it seemed absolutely impossible that any artist-faker could have created an image of this kind, certainly not one of centuries ago. The succeeding day and a half during which I was allowed some eight hours of further direct examination served to reaffirm my conviction, despite all the obvious rational objections, that this cloth simply had to be genuine"[40].

1973c. 23 November. The Shroud is exhibited for the first time ever on television, in color, and it was seen first in Italy, then throughout Europe and parts of South America[41]. The exposition was introduced by Pope Paul VI[42], who recalled his emotions when he first saw the Shroud as a young priest at the 1931 exposition [see "1931a"]:

"We personally still remember the vivid impression it made on our mind when, in May 1931, We were fortunate to be present on the occasion of a special celebration in honor of the Holy Shroud. Its projection on a large, luminous screen and the face of Christ represented thereon appeared to us so true, so profound, so human and divine, such as we have been unable to admire and venerate in any other image. It was for us a moment of singular delight"[43].
The exposition took place in the Hall of the Swiss in the Royal Palace of Turin. The Shroud was suspended in a wooden frame with ts full length hanging down (see above), in contrast to previous expositions which had always displayed it horizontally[44].

1973d. 24 November. The Shroud is secretly examined by the new commission of experts, brought together by Cardinal Pellegrino (see above)[45]. Giovanni Battista Judica Cordiglia, also a member of the 1969 Commission (see above), took more photographs, including colour ultraviolet and infra-red[46]. Seventeen samples, mostly single threads, selected by the 1969 Commission, are taken from the Shroud with the permission of Umberto II, on the condition that once analysed the samples be returned to Turin[47]. Prof. Gilbert Raes takes from one

[Left (enlarge): The site of one of the the Raes samples (lighter area of Holland cloth backing pointed to by an arrow) taken from the Shroud's front edge[48]. As we shall see, the 1988 radiocarbon dating sample was taken immediately to the left of where this Raes sample was taken.]

edge of the Shroud's frontal end one 40 x 13 mm sample, also from the side-strip one 40 x 10 mm portion, together with one 13 mm warp thread and one 12 mm weft thread[49]. Prof. Giorgio Frache, a forensic serologist from the University of Modena and also a member of the 1969 Commission, took 5 threads from bloodstained areas of the Shroud[50]. Human Anatomy Professors Guido Filogamo and Alberto Zina take two threads back to their University of Turin to examine them under a microscope[51]. Max Frei takes 12 samples of dust from the Shroud's extreme frontal end, using adhesive tape to remove these[52]. The Shroud is returned to its casket the same evening[53].

1974a. US Airforce captain John Jackson, a physicist at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, on Kirtland Air Force Base, in Albuquerque, New Mexico[54], approaches Don Devan (1939-2009), a civilian image enhancement consultant, with an Enrie negative photograph of the Shroud [see "1931a"], and asked him if he could help in determining whether there was three-dimensional information in it[55]. Jackson sought to test French biologist Paul Vignon (1865-1943)'s observation (his emphasis):

"Some emanation from the body has acted on the linen, and since the hollows on the Shroud are less vigorously reproduced than the raised portions it must be admitted that this something worked with less intensity in proportion as the distance from the body increased ... In the present case it is indeed hard to determine with what rapidity the unknown action took place between the body and the Shroud; the main point is that we can assert that the action diminished in proportion as the distance of the body from the Shroud increased ... the raised parts of the body are reproduced strongly while the hollows have given fainter impressions in proportion to their distance from the cloth ... In the language of science it is the result of action at a distance (that is to say without contact); geometrically speaking it is a projection"[56].
That is, the darkness, or intensity, of each part of the image varies in inverse proportion to how far that part of the body would have been from that part of the Shroud which had covered it[57]. The darkest portions would have been closest to the sheet, and the lightest farthest away[58]. And that the image seemed to be present even where the cloth could not have touched the body[59]. So whatever had created the image acted at a distance, not just by direct contact[60]. After Jackson explained what the Shroud was to Devan, a Jew, he proposed taking microdensitometer (an instrument which measures variations in optical intensity) readngs of it[61]. After taking 750,000(!) microdensitometer readings by hand from the Shroud photograph they needed help digitising it for computer analysis[62].

1974b. Rudolph (Rudy) Dichtl (c.1944-), a physicist and electrical engineer colleague of Jackson's suggested Eric Jumper, an aerodynamics engineer, who had recently arrived at Kirtland Air Force Base[63]. Although, like Jackson, a Roman Catholic, Jumper had never heard of the Shroud and Jackson had to explain it to him also[64]. Although sceptical that the Shroud was Jesus' burial cloth, Jumper agreed to join Jackson and Devan's research on the Shroud by studying the Enrie Shroud photograph that Jackson had[65]. This was the beginning of what would become the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP)[66].

1974c. Jackson, Jumper and Devan needed better Shroud photos than the fourth-generation photo that Jackson had from the Holy Shroud Guild[67]. So they wrote to the Guild President, Fr Adam Otterbein, describing their Shroud research and asking him if he had any earlier generation Shroud photos that he could send them[68]. Fr Otterbein, who had been trying for years to get scientists interested in the Shroud, immediately sent them a second generation photo of the Shroud face, copied from an Enrie 1933 original[69].

1974d. Jackson and Jumper constructed a full-scale cloth model of the Shroud on which they had traced all major image features[70]. Then they draped the cloth model over a volunteer of similar height and weight as the man in the Shroud (see below)[71]. They then

[Above (enlarge): Linen Shroud model covering a volunteer's body[72].]

measured the cloth-body distances along the ridge line (the body's highest points of contact with the Shroud) from side-view photographs[73]. The results were then compared with microdensitometer readings along a corresponding line from a 1933 Enrie photograph of the Shroud[74]. The results showed a positive correlation between image intensity and cloth-to-body distance[75]. They then found that a relatively simple mathematical function could adequately relate the two sets of data (see below)[76]. It was

[Above (enlarge): Mathematical simulation of the Shroud draping a human body[77].]

apparent that the image on the Shroud must be equivalent to the three-dimensional volunteer man's body[78].

1975 Jackson had previously met Donald J. Lynn (1932-2000) and Jean J. Lorre (-2005) (a man), working on the Viking Project at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California[79]. They were image enhancement specialists whose job was to filter out the noise from the faint signal of interplanetary spacecraft[80]. They were already interested in the Shroud and Jackson flew to Los Angeles to give them copies of Fr Otterbein's second generation Shroud photographs to work with in their limited spare time[81].

1976a. 19 February. Jackson approaches Robert (Bill) Mottern (1924-2015), an image enhancement specialist at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque[82], to obtain some Wratten photographic filters[83]. Mottern showed Jackson a VP-8 Image Analyzer[84], which translates

[Above (enlarge): Chessboard demonstration that the VP-8 Image Analyzer automatically displays lighter shades as vertically higher and darker shades as lower, even when the object is not three-dimensional[85].]

an image's degrees of lightness and darkness into vertical relief[86]. It was used to produce relief maps of the Moon and the planets because their shades of lightness and darkness has a distance, and therefore a three-dimensional, component[87]. Jackson had never heard of a VP-8 Image Analyzer and Mottern had never heard of the Shroud, but Jackson had brought some Shroud photos with him to show to Mottern[88]. When Mottern placed Jackson's three-by-five-inch transparency of the Shroud under the VP-8's video camera, they were astononished to see a three-dimensional image of the Shroudman (below) on the VP-8's screen[89]! The three-dimensional relief of what

[Above (enlarge): "The Shroud image's three-dimensional characteristics, as revealed by the VP-8 Image Analyzer in February 1976. Here the face and body appear in sculpted relief, framed by the two lines of scorches from the chapel fire of 1532"[90]. The scorches from the 1532 fire appear three-dimensional but only because the VP-8 automatically converts lighter shades as vertically higher, irrespective of whether they are in reality. So they and the white squares on a chessboard falsely appear higher (see above). They are therefore meaningless and so are falsely three-dimensional under a VP-8. But the Shroudman's image is meaningful, being consistent with a real human body, and therefore truly, three-dimensional. All other photographs of persons or things processed by the VP-8 appear distorted and therefore are falsely three-dimensional[91].]

appeared to be a two-dimensional Shroud photo confirmed Vignon's and Jackson's theory that the degrees of lightness and darkness of the Shroud image are due to the varying distance of the cloth from the body when the image was formed[92]!

1976b. 20 February. The Holy Shroud Guild's President Fr Adam Otterbein arrives for a pre-arranged meeting with Jackson and Jumper at the Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque to discuss their plans[93].

1976c. March? At a theology course in Santa Fe, New Mexico, Jackson meets Rev Robert Dinegar (1921-2005), a chemist and Episcopal priest from Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico[94]. Dinegar invites Jackson to Los Alamos to talk about the Shroud, which he does and more scientists are added to Jackson's team, including Ray Rogers (1927–2005), Don Janney, and Roger Morris[95]. Both Jackson and Jumper are transferred as Assistant Professors to the faculty of the US Airforce Academy in Colorado Springs[96]!

1976d. April. Release of the Report of the Turin Scientific Commission[97], La S. Sindone: Ricerche e studi della Commissione di Esperti ("The Holy Shroud: Research and Studies of the Commission of Experts")[98]. The Commission had recommended against carbon-14 dating of the Shroud, because excessively large pieces of cloth would have to be destroyed and its accuracy could not be guaranteed[99]. Raes reported that the samples of thread from the main body of the Shroud and the side strip were both made of linen[100].The cloth samples were spun with a Z twist[101] and woven in a three-to-one herringbone twill pattern[102], which is a complex and expensive weave[103]. Raes found traces of cotton in the sample taken from the main body of the Shroud, but not in the sidestrip sample, which he assumed was due to the loom on which the linen Shroud had been woven, had previously been used to weave cotton cloth[104]. Raes found the cotton to be of the Gossypium herbaceum variety, which is fron the Middle East[105]. Garments made of both linen and wool were prohibited in the Old Testament (Lev 19:19 & Deut 22:11) but not those of linen and cotton[106]. Profs Filogamo and Zina discovered on their two threads granules of unknown origin and round bodies of organic origin, neither of which they could identify[107]. Raes concluded that the Shroud could have been manufactured in the first century AD but he could not say with certainty that it was[108]. Commision member Silvio Curto, Professor of Egyptology at the University of Turin, agreed that the Shroud's fabric could date from the time of Christ[109]. Prof. Frache's team tested their 5 threads from bloodstained areas of the Shroud for haemochromogen, a derivative of haemoglobin frequently found in marks of an ancient date, but they found none[110]. They made chromatographic tests, with no better fortune[111]. Frache however, warned the Shroud was so old that only a positive result would count[112]. The proofs of blood may have vanished down through the centuries[113]. Blood chemist Alan Adler, who later demonstrated the presence of blood on the Shroud [see future], believed that Frache's team was unsuccessful because they were unable to get the blood into a solution in order to perform the necessary wet chemical test[114]. Frache's team did make the important discovery that the body image appeared only on the upper surface of the cloth and was composed of yellow fibrils that did not penetrate the cloth[115]. The Commission's report included the first public information of the pollen findings of Max Frei, who claims that the Shroud's dust includes pollens from some plants that are exclusive to Israel and to Turkey, suggesting that the Shroud must at one time have been exposed to the air in these countries[116]. Specifically, Frei reported that three-quarters of the varieties of pollen he found on the Shroud came from plants that grew in Palestine[117]. Among them were thirteen species which are almost exclusive to the Negev desert and the Dead Sea[118]. Twenty of the identified species found came from Anatolia, which included Edessa[119].

1977a. 23-24 March. Due to the great scientific interest in Jackson and Jumper's findings that the Shroud image is three-dimensional[120], they convene the first United States Conference of Research on the Shroud, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, attended by Frs Rinaldi and Otterbein, Rev. David Sox (1936-2016), Bishop John Robinson (1919-83) , film-maker David Rolfe and many members of what would become the STURP team[121]. At the conference Jackson presented a paper, "The Three Dimensional Image on Jesus' Burial Cloth"[122], in which he reported on his team's research into the three dimensionality of the Shroud image[123] and in particular their testing of Vignon's observation that the intensity of the image seemed to vary inversely with cloth-body distance[124]. First, Jackson outlined his team's experiment draping a full-scale cloth model of the Shroud over a male volunteeer who matched the man on the Shroud's height and weight (see above), measuring the cloth-body distance along a ridge-line (the highest points in profile of the draped cloth over the volunteer) and then measuring with a microdensitometer the image's intensity along the equivalent ridge line on an Enrie 1933 photograph of the Shroud[125]. They then plotted opacity (image intensity) against cloth-body distance and established that there was a close correlation between the two variables[126] (see below). It is evident that the image on the Shroud is

[Above (enlarge)[127]: Extract of correlation curve of image intensity and cloth-body distance of the Shroudman' image. As can be seen, when cloth-body distance is least, image intensity of the Shroudman's image is greatest and vice-versa.]

equivalent to the three dimensional surface of a man's body[128]. Next Jackson presented his team's research using a VP-8 Image Analyzer, pointing out that only when a photograph of an object scanned by the VP-8 contains distance information, will it show a meaningful three-dimensional vertical relief display of the photographed object[129]. Jackson supported this with photos of ordinary objects appearing distorted under the VP-8 [see 05Feb17] and a photograph of a VP-8's screen showing a composite three-dimensional relief of the Shroud's front and back image (see below).

[Above (enlarge)[130]: Extract of VP-8 Image Analyzer-generated three-dimensional relief surfaces of the Shroudman's body image. Except that only the frontal image is three-dimensional. The back image does not show relief of the man's buttocks and seems to be showing a false three-dimensional image of the large dark bloodstain in the small of the man's back. This is evidence for Jackson's Cloth Collapse Theory [see 18Jan12], because only the top (i.e. front) side of the Shroud fell into the field of intense light radiation emittted by Jesus' resurrected body, imparting distance information into the Shroud image as it fell[131].]. Finally Jackson reported that a VP-8 Image Analyzer scan of the Shroudman's face revealed objects resembling small buttons resting atop the man's closed eyelids (below)[132]. After considering other possibilities, Jackson's team concluded

[Above (enlarge): Extract of a close-up of the VP-8 Image Analyzer's three-dimensional relief of the Shroud face, showing the "button-like objects" over each eye[133]. Except that, as can be seen, the "button" over the man's right (left facing) eye is in the correct place, but that over the left (right facing) eye, has been displaced to the edge of the eye-socket (as confirmed by later computer enhancement)[134]. ]

that they were most likely coins placed over the man's eyelids to keep them closed[135]. Shroud historian Ian Wilson, who was at the conference, confirmed that these "buttons" were the same size and shape as lepton coins minted by Pontius Pilate (r. 26-36AD) in AD 30-31[136]!

1977b. Image enhancement specialists Don Lynn and Jean Lorre, who Jackson flew to Los Angeles to give them copies of Fr Otterbein's second generation Shroud photographs (see above), presented a paper, "Digital Enhancement of Images of the Shroud of Turin," at the 1977 conference[137]. Lynn and Lorre, working at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1976, used a microdensitometer to scan Jackson's photos of the Shroud[138]. The scanning data was then processed through a computer and displayed on a computer screen[139]. The image resulting from this technique highlighted additional subtle details invisible to the naked eye[140]. These density studies revealed another image characteristic: the Shroud body image was non-directional[141]. When the computer-displayed image was viewed at high resolutions, the only directional features found on the Shroud were in the weave of the cloth (see below)[142]. This absence of directionality (up and down,

[Right (enlarge)[143]: The computer screen showing that the Shroud image's microdensit-ometer data was random and therefore not directional[144]. The white cross in the centre of the screen represents the warp and weft of the weave which is directional[145].]

side to side) is note-worthy because the microdensitometer would expose the presence of brush strokes if the image had been painted[146]. The image's directionless nature provides further evidence that the Shroud image did not result from an artist's application of some foreign substance[147] but rather was encoded directly from a body lying underneath the cloth[148].

1977c. 18 May. First successful experimental test at Rochester University, New York, by Ken Purser (1929-2018) of General Ionex Corporation, Professor of Physics at the University of Toronto, Ted Litherland (1928- age 94!) and Professor of Physics at the University of Rochester, Harry E. Gove (1922-2009), of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method of radiocarbon dating[149]. Because AMS counts all the carbon-14 atoms in a sample[150], not just those that decayed at the time of measurement as the Libby and Proportional Counters method did[151], much smaller samples could be dated than had previously been possible[152]. This is the method that will be used to date the Shroud in 1988[153].

1977d. 24 June. Rev. David Sox (1936-2016), General Secretary of the newly formed British Society for the Turin Shroud, writes to Professor Harry Gove of Rochester, following an article in Time magazine[154]. about the new radiocarbon-dating technique[155]. It was the first time those in the Rochester AMS project had ever heard of the Turin Shroud[156]. Gove responded on behalf of the project that AMS could date the Shroud, but it was too soon to apply so recently developed a technique to such a renowned object[157]. However it was Sox's inquiry which led to the dating of the Shroud cloth by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry eleven years later[158].

1977e. 16-17 September. A Symposium on the Shroud is held at the Anglican Institute of Christian Studies, London, with Drs Jackson, Jumper, Frei and Walter McCrone (1916-2002) among the speakers, also Frs Rinaldi and Otterbein, Monsignor Giulio Ricci (1913-95) and Don Piero Coero-Borga (1924-86)[159]. Max Frei in his talk said that, without having completed his research, he nevertheless is certain that the pollen he collected from the Shroud includes that of six species of exclusively Palestinian plants, and a significant number of plants from Turkey, mostly from the Anatolian steppe[160]. In his own words, "These permit the definite conclusion that the Holy Shroud is not an adulteration [forgery]"[161]!

1977f. September. After the London Conference(?) seven of the scientist present at the Albuquerque Conference in March 1977 (see "1977a) went to Turin with Frs Otterbein and Rinaldi to request scientific testing of the Shroud in connection with its planned 1978 exposition[162].

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Wilcox, R.K., 2010, "The Truth About the Shroud of Turin: Solving the Mystery," [1977], Regnery: Washington DC, p.128I; Email from Ian Wilson, 2022, "RE: Have you a photo you could email me of the Shroud hung vertically in the 1973 TV exposition?" 21 April, 6:39 am. [return]
3. Wilcox, 2010, p.46. [return]
4. Meacham, 1983, pp.283-311, 288; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 20; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.12; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.73; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.55; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.1; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.199. [return]
5. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.64; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.8; Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, p.288; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.30; Borkan, 1995, p.20. [return]
6. Wilson, 1979, p.65; Oxley, 2010, p.199. [return]
7. Wilson, 1979, p.66; Tribbe, 2006, p.1; Guerrera, 2001, p.55; Wilcox, 2010, p.46. [return]
8. Wilson, 1979, p.66; Guerrera, 2001, p.55. [return]
9. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.19; Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.33. [return]
10. McNair, P., 1978, "The Shroud and History: Fantasy, Fake or Fact?," in Jennings, P., ed., "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.27; Wilson, 1979, p.265; Moretto, 1999, p.33; Iannone, 1998, p.6; Wilson, 1998, p.302; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.32; Guerrera, 2001, p.55; Oxley, 2010, p.200. [return]
11. Brent, P. & Rolfe, D., 1978, "The Silent Witness: The Mysteries of the Turin Shroud Revealed," Futura Publications: London, p.68; Wilson, 1998, p.302; Moretto, 1999, p.33; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.307. [return]
12. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
13. Adams, 1982, p.92; Borkan, 1995, p.20; Tribbe, 2006, p.1. [return]
14. Iannone, 1998, p.12; Ruffin, 1999, p.73; Guerrera, 2001, p.55; Tribbe, 2006, p.1; Oxley, 2010, p.200. [return]
15. Adams, 1982, p.92. [return]
16. Adams, 1982, p.92. [return]
17. Adams, 1982, p.92. [return]
18. Wilson, I., 2002, "Obituary - Fr. Maurus Green, OSB," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 56, December. [return]
19. Wilson, 2010, p.276. [return]
20. Wilson, 2010, p.276. [return]
21. Wilson, 2010, p.276. [return]
22. McNair, 1978, p.24; Cruz, J.C., 1984, "Relics: The Shroud of Turin, the True Cross, the Blood of Januarius. ..: History, Mysticism, and the Catholic Church," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.49; Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
23. McNair, 1978, p.24; Murphy, C., 1981, "Shreds of evidence: Science confronts the miraculous-the Shroud of Turin," Harper's, Vol. 263, November, pp.42-65, 45; Cruz, 1984, p.49; Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
24. Guerrera, 2001, p.56. [return]
25. Oxley, 2010, p.200. [return]
26. Adams, 1982, p.86; Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "Revisiting the Eye Images: What are They?," in Fanti, G., ed., 2009, "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Proceedings of the 2008 Columbus Ohio International Conference, August 14-17, 2008, Progetto Libreria: Padua, Italy, pp.136-137; Wilcox, 2010, p.61. [return]
28. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
29. Iannone, 1998, p.13; Oxley, 2010, p.200. [return]
30. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.24; Adams, 1982, p.86; Borkan, 1995, p.21; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E. 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.200; Danin, et al., 1999, p.7; Ruffin, 1999, p.75. [return]
31. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.24; Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.53; Adams, 1982, p.86; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.200; Wilson, 1998, pp.98-99; Maloney, P.C., 1999, "A Contribution toward a History of Botanical Research on the Shroud of Turin," in Walsh, B., ed., "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, 2000, p.241. [return]
32. Danin, A., Whanger, A.D., Baruch, U. & Whanger, M., 1999, "Flora of the Shroud of Turin," Missouri Botanical Garden Press: St. Louis MO, p.7. [return]
33. Cruz, 1984, p.73; Wilson, I. & Miller, V., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.38; Wilson, 1998, p.99; Danin, et al., 1999, p.7. [return]
34. Danin, et al., 1999, p.7; Maloney, 1999, p.241; "Frei-Sulzer, Max,", 2019; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.112. [return]
35. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.24; Adams, 1982, p.86; Wilson, 1998, p.99; Maloney, 1999, p.241; Milne, L., 2005, "A Grain of Truth: How Pollen Brought a Murderer to Justice," New Holland: Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia, p.93. [return]
36. de Wesselow, 2012, p.112. [return]
37. Wilson, 1979, p.80; Ruffin, 1999, p.76; de Wesselow, 2012, p.113. [return]
38. Wilson, 1998, p.302; Wilson, 2010, pp.21, 308. [return]
39. Otterbein, A.J., 1977, "American Conference of Research on the Shroud of Turin," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, pp.3-9, 9; Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.30; Wilson, 1998, pp.3, 302. [return]
40. Wilson, 1998, pp.3-4. [return]
41. Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.30; Tribbe, 2006, p.1; Wilson, 2010, p.308. [return]
42. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
43. Cruz, 1984, p.50; Guerrera, 2001, p.28; Tribbe, 2006, p.189. [return]
44. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.32. [return]
45. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
46. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.169; Iannone, 1998, p.6. [return]
47. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.69; Ruffin, 1999, p.74. [return]
48. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.35. [return]
49. Iannone, 1998, p.13; Wilson, 1998, p.302; Rogers, R.N., 2008, "A Chemist's Perspective on the Shroud of Turin," Lulu Press: Raleigh, NC, p.64; Wilson, 2010, p.70. [return]
50. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72; Scavone, 1989, p.30; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.206; Ruffin, 1999, p.74. [return]
51. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, pp.69-70; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.200; de Wesselow, 2012, p.102. [return]
52. Adams, 1982, p.86; Schwalbe, L.A. & Rogers, R.N., 1982, "Physics and Chemistry of the Shroud of Turin: Summary of the 1978 Investigation," Reprinted from Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 135, No. 1, 1982, pp.3-49, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co: Amsterdam, p.10; Wilson, 1998, p.302; Danin, et al., 1999, p.7; Maloney, 1999, p.241; Ruffin, 1999, p.76; Maloney, 2002, p.31. [return]
53. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
54. Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
55. Murphy, 1981, p.60; Heller, 1983, pp.23-24; Tribbe, 2006, p.121. [return]
56. Vignon, P., 1902, "The Shroud of Christ," University Books: New York NY, Reprinted, 1970, pp.136-137. [return]
57. Culliton, B.J., 1978, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July, pp.235-239, 237; Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.73; Murphy, 1981, p.60; Adams, 1982, p.93; Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.51; Balossino, N., 1998, "The image on the Shroud: Results of Photography and Information Technology," Neame, A., transl., St Pauls: Ireland, p.19; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.39. [return]
58. Adams, 1982, p.93; Balossino, N., 1998, "The image on the Shroud: Results of Photography and Information Technology," Neame, A., transl., St Pauls: Ireland, p.19. [return]
59. Jumper, E., Stevenson, K. & Jackson, J., 1978, "Images of Coins on a Burial Cloth?," The Numismatist, July, Vol. 91, No. 7, pp.1349-1357, 1352; Oxley, 2010, p.202. [return]
60. Adams, 1982, p.93; Oxley, 2010, p.202. [return]
61. Heller, 1983, pp.23-25. [return]
62. Heller, 1983, p.25. [return]
63. Heller, 1983, pp.20, 25-26; Murphy, 1981, pp.58, 60; Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
64. Heller, 1983, p.26; Murphy, 1981, pp.58, 60; Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
65. Heller, 1983, pp.26-27. [return]
66. Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
67. Heller, 1983, p.27. [return]
68. Heller, 1983, p.28. [return]
69. Heller, 1983, p.28; Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; . [return]
70. Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J., Mottern, R.W. & Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "The Three Dimensional Image on Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, 1977, pp.74-94, 74-75; Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Culliton, 1978. p.237. [return]
71. Wilson, 1979, pp.227-228; Heller, 1983, p.29; Culliton, 1978. pp.237-238; Antonacci, 2000, p.39. [return]
72. Jackson, J., 1989, "The Vertical Alignment of the Frontal Image," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 32/33, September/December, pp.3-26, 8. [return]
73. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.76-77; Culliton, 1978. pp.237-238; Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Wilson, 1979, p.228; Murphy, 1981, p.60; Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982, p.7; Maher, 1986, p.52; Borkan, 1995, p.22; Antonacci, 2000, p.39. [return]
74. Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Murphy, 1981, p.60; Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982, p.7; Maher, 1986, p.52; Borkan, 1995, p.22; Antonacci, 2000, p.40. [return]
75. Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Murphy, 1981, p.60; Meacham, 1983, p.288; Maher, 1986, p.52; Antonacci, 2000, p.40. [return]
76. Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982, p.7; Maher, 1986, p.52. [return]
77. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.74-75; Jackson, 1989, p.8. [return]
78. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.77; Culliton, 1978. p.238; Meacham, 1983, p.288. [return]
79. Heller, 1983, p.29. [return]
80. Heller, 1983, p.29. [return]
81. Heller, 1983, p.29. [return]
82. Wilson, 1979, p.229; Morgan, 1980, p.132; Adams, 1982, p.93; Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
83. Heller, 1983, pp.30, 38. [return]
84. Heller, 1983, pp.30, 38. [return]
85. Weiss, A. & Schumacher, P., 2016, "SEAM VP8 Image Analyzer Presentation -," 31 December. [return]
86. Adams, 1982, p.93; Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.47; de Wesselow, 2012, p.101. [return]
87. Adams, 1982, p.93; Jackson, et al., 1977, p.74; Antonacci, 2000, p.38. [return]
88. Wilson, 1979, p.229; Heller, 1983, p.38; Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.47. [return]
89. Wilson, 1979, p.229; Heller, 1983, p.388; Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.47; Wilson, 1998, pp.28-29; Antonacci, 2000, p.39. [return]
90. Wilson, 2010, p..82I. [return]
91. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.80-81; Culliton, 1978. p.238; Wilson, 1979, pp.229-230; Morgan, 1980, p.132; Murphy, 1981, p.47; de Wesselow, 2012, p.101. [return]
92. Heller, 1983, p.42; Antonacci, 2000, p.39; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
93. Otterbein, 1977, p.7; Heller, 1983, pp.40-41; Tribbe, 2006, pp.121-122. [return]
94. Heller, 1983, p.44; Murphy, 1981, pp.60-61. [return]
95. Heller, 1983, p.44; Murphy, 1981, p.47. [return]
96. Heller, 1983, p.43; Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
97. Wilson, 1998, p.302; Tribbe, 2006, p.120. [return]
98. Wilson, 1979, p.302; Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.49. [return]
99. Tribbe, 2006, p.120. [return]
100. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
101. Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
102. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
103. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
104. Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
105. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
106. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.99; Guerrera, 2001, pp.55-56. [return]
107. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, pp.69-70; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.200; de Wesselow, 2012, p.108. [return]
108. Tribbe, 2006, p.110. [return]
109. Cruz, 1984, p.48. [return]
110. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72. [return]
111. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.207. [return]
112. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72. [return]
113. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72. [return]
114. Heller, 1983, pp.13-14; Ruffin, 1999, pp.74-75. [return]
115. Guerrera, 2001, p.57. [return]
116. Wilson, 1998, p.303. [return]
117. Adams, 1982, p.88. [return]
118. Adams, 1982, p.88. [return]
119. Adams, 1982, p.88. [return]
120. Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "Revisiting the Eye Images: What are They?," in Fanti, G., ed., 2009, "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Proceedings of the 2008 Columbus Ohio International Conference, August 14-17, 2008, Progetto Libreria: Padua, Italy, pp.134-139, 135. [return]
121. Wilson, 1979, p.303; Borkan, 1995, p.21. [return]
122. Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J., Mottern, R.W. & Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "The Three Dimensional Image on Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, 1977, pp.74-94. [return]
123. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.74. [return]
124. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.74. [return]
125. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.74-77; Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352. [return]
126. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.77; Culliton, 1978. p.201; Meacham, 1983, p.288. [return]
127. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.77. [return]
128. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.77. [return]
129. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.79-80. [return]
130. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.79. [return]
131. Jackson, J.P. ,1990, "Is the image on the Shroud due to a process heretofore unknown to modern science?," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 34, March, pp.3-29, 15; Jackson, J.P., 1991, "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image]," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.325-344, 340-341. [return]
132. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.89; Guerrera, 2001, p.96. [return]
133. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.88. [return]
134. Moroni, M., 1997, "Those Contentious 'Coins over the Eyes'...," Letters to the Editor, BSTS Newsletter, No. 46, November/December; Moretto, 1999, p.51. [return]
135. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.90. [return]
136. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.90. [return]
137. Lorre, J.J. & Lynn, D.J, "Digital Enhancement of Images of the Shroud of Turin," in Stevenson, 1977, pp.154-181; Oxley, 2010, p.205. [return]
138. Antonacci, 2000, p.37. [return]
139. Antonacci, 2000, p.37. [return]
140. Antonacci, 2000, p.37. [return]
141. Antonacci, 2000, p.37; Oxley, 2010, p.205. [return]
142. Antonacci, 2000, pp.37-38. [return]
143. Antonacci, M., 2016, "Test The Shroud: At the Atomic and Molecular Levels," Forefront Publishing Company: Brentwood TN, p.7. [return]
144. Antonacci, 2016, p.7. [return]
145. Ibid. [return]
146. Antonacci, 2000, p.38. [return]
147. Antonacci, 2000, p.38. [return]
148. Antonacci, 2000, p.38. [return]
149. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, pp.12-13, 320; Wilson, 1998, pp.5,180. [return]
150. "Radiocarbon dating: Accelerator mass spectrometry," Wikipedia, 10 May 2022. [return]
151. "Radiocarbon dating: Beta counting," Wikipedia, 10 May 2022. [return]
152. Wilson, 1979, p.303; Gove, 1996, pp.13,46; Wilson, 1998, pp.5,180. [return]
153. Wilson, 1979, p.303. [return]
154. Stoler, P., 1977, "New Dating Game," Time magazine, June 27. Reprinted in Gove, H.E., 1999, "From Hiroshima to the Iceman: The Development and Applications of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, p.20[return]
155. Wilson, 1979, p.303; Gove, 1996, p7. [return]
156. Gove, 1996, p7. [return]
157. Gove, 1996, p.7. [return]
158. Gove, 1996, p.7. [return]
159. Wilson, 1979, p.303. [return]
160. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.63. [return]
161. Wilson, 1978, p.63. [return]
162. Tribbe, 2006, p.130. [return]

Posted 16 April 2022. Updated 1 July 2022.


Ivan said...

What did you think of the Thierry Castex website?

Stephen E. Jones said...


>What did you think of the Thierry Castex website?

I didn't know of its existence.

But it's in French and I can't read French.

Stephen E. Jones
MY POLICIES. Comments are moderated. Those I consider off-topic, offensive or sub-standard will not appear. Except that comments under my current post can be on any one Shroud-related topic without being off-topic. To avoid time-wasting debate, I normally allow only one comment per individual under each one of my posts. I reserve the right to respond to any comment as a separate blog post.