Wednesday, October 19, 2022

History of the Shroud (1355-1400). Turin Shroud Encyclopedia

Turin Shroud Encyclopedia
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones

History of the Shroud #18

This is "History of the Shroud (1355-1400)," part #18 of my Turin Shroud Encyclopedia. For more information about this series, see part #1 and part #2. As explained in my previous part #16, the primary purpose of these "Prehistory" and "History" of the Shroud articles in my Turin Shroud Encyclopedia is to help me write Chapter 9, "Prehistory of the Shroud (AD 29 - 1354)" and Chapter 10, "History of the Shroud (1355-present)" of my book, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" I am using in-line referencing to save time in renumbering out-of-order footnotes. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Index #1] [Previous: Prehistory (701-1000) #17] [Next: Pierre d'Arcis #19]

Fourteenth century (1355-1400)
c. 1355 [13Apr18a] First exposition of the Shroud in undisputed history at Lirey, France by

[Right (enlarge)[CSM]: Rebuilt Church of St. Mary, Lirey, France. It was on these grounds in c. 1355 that the Shroud was first exhibited in undisputed history.]

Geoffroy I de Charny (c. 1300-56) and his wife Jeanne de Vergy (c. 1332-1428)[OM10, 4, 49; WI10, 221-222, 302]. This date is based on the 1389 memorandum of the then Bishop of Troyes, Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-95) [see "#1389c">1389c"], to Pope Clement VII (r. 1378-94), which stated that the Shroud had been exhibited in Lirey "thirty-four years or thereabouts" previously[HT78, 96; WI79, 91, 267; SD89, 14; SD91, 17; WI91, 19; SD98, 66; WI98, 111, 120, 122, 126; AM00, 151-152; GV01, 14; WI10, 222], that pilgrims were told it was "the true shroud of Christ" and that "from all parts people came together to view it"[WI79, 268; GV01, 14; OM10, 53; DT12, 14].

c. 1355-6 [13Apr18b] Pilgrim's badge or medallion in the Cluny Museum, Paris

[Left (enlarge): Lead pilgrim's badge or medallion in the Cluny Museum, Paris[LMS] from the first undisputed exposition of the Shroud at Lirey, France from c. 1355-56[WI10, 221-222]. The coats of arms are of Geoffroy I de Charny (left) and his wife Jeanne de Vergy (right)[WI79, 224D; MR86, 96; WI86, 5; WI98, 127; OM10, 150; TF06, 42; WI10, 221]

from the first exposition of the Shroud at Lirey, France, in c. 1355-56. It was found in 1855[AM00, 150; WI98, 126-127] by a French archaeologist, Arthur Forgeais (1822-78) in the mud of the Seine River, Paris[BB91, 233-260, 245; WI91, 194; WI98, 126-127; TF06, 42], under the Pont au Change bridge[WI79, 194; WI86, 5]. Forgeais found hundreds of pilgrim's medallions to various holy places at that location (but only one of the Lirey Shroud exposition), which indicates it was a pilgrim `wishing well' site[FA12]. The badge depicts the actual Lirey exposition[SJ03, 12], with the arms and hands of two clerics (whose heads have broken off[AF82, 31; BB91, 246; WI98, 127; GV01, 103]) holding the Shroud[WI98, 127; WI10] as well as the exposition platform and its support posts (the tops of which have also broken off) are on either side[SJ03, 12]. The clerics are holding a full-length representation of the Shroud[AF82, 30-31], the first known[WI79, 224D; AF82, 30-31; WI86, 5; WI91, 21; WI98, 127; WI10, 303]. The man on the Shroud is depicted front and back, head to head[WI79, 224D; AF82, 31; MR86, 96; WI86, 5; WI98, 127; GV01, 103; TF06, 42; WI10, 302-303] and naked[WI98, 127; GV01, 103]. Despite the small, about 6.2cm. by 4.5cm. (or 2½ in. by 1¾ in.), size of the badge[WI98, 126; SJ03, 12; WI10, 221; FA12], the mold-maker even depicted the Shroud's herringbone weave[GV01, 103; SJ03, 12; FA122; WI10, 221] [see 16Jul15a]. Under the Shroud is a depiction of the reliquary in which the Shroud was then kept[BB91, 246; GV01, 103]. That this is a depiction of the Shroud's reliquary and not a depiction of the de Charny and de Vergy coats of arms themselves, solves the apparent problem of Jeanne's coat of arms seeming to be on the right and Geoffroy's on the left[OM10, 52; WI10, 222]. That the reliquary has Geoffroy I's coat of arms[IJ98, 128; OM10, 49] indicates that he was still alive at the time of the exposition[BB91, 246; AM00, 151; OM10, 49] and therefore the badge (and the exposition) must be dated before his death at the Battle of Poitiers on 19 September 1356[OM10, 49] [see "1356c"]. It is most unlikely that the exposition took place, or continued, after Geoffroy I's death because not only would Jeanne have been grieving the loss of her husband, but King John II (r. 1350-64) had been captured [see "1356d"], the French army had been decimated and roving bands of English "companies" remained behind in France after the Battle of Poitiers [see "1356e"], which would have made it too dangerous for pilgrims to travel, let alone the danger to the Shroud [see "1358a"].

1356a [13Apr18c] In a letter dated 28 May 1356[BW57, 9; WI79, 90, 193, 259; CN84, 65; CN88, 49; SD89, 15-16; WI91, 20; WI98, 128; AM00, 152; GV01, 10; TF06, 42; WI10, 303], the confirmed Bishop of nearby Troyes, Henri de Poitiers (r. 1354-70), writing from his diocese of Aix/Gap-Embrun (r. 1349-53)[WI98, 278; WI10, 224, 229], formally ratified Geoffroy I's letters instituting the Lirey church, and praised, ratifed and approved its "divine cult" (devotion or veneration other than to God), which could only refer to the Shroud[BB91, 242; WI91, 20; WI98, 128, 278; GV01, 11; WI10, 224]

1356b [13Apr18d] On 19 September 1356 the Battle of Poitiers was fought at Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France[BPW]. An English army led by Edward, the Black Prince (1330-76)[AF82, 44; CN88, 49; BPW], defeated a much larger French army led by King John II (r. 1350-64)[WI79, 199; AM00, 151; BPW]. The loss included the capture of King John II[WI98, 278; BPW], his son Philip II (1342-1404)), and much of the French nobility[BPW]. The effect of the defeat on France was catastrophic, leaving the country in the hands of the 18 year-old Dauphin, and future King, Charles V (r. 1364-80)[BPW].

1356c [13Apr18e] Death of Geoffroy I de Charny on 19 September 1356 in the Battle of Poitiers[AF82, 44; AM00, 151; GV01, 12; GDC. He died, Oriflamme (battle standard of France) in hand[CN88, 49; WI98, 278; RC99, 64], interposing his body between an English lance and King John II[WI79, 91; CN88, 49; WI91, 21; WI98, 278; RC99, 64]. Geoffroy's body was buried in a nearby graveyard[WI98, 278] but 14 years later, in 1370, his gallantry was publicly recognized when his remains were given a state funeral and reburied in the Abbey of the Celestins in Paris[WI79, 91; CN88, 49; WI91, 21; WI98, 279] [see "1370"].

1356d [13Apr18f] King John II was taken captive in the same Battle of Poitiers[KJW]. The Treaty of Brétigny in 1360 set John's ransom at 3 million crowns, so leaving his son Louis I, Duke of Anjou (1339-84) in English-held Calais as hostage, John returned to France to raise the funds[KJW]. However in 1363 Louis escaped and John for reasons of "good faith and honour" voluntarily returned to England[KJW] where he died in 1364 and his body was returned to France[KJW].

1356e [13Apr18g] Marauding bands of English soldiers, called "companies," after the Battle of Poitiers, began roaming the French countryside looting towns[OM10, 51].

1357 [13Apr18h] In June twelve bishops of the pontifical court at Avignon grant indulgences to all who visit the church of St Mary of Lirey and its relics[WI98, 279; GV01, 12; OM10, 52].

1358a [13Apr18i] A "company" (see "1356e") under English knight Robert Knolles (c. 1325-1407) attempts to capture Troyes but under the leadership of Bishop Henri de Poitiers, the attack failed[OM10, 51]. Lirey is only ~12 miles (~19 km) from Troyes[WI86, 11; CN88, 37; WI98, 129; RC99, 65; AM00, 151; SJ03, 13; OM10, 51] and such a valuable and well-known religious artifact as the Shroud would have been a prime target for one of "the companies" so presumably it had already been taken to a safer region of France [see "c. 1358"].

1358b [13Apr18i] In May there began a short-lived peasants' revolt, known as the Jacquerie[WI98, 279; JQE; JQW], which spread into France's Champagne region, in which were Troyes and Lirey[OM10, 50]. The revolt was directed primarily against the nobility in manors and castles (which included Jeanne) and there was also indiscriminate looting[OM10, 50-51].

c. 1358 [13Apr18j] Due to the threats of the "companies" [see "1356e" and "1358a"] and the peasants' revolt [see "1358b"], presumably the Shroud was taken in c. 1358 by Geoffroy I's widow Jeanne, with her two young children Geoffroy II (1352-98) and Charlotte (c. 1356-98), to a safer region of France[OM10, 51-52]. Such as her castle at Montfort-en-Auxois [Right (enlarge)[CM14] (aka Montfort near Montbard)[PA07] which was ~93 km (~58 mi) south of Lirey. [see 16Feb15a].

c. 1359 [13Apr18k] Jeanne married the wealthy and influential Aymon IV of Geneva (c. 1324-88)[WI79, 203; AF82, 33; WI91, 18; WI98, 279; GV01, 12-13; OM10, 68; WI10, 229], an uncle of Robert of Geneva (1342-94) who became Pope Clement VII (r. 1378-94)[WI79, 203, 205; AF82, 33; CN88, 43; WI91, 18; CN95, 34; GV01, 13; OM10, 83] [see "1378"]. Then she took her two children Geoffroy II (~7) and Charlotte (~3), and the Shroud, from Montfort to the safety of one of Aymon's estates in High Savoy (that part of France bordering both Switzerland and Italy), probably Anthon[WI79, 18; WI10, 229-230] [see 16Feb15b]. Aymon's domains were close to Annecy where Clement VII had been born and grew up[WI79, 18]. Because of Clement VII's unexpected future siding with Geoffroy II and Jeanne's 1389 exposition of the Shroud against Bishop d'Arcis' objections [see "1389e"], presumably Jeanne had privately shown the Shroud to Robert of Geneva and explained its history: how her ancestor Othon IV de la Roche (c.1170-1234) had brought the Shroud from Constantinople to Burgundy, via Athens [see "c1332"] [OM10, 83]. So Pope Clement VII would have known the true facts about the Shroud's history, how it had come into the possession of the de Charny family and why this must remain a secret [see 15Aug17] [CN88, 43].

1370 [13Apr18l] Geoffroy I was given a hero's reburial at the Abbey of the Celestins in Paris by John II's son, King Charles V (r. 1364-80)[WI79, 203; WI91, 21; WI98, 279; WB06, 43].

1375 [13Apr18m] Archbishop Guillaume (William) de Vergy (r. 1371-91)[BB91, 245; SD91, 199], claimed to have found the original Besançon shroud lost in the 1349 fire [see "1349b"] [SD91, 199-200] and `verified' it by a `miracle' of laying that `shroud' on a dead man who immediately revived[SD91, 200; GV01, 12]! Thus a de Vergy `verified' by this `miracle' that this was the original Shroud[SD91, 200], which fits the theory that the de Vergys arranged the transfer of the Shroud from Besançon in Burgundy to Jeanne de Vergy in Paris[SD91, 200] [see "c1343"]. This painted copy of the Shroud with the frontal image only[SD91, 200; GV01, 12] [see "c1351"] was kept at Besançon until it was destroyed in 1792 during the French Revolution[GV01, 12]. Guillaume was a favourite of John II's older son, King Charles V[HVW] and came into conflict with John II's youngest son Duke Philip II of Burgundy (1342-1404), whom he excommunicated and took refuge at Avignon[GDV]. Where he was in 1391 made Cardinal of Besançon by Avignon Pope Clement VII (r. 1378-94)[HVW].

c. 1375 [13Apr18v] Date of the only known two other examples of

[Left (enlarge)[VAM]: The larger, 18 x 10.5 cm (7.1 x 4.1 in.), fragment of herringbone twill weave in linen (the grey part is a reconstruction), dated the second half of the fourteenth century[WI98, 69], in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, ref. no. 8615-1863[WI98, 69].]

herringbone twill linen weave (besides the Shroud) in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London[WI98, 69]. They are a coarser weave than the Shroud and were sold to the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1863 by a Franz Bock who attributed it to Italy[WI90, 14]. They are the only known other examples of herringbone twill linen (which the Shroud is - see 16Jul15b]), so how could a medieval forger have obtained a ~4.4 m x 1.1 m [see 16Jul15c] herringbone twill linen sheet?]

1378 [03Jul18a] Robert of Geneva (1342-94), a nephew of Jeanne de Vergy's second husband Aymon of Geneva[WI98, 279; WB06, 44; WI10, 233] [see "c. 1359"], was elected Pope by cardinals opposed to the Italian Pope Urban VI (r. 1378-89)[WI91, 62; WI98, 279], and took the name Clement VII (r. 1378-94)[WI91, 62; WI98, 279; WB06, 44]. The papacy was thus split between Avignon, France and Rome in the Western Schism[WJ63, 54; WI79, 206; WI98, 279; AM00, 151; WB06, 44].

1388 [03Jul18b] Death of Aymon of Geneva [see "c. 1359"], thereby widowing Jeanne de Vergy (c. 1332- 1428) for a second time[WI79, 203, 205; CN88, 43; CN95, 34; WI98, 280; WI10, 230] [see "1356c"].

1389a [03Jul18c] In April the Shroud was exhibited for the second time [see "c. 1355"] at the Lirey collegiate church[SH81, 102; AM00, 122], by Geoffroy II de Charny (1352-98) and his twice-widowed

[Right (enlarge): Drawn copy of the brass effigy which was over the tomb of Geoffroy II de Charny in Froidmont Abbey, Belgium[WI07]. The Abbey was dissolved in 1791 by the French Revolution and it and the tombs within it were destroyed in World War I[WI07; WI10, 235-236].

mother Jeanne de Vergy[WI79, 260; AM00, 151; GV01, 13; WI10, 230]. Lirey being a collegiate church, was not under the control of the Bishop of Troyes, Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-95), so Geoffroy II, being a relative by marriage and former neighbour of Pope Clement VII [see "c1359" and "1389e" below] had bypassed d'Arcis and sought and received permission from Clement, through his nuncio, Cardinal Pierre de Thury (c. 1330-1410), to exhibit the Shroud at the Lirey church[HT78, 97; WI79, 206, 260; CN88, 43; IJ98, 129; WI98, 120; RC99, 65; GV01, 13; WB06, 44; OM10, 83]. This was subsequently confirmed in a letter of 28 July 1389 from Clement to Geoffrey II, which formally ratified Cardinal de Thury's permission for Geoffrey II to re-exhibit the "image or representation of the Shroud of our Lord Jesus Christ"[OM10, 82; WI10, 230]. Geoffroy II had also obtained the approval of Charles VI of France (r. 1380-1420) for the exposition[RC99, 64]. The exposition of the Shroud at the Lirey church attracted thousands of pilgrims[WB06, 44]. The Cloth was held by "two priests vested in albs with stoles and maniples and using the greatest possible reverence, with lighted torches and upon a lofty platform constructed for this special purpose"[TH03, in WB06, 44]. Although it had been agreed with Pope Clement that Geoffroy would claim that the Cloth was only a "picture" or "figure"[WI79, 206-207; WI91, 16; WI98, 121] (for why see 15Aug17 and "1389f"), by both unofficial word and actions, Geoffroy and the canons made it clear that it really was the true shroud of Christ[WI79, 206; WI91, 16; WI98, 121]! On some days Geoffroy would hold the Cloth in his own hands before the crowds, his presence giving the impression that it was something far more precious and holy than simply a cloth bearing an 'image' or 'representation'[WI91, 16-17; WI98, 120; WB06, 44, 46].

1389b [03Jul18d] In August a letter signed in Paris by King Charles VI ordered the bailli of Troyes to seize the Shroud at the Lirey church and bring it to the Bishop of Troyes (Pierre d'Arcis) so that he could relocate it in another church in Troyes[HT78, 98; SH81, 102; WI98, 280; WI10, 303]. This reveals d'Arcis' true motive, that he wanted the Shroud for Troyes Cathedral[AM00, 151; OM10, 58-59] (indeed d'Arcis admitted that he was being accused of "acting through jealousy and cupidity and to obtain possession of the cloth for myself"WI79, 269; WI98, 129)!, because if d'Arcis truly believed the Shroud was a painted forgery, he wouldn't want it for another church in his diocese! Significantly, one of d'Arcis' Bishop of Troyes predecessors, Garnier de Traînel (r. 1193-1205) was with the Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) at the Sack of Constantinople in 1204[CN95, 7; GDT; VP02, 56], and he was promised for Troyes Cathedral the relics from the Church of St. Mary of Blachernae, which included the Shroud[BA34, 54; CN95, 8; VP02, 56]. But Jeanne de Vergy's ancestor Othon IV de la Roche (c.1170-1234) took the Shroud instead[BA34, 54-55] (see "1204b"). So it is likely that d'Arcis knew the history of the Shroud from Troyes Cathedral's archives[DK90, 10] and his claim the Shroud was a forged painting [see next] was a lie! But the Dean of Lirey church couldn't hand over the Shroud because it was locked in its reliquary with different keys, one of which was held by Geoffroy II[HT78, 98; SH81, 102; WI98, 280; WI10, 303]. Then when later that month the bailli returned and threatened to break in and remove the Shroud, the Dean informed him that the Shroud was no longer there[WI10, 280]. The Dean and canons then lodged an appeal to the King and in September the bailli of Troyes was told that the Shroud was now "verbally put into the hands of our lord the king" and that was the end of matter[WI98, 280].

1389c [03Jul18e] In October, Bishop d'Arcis appealed to Pope Clement VII about the current exhibition of the Shroud at Lirey, describing it in a memorandum [see next] as bearing the double imprint of a crucified man and that it was being claimed to be the true Shroud in which Jesus's body was wrapped, and was attracting crowds of pilgrims[WI79, 260]. But according to d'Arcis' memorandum it had previously been discovered to be the work of an artist[WI79, 266; DR84, 24; WI98, 281; AM00, 150; GV01, 13-14] [see below].

1389d [03Jul18f] The d'Arcis Memorandum [Left (enlarge) [IMD].] One of two copies [WI98, 121; AM00, 151; OM10, 56] found only in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (National Library of France)[BB91, 236; AM00, 152], of a draft, unsigned, undated, unaddressed docu-ment[BB91, 236-237; WI91, 17; IJ98, 129; WI98, 121; AM00, 151-152; GV01, 15; WB06, 57; OM10, 56]. Which was in 1900 published in its original Latin by French Roman Catholic anti-authenticist historian Ulysse Chevalier (1841-1923)[MP78, 28; DR84, 24; WI98, 299; WR10, 7; UCW], who fraudulently added a title to make it appear to have been sent by Bishop d'Arcis to Pope Clement VII at the end of 1389[BB91, 236; AM00, 151-152; MJ01; OM10, 58]. Chevalier's fraud was continued by Fr Herbert Thurston (1856-1939)[MJ01; OM10, 58], another leading Roman Catholic opponent of the Shroud, who in 1903 published his translation of Chevalier's Latin into English[WI79, 266; MP78, 28; GV01, 15; OM10, 57-58]. [see also 31Oct14]. There is no evidence in either the Troyes or Papal archives of the d'Arcis memorandum having been sent to Pope Clement[AM00, 152; GV01, 15; OM10, 56]. However since the Pope did reply to d'Arcis' appeal[AF82, 32; WI91, 17] [see future "1389e"] it presumably is a record of d'Arcis verbal complaints to Clement VII through his nuncio, Cardinal de Thury. The value of the d'Arcis memorandum is that it is the earliest undisputed historical reference to the existence of the Shroud in c.1355[SD91, 174].

In the memorandum Bishop d'Arcis stated that "thirty-four years or thereabouts ... to the present year"[WI79, 267; WI98, 111] (i.e. c.1355)[HT78, 96; SD89, 14; PM96, 180; WI98, 111; GV01, 14; OM10, 52; DT12, 182] at the Lirey church, an exhibition was held by its Dean of:

"... a certain cloth cunningly painted, upon which by a clever sleight of hand was depicted the twofold image of one man, that is to say, the back and front, he falsely declaring and pretending that this was the actual shroud in which our Saviour Jesus Christ was enfolded in the tomb, and upon which the whole likeness of the Saviour had remained thus impressed together with the wounds which He bore"[WI79, 267; GV01, 13].

D'Arcis appealed to Pope Clement VII to stop the exposition[WI79, 271; CN88, 42], claiming that one of his predecessors, Bishop Henri de Poitiers (r. 1354-1370) had discovered that the Shroud had been "cunningly painted":
"... Henry of Poitiers ... then Bishop of Troyes ... after diligent inquiry and examination, he discovered the fraud and how the said cloth had been cunningly painted, the truth being attested by the artist who had painted it, to wit, that it was a work of human skill and not miraculously wrought or bestowed"[WI79, 267; AF82, 32; DR84, 23-24; CN88, 40-41; AM00, 151; GV01, 13; DT12, 19].
But d'Arcis provided no evidence in his memorandum to substantiate his claims[AM00, 152, 158; GV01, 14], which as a former lawyer [WI98, 121; WI10, 231], he would have if there had been any[AM00, 152]. D'Arcis did not provide the name of the artist[IJ98, 129; GV01, 14], nor a record of his confession[GV01, 14], nor the source of his allegations[AM00, 152]. d'Arcis became Bishop of Troyes in 1377 [see c. 1355], so the artist could still have been alive in 1389, or else well within living memory. There is also no record of Henri de Poitiers conducting any investigation into the origin of Shroud[AM00, 152] and d'Arcis did not even know its exact date[WI10, 229]! But there is a record of a letter of 28 May 1356[see "1356a"], from Bishop Henri de Poitiers, praising Geoffroy I, ratifying the Lirey church and approving its "divine cult"[WI79, 267; 90; SD89, 16; BB91, 242; AM00, 152; GV01, 14; OM10, 59; WI98, 278], which can only refer to the Shroud[BB91, 247; OM10, 52]! Further evidence that Henri de Poitiers didn't have a problem with the Shroud is that in c. 1392 Geoffroy II married the late Bishop de Poitiers' niece, Marguerite de Poitiers(1362-1418)[WI79, 205; BB91, 245; CN95, 40; GV01, 12; WB06, 44; WI10, 230]! And in 1460 [see "1460"] their daughter Marguerite de Charny (c. 1393–1460) died, leaving her Lirey lands to her godson Antoine-Guerry des Essars (c. 1408-74)[WI79, 213; CN95, 40; WI98, 283; OM10, 70-71; WI10, 240], who was the grandson of Bishop Henri de Poitiers[see " 1460"]! It is also highly unlikely that Geoffrey I de Charny, the owner of the Shroud in the 1350s [see "c.1355"], one of France's most ethical knights, and a devout author of religious poetry, was complicit in forging Jesus' burial shroud[DR84, 24]. The final refutation of the d'Arcis memorandum is that the image of the man on the Shroud is not painted[MP78, 34; SH81, 104-105; MW83, 289; MR86, 99; AM00, 153; ZF05, 204]! [see 11Jul16].

1389e [03Jul18g] Pope Clement VII allowed the expositions of the Shroud to continue as a "figure" and "representation" of Jesus' burial shroud [see above] [BW57, 7; WI79, 210, 260; WJ63, 54; MR80, 43; SD89, 14; SH81, 29; PM96, 181; DT12, 15, 182] and commanded Bishop d'Arcis to "perpetual silence" on this matter[WI79, 209, 260, 271; SH81, 29; HJ83, 19; WI86, 81-83; SH90, 71; WB06, 48; MJ11, 273; DT12, 183]. Initially this was conveyed verbally to d'Arcis through Cardinal de Thury as d'Arcis wrote in his memorandum, "I hear, - for I have not been able to procure a copy of the said Brief, - perpetual silence is enjoined upon myself"[WI79, 271]. See below where Pope Clement put it in writing. This unexpected siding of the Pope with the de Charnys against a senior bishop is explained by Clement, as Robert of Geneva (see above), being not only a nephew of Jeanne de Vergy's second husband Aymon of Geneva, but also having been their neighbour[WI91, 18] [see above and "c1359"]. So Clement presumably had had a private viewing of the Shroud[WI79, 206; WI91] and was told by Jeanne that her ancestor, Othon de la Roche (c.1170-1234) had looted the Shroud in the 1204 sack of Constantinople[WI79, 206; CN88, 43] [see "1204," "c1359" and 25Oct15]. The problem for the Pope was that the Byzantine Empire (c.330-1453) still existed and its Emperor John V Palaiologos (1332-1391) lived in Chambéry, France! So if the de Charny's continued to claim that the Shroud was Jesus' burial Shroud, John V would have known it was the one looted from Constantinople and demanded it be returned to him, creating a diplomatic crisis for the Pope[DT12, 182-183]! [see 15Aug17 & 20Jun18]. It may be no coincidence that the year the Byzantine Empire ended, 1453, was the same year that Geoffroy II's daughter, Marguerite de Charny [see "c1393" below], transferred the Shroud to Duke Louis I of Savoy (1440-1465) [see "1453a"].

1389f [03Jul18h] In December Bishop d'Arcis received a reply "from an authority higher even than Pope Clement"[WI10, 216] in that Troyes cathedral was struck by lightning causing its roof to catch fire[TCW] and the nave of the unfinished cathedral to collapse[WI91, 17; HR98, 47; WI98, 281; AM00, 150; OM10, 59; WI10, 234]. The damage was so significant that it would not be for another 60 years that repairs would be completed[AM00, 150; OM10, 59]. In fact Troyes cathedral is still unfinished as it has only one tower, St. Peter's while its planned second tower, St. Paul's, has never been built[CN95, 8; TCW]. In 1389 Troyes Cathedral had already suffered a loss of revenue due to pilgrims visiting the nearby Lirey exposition and leaving their offerings there[CN95, 8; AM00, 150; OM10, 59]. So presumably Bishop d'Arcis was envious of Lirey's relic and wanted it for his cathedral[HR98, 47; OM10, 58-59] [see above].

1390a [03Jul18i] On 6 January Pope Clement VII sent three letters[WJ63, 56]. One was to Geoffrey II de Charny restating conditions under which expositions could continue: that it would always stated that the cloth was a "figure or representation" [WJ63, 57; WI79, 260; WI91, 17-18; IJ98, 129; GV01, 15; WB06, 48; OM10, 58; WI10, 234, 281]. One was to Bishop d'Arcis threatening him with excommunication if he did not maintain "perpetual silence" about the Shroud[WJ63, 57; WI79, 260; WB06, 48; OM10, 83]. Copies of the other letter was sent to ecclesiastics in the surrounding area requiring them to oversee his decision in the matter[WJ63, 56]

1390c [03Jul18j] Upper limit of the 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud[DP89, 611].

c. 1392 Geoffroy II de Charny married Marguerite de Poitiers (1362–1418)[WI10, 230; JSE] a niece of the late Bishop Henri de Poitiers, being the daughter of Henri's brother Charles (1325-1410)[WI79, .88, 205; MR80, 42; CN95, 22; 2; CD90a, 44; CD90b, 20; GV01, 12; WB06, 44; WI10, 230]. Even though Bishop de Poitiers had died ~12 years earlier, it would have been highly unlikely that Marguerite's father Charles would have approved the marriage if his brother Henri had really discovered that Geoffroy II's father and mother, Geoffroy I de Charny and Jeanne de Vergy, had exhibitied in c.1355 a "cunningly painted" forgery of Jesus' burial shroud (see above)[WI79, 205; SH81, 104; Crispino, D.C., in FL83, 32; WB06, 44; WI10, 230]. See also "1460" where Marguerite de Charny left her Lirey lands to her godson, Antoine-Guerry des Essars (c. 1408-74), who was the son of Guillemette de Poitiers (1370–1450), who in turn was one of four illegitimate children of Bishop Henri de Poitiers and his nun concubine, Jeanne de Chenery (1340–) [see 11Jul16]!

c. 1393 Birth of Marguerite de Charny (c. 1393–1460), to Geoffroy II de Charny and Marguerite de Poitiers[CN88, 35; CN95, 16; JSE].

1398 Death of Geoffroy II de Charny on 22 May in the Abbey at Froidmont, Belgium[WI79, 260; CN88, 44; WI98, 281; GV01, 15; OM10, 61; WI10, .235, 303] [see above] from wounds sustained in the 1396 Battle of Nicopolis, near today's Nikopol, Bulgaria, where a combined besieging Crusader force was routed by the Ottoman Turks[WI79, .211; WI10, 235]. Marguerite de Charny, the eldest of three daughters, yet still a child aged ~5, became the owner of the Shroud[WI79, 86; CN88, 44; CN95, 220; BE98, 16; GV01, 15; TF06, 46-47; WI10, 303]. However the Shroud remained in the Lirey church under the control of its canons[MR80, 43-44; WB06, 49; OM10, 61; WI10, 235], who came to believe, falsely, that the Lirey church owned the Shroud [see future "1418]!

1400 Marguerite de Charny marries Jean de Baufremont (c. 1380-1415), who was to die in 1415 in the Battle of Agincourt (see future "1415") [WI79, 260; MR80, 44; GV01, 15; WI10, 236].

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]

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Posted 19 October 2022. Updated 19 February 2023.