Friday, April 13, 2018

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fourteenth century (2)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
FOURTEENTH CENTURY (2)
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is part #15, "Fourteenth century (2)" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. Because of this post's length, I have decided to again split the fourteenth century, this time into parts (2) 1351-1375 and (3) 1376-1400. For more information about this series see part #1, "1st century and Index." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Index #1] [Previous: 14th century (1) #14] [Next: 14th century (3) #16]


14th century (2) (1351-1375).

[Above (enlarge): Lead pilgrim's badge or medallion in the Cluny Museum, Paris[2] from the first undisputed exposition of the Shroud at Lirey, France from c.1355-56[3]. The coats of arms are of Geoffroy I de Charny (left) and his wife Jeanne de Vergy (right). See "c.1355-6" below.]

1351 Geoffroy I de Charny (c.1300–1356) returned to France from his captivity in England [see "1349d"] in July after his huge ransom of 12,000 ecus was paid by King John II (r.1350–1364)[4].

c.1351 Around 1351-1352 a painted copy of the Shroud with the frontal image only began to be exhibited in Besançon[5] [see "1349b" and "1375"].

1352 In January Geoffroy was created a founding member of the knights of the Order of the Star[6], members of which, like the Knights Templar, took a vow never to flee in battle[7].

c.1352 Birth of Geoffroy II de Charny (1352-98) to Geoffroy I de Charny and Jeanne de Vergy (c.1332–1428)[8].

1353 According to its Act of Foundation, construction of the Lirey church began on 20 February 1353 and was completed on 20 June 1353[9]. In June 1353, King John retrospectively granted Geoffroy I permission to build a collegiate church in Lirey[10]. See Introduction and "c.1343" where, according to my theory, Geoffroy by now had the Shroud[11].

1354a In January Geoffroy resubmitted his petition of five years previously to Pope Clement VI (r. 1342-1352) [see "1349c"] to the new Avignon Pope Innocent VI (r. 1352-1362), for approval that the by now built Lirey church be elevated to the status of a collegiate church[12]. Its clergy had increased to six canons, one of whom was the ruling Dean, together with three assistant clerics[13] - for a tiny a village of only ~50 houses [14][see "1343c"]!

1354b Henri de Poitiers (r. 1354–1370) was appointed Bishop of nearby Troyes[15].

1354c In August Pope Innocent VI recognised the Lirey church's canons and its collegiate status and granted indulgences to pilgrims visiting the church[16]. Yet despite extant lists of the various relics held by the Lirey church in 1354, none mention the Shroud[17]! There is an explanations for this: as we shall see the Shroud never was the property of the Lirey church but remained the private property of Geoffroy I de Charny and/or Jeanne de Vergy and their heirs[18].

1355 In June Geoffroy I was again [see "c.1347"] appointed bearer of the Oriflamme, the French sacred battle standard[19].

c.1355 First exposition of the Shroud in undisputed history at Lirey,

[Right (enlarge)[20]: Rebuilt Church of St. Mary, Lirey, France. It was on these grounds in c.1355 that the Shroud was first exhibited in undisputed history.]

France by Geoffroy I de Charny and his wife Jeanne de Vergy[21]. This date is based on a 1389 memorandum by the then Bishop of Troyes, Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-1395) [see "1389d"], to Pope Clement VII (r.1378-94), which stated that the Shroud had been exhibited in Lirey "thirty-four years or thereabouts" previously[22], that pilgrims were told it was "the true shroud of Christ" and that "from all parts people came together to view it"[23].

c.1355-6 Pilgrim's badge or medallion in the Cluny Museum, Paris [see above][24], from the first exposition of the Shroud at Lirey, France, in c.1355-56. It was found in 1855[25] by a French archaeologist, Arthur Forgeais (1822-78) in the mud of the Seine River, Paris[26], under the Pont au Change bridge[27]. Forgeais found hundreds of pilgrim's medallions to various holy places at that location (but only one of the Lirey Shroud exposition), which indicates it was a pilgrim `wishing well' site[28]. The badge depicts the actual Lirey exposition[29], with the arms and hands of two clerics (whose heads have broken off[30]) holding the Shroud[31] as well as the exposition platform and its support posts (the tops of which have also broken off) are on either side[32] (see below). The clerics are holding a full-

[Above (enlarge)[33]: The top `third' of the Lirey pilgrim's badge showing part of the arms and the hands of two clerics holding the Shroud, between the broken off support posts of the Lirey exposition platform.]

length representation of the Shroud[34] (below), the first known[35].

[Above (enlarge)[36]: The middle `third' of the Lirey pilgrim's badge depicting the full-length Shroud.]

The man on the Shroud is depicted front and back, head to head[37] and naked[38]. Despite the small, about 6.2cm. by 4.5cm. (or 2½ in. by 1¾ in.), size of the badge[39], the mold-maker even depicted the Shroud's herringbone weave[40] [see 16Jul15a]. Under the Shroud is a depiction of the reliquary (below) in which the Shroud was then kept[41]. That this is a depiction of the Shroud's reliquary and not a

[Above (enlarge)[42]: The bottom `third' of the Lirey pilgrim's badge showing the reliquary in which the Shroud was then kept. The coat of arms shields of Geoffroy I de Charny are on the right of the reliquary and that of Jeanne de Vergy is on its left[43]. The roundel in the centre represents the empty Tomb[44], and around it are instruments of the Passion: a flagrum, the scourging column, the lance, pincers, nails, and the cross upon which is hung the crown of thorns[45].]

depiction of the de Charny and de Vergy coats of arms themselves, solves the apparent problem of Jeanne's coat of arms seeming to be on the right and Geoffroy's on the left[46]. That the reliquary has Geoffroy I's coat of arms[47] indicates that he was still alive at the time of the exposition[48] and therefore the badge (and the exposition) must be dated before his death at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356[49] [see "1356c"]. It is most unlikely that the exposition took place, or continued, after Geoffroy I's September 1356 death in the Battle of Poitiers [see "1356c"] because not only would Jeanne have been grieving the death of her husband, but King John II had been captured [see "1356d"], the French army had been decimated and roving bands of English "companies" remained behind in France after the Battle of Poitiers [see "1356e"], which would have made it too dangerous for pilgrims to travel, let alone the danger to the Shroud [see "1359"].

1356a In a letter dated 28 May 1356[50], Bishop Henri de Poitiers, writing from his diocese of Aix (presumably Aix-en-Othe)[51] formally ratified Geoffroy I's letters instituting the Lirey church, praised him and approved its "divine cult":

"Henri, by the grace of God and of the Apostolic See, confirmed bishop elect of Troyes, to all those who will see this letter, eternal salvation in the Lord. You will learn what we ourselves learned on seeing and hearing the letters of the noble knight Geoffroy de Charny, Lord of Savoysy and of Lirey, to which and for which our present letters are enclosed, after scrupulous examination of these letters and more especially of the said knight's sentiments of devotion, which he has hitherto manifested for the divine cult and which he manifests ever more daily. And ourselves wishing to develop as much as possible a cult of this nature, we praise, ratify and approve the said letters in all their parts a cult which is declared and reported to have been canonically and ritually prescribed, as we have been informed by legitimate documents. To all these, we give our assent, our authority and our decision, by faith of which we esteem it our duty to affix our seal to this present letter in perpetual memory. Given in our palace of Aix of our diocese in the year of Our Lord 1356, Saturday, the 28th of the month of May"[52].
1356b On 19 September 1356 the Battle of Poitiers was fought at

[Left (enlarge): Battle of Poitier at Nouaillé-Maupertuis in 1356, in the Chronicles of Froissart, c.1470[53]. The mounted French knights in armour (right) were no match for the longbows of the English foot-soldiers (left)[54].]

Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France[55]. An English army led by Edward, the Black Prince (1330–1376)[56], defeated a much larger French army led by King John II (r.1350–1364)[57]. The loss included the capture of King John II[58], his son Philip II (1342–1404), and much of the French nobility[59]. The effect of the defeat on France was catastrophic, leaving the country in the hands of the 18 year-old Dauphin, and future King, Charles V (r.1364-1380)[60].

1356c Death of Geoffroy I de Charny on 19 September 1356 in the Battle of Poitiers[61]. He died, Oriflamme in hand[62], interposing his body between an English lance and King John II[63]. Geoffroy's body was buried in a nearby graveyard[64] but 14 years later, in 1370, his gallantry was publicly recognized when his remains were given a state funeral and reburied in the Abbey of the Celestins in Paris[65] [see "1370"].

1356d King John II was taken captive in the same Battle of Poitiers[66]. The Treaty of Brétigny in 1360 set John's ransom at 3 million crowns, so leaving his son Louis I, Duke of Anjou (1339–1384) in English-held Calais as hostage, John return to France to raise the funds[67]. However in 1363 Louis escaped and John for reasons of "good faith and honour" voluntarily returned to England[68] where he died in 1364 and his body was returned to France[69].

1356e Marauding bands of English soldiers, called "companies," after the Battle of Poitiers, began roaming the French countryside looting towns[70].

1357a Twelve bishops of the pontifical court at Avignon grant indulgences to all who visit the church of St Mary of Lirey and its relics[71].

1357b Also in June there was a peasants' revolt, known as the Jacquerie, which spread into Lirey's Champagne region, and although it was directed primarily against the nobility in manors and castles, there was also indiscriminate looting[72].

c. 1358 Due to the threats of the "companies" [see "1356e" and "1359"] and the peasants' revolt [see "1357b"], presumably the Shroud was taken in c. 1358 by Geoffroy I's widow Jeanne, with her two young children Geoffroy II (1352–1398) and Charlotte (c.1356-1398), to a safer region of France[73]. Such as her castle at Montfort-en-Auxois [Right (enlarge)[74].] (aka Montfort near Montbard)[75] which was ~93 km (~58 mi) south of Lirey. [see 16Feb15a].

1359 A "company" (see "1356d") under English knight Robert Knolles (c.1325–1407) attempts to capture Troyes but under the leadership of Bishop Henri de Poitiers, the attack failed[76]. Lirey is only ~12 miles (~19 km) from Troyes[77] and such a valuable and well-known religious artifact as the Shroud would have been a prime target for one of "the companies" so presumably it had already been taken to a safer region of France [see "c. 1358"].

c. 1359 Jeanne married the wealthy and influential Aymon IV of Geneva (c. 1324-1388)[78], an uncle of Robert of Geneva (1342-94) who became Pope Clement VII (r.1378-94)[79] [see "1378"]. Then she took her two children Geoffroy II and Charlotte, and the Shroud from Montfort to the safety of one of Aymon's estates in High Savoy (that part of France bordering both Switzerland and Italy), probably Anthon[80] [see 16Feb15b]. Aymon's domains were close to Annecy where Clement VII had been born and grew up[81]. Because of Clement VII's unexpected siding with Geoffroy II and Jeanne's 1389 exposition of the Shroud against Bishop d'Arcis' objections [see future "1389e"], presumably Jeanne had privately shown the Shroud to Robert of Geneva and explained its history: how her ancestor Othon de la Roche had brought the Shroud from Constantinople to Burgundy, via Athens [see "c1332"] [82]. So Pope Clement VII would have known the true facts about the Shroud's history, how it had come into the possession of the de Charny family and why this must remain a secret [see 15Aug17] [83].

1370 Geoffroy I was given a hero's reburial at the Abbey of the Celestins in Paris by John II's son, King Charles V (r.1364-1380)[84].

1375 Archbishop Guillaume (William) de Vergy (r. 1371–1391)[85], claimed to have found the original Besançon shroud lost in the 1349 fire [see "1349b"] [86] and `verified' it by a `miracle' of laying that `shroud' on a dead man who immediately revived[87]! Thus a de Vergy `verified' by this `miracle' that this was the original Shroud[88], which fits the theory that the de Vergys arranged the transfer of the Shroud from Besançon in Burgundy to Jeanne de Vergys in Paris[89] [see "c1343"]. This painted copy of the Shroud with the frontal image only[90] [see "c1351"] was kept at Besançon until it was destroyed in 1792 during the French Revolution[91]. Guillaume was a favourite of John II's older son, King Charles V[92] and came into conflict with John II's youngest son Duke Philip II of Burgundy (1342–1404), whom he excommunicated and took refuge at Avignon[93]. Where he was in 1391 made Cardinal of Besançon by Avignon Pope Clement VII (r.1378-94)[94].

c.1375 Only known other examples of herringbone twill linen weave in

[Left (enlarge): The larger fragment of only known other examples of a herringbone twill weave in linen (the grey part is a reconstruction), dated the second half of the fourteenth century[95], in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, ref. no. 8615-1863[96]. This 18 cm x 10.5 cm fragment, the larger of two (see ref. 7027-1860), is of coarser weave than the Shroud and was sold to the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1863 by a Franz Bock who attributed it to Italy[97]. They are the only known examples of herringbone twill linen (which the Shroud is - see 16Jul15b]), so how could a medieval forger have obtained a ~4.4 m x 1.1 m [see 16Jul15c] herringbone twill linen sheet?]

the Victoria and Albert Museum, London[98].

Continued in the next part #16 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Latendresse, M., 2012, "A Souvenir from Lirey," Sindonology.org. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.221-222. [return]
4. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.197; Currer-Briggs, N., 1995, "Shroud Mafia: The Creation of a Relic?," Book Guild: Sussex UK, pp.30-31; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.277; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.10; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.231; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, pp.44-45; Wilson, 2010, p.218. [return]
5. Hynek, R.W., 1951, "The True Likeness," [1946], Sheed & Ward: London, p.9; O'Connell, P. & Carty, C., 1974, "The Holy Shroud and Four Visions," TAN: Rockford IL, p.8; Guerrera, 2001, p.11. [return]
6. Wilson, 1979, p.198; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.31; Wilson, 1998, p.277; Wilson, 2010, p.218. [return]
7. Wilson, 1979, p.198; Wilson, 2010, p.218. [return]
8. Crispino, D.C., 1982, "Recently Published," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 4, September, pp.32-35, 34; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.35; Wilson, 1998, p.279. [return]
9. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, pp.6, 9; Rinaldi, P.M., 1978, "The Man in the Shroud," [1972], Futura: London, Revised, p.20; Crispino, D.C., 1981, "Why Did Geoffroy de Charny Change His Mind?," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 1, December, pp.28-34, 30-31. [return]
10. Currer-Briggs, 1988, pp.37, 49; Guerrera, 2001, p.10; Oxley, 2010, p.48. [return]
11. Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.28; Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.97; Oxley, 2010, pp.46, 48. [return]
12. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.31; Tribbe, 2006, p.41; Oxley, 2010, p.111; Wilson, 2010, pp.220, 277, 302. [return]
13. Wilson, 2010, p.220; Tribbe, 2006, p.41. [return]
14. Wilson, 2010, p.219. [return]
15. Wilson, 1998, p.278; Wilson, 2010, p.220. [return]
16. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.20; Wilson, 1998, p.278; Wilson, 2010, p.220. [return]
17. Wilson, 1991, p.20; Oxley, 2010, p.49. [return]
18. Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, p.101; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.44; Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, p.32; Currer-Briggs, 1988, pp.36-37; Piana, A., 2007, "The Shroud's "Missing Years," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 66. December, pp.9-25, 28-31. [return]
19. Wilson, 1979, p.259; Oxley, 2010, p.52. [return]
20. "Lirey, France," Google Street View, August 2008. [return]
21. Oxley, 2010, pp.4, 49; Wilson, 2010, pp.221-222, 302. [return]
22. Humber, 1978, p.96; Wilson, 1979, pp.91, 267; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.14; Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 174; Wilson, 1991, p.19; Scavone, D.C., 1998, "A Hundred Years of Historical Studies on the Turin Shroud," Paper presented at the Third International Congress on the Shroud of Turin, 6 June 1998, Turin, Italy, in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.58-70, 66; Wilson, 1998, pp.111, 120, 122, 126; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.151-152; Guerrera, 2001, p.14; Wilson, 2010, p.222[return].
23. Wilson, 1979, p.268; Guerrera, 2001, p.14; Oxley, 2010, p.53; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.14. [return]
24. Adams, 1982, pp.30-31; Wilson, 1998, p.127; Oxley, 2010, p.49. [return]
25. Antonacci, 2000, p.150; Wilson, 1998, pp.126-127. [return]
26. Bonnet-Eymard, B., "Study of original documents of the archives of the Diocese of Troyes in France with particular reference to the Memorandum of Pierre d'Arcis," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.233-260, 245; Wilson, 1991, p.194; Wilson, 1998, pp.126-127; Tribbe, 2006, p.42. [return]
27. Wilson, 1979, p.194; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.5. [return]
28. Foster, A., 2012, "The Pilgrim's Medallion / Amulet of Lirey," BSTS Newsletter, No. 75, June. [return]
29. Scott, J.B., 2003, "Architecture for the Shroud: Relic and Ritual in Turin," University of Chicago Press: Chicago & London, p.12. [return]
30. Adams, 1982, p.31; Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, p.246; Wilson, 1998, p.127; Guerrera, 2001, p.103. [return]
31. Wilson, 1998, p.127; Wilson, 2010, p.221. [return]
32. Scott, 2003, p.12. [return]
33. Latendresse, 2012. [return]
34. Adams, 1982, pp.30-31. [return]
35. Wilson, 1979, p.224D; Adams, 1982, pp.30-31; Wilson, 1986, p.5; Wilson, 1991, p.21; Wilson, 1998, p.127; Wilson, 2010, p.303. [return]
36. Latendresse, 2012. [return]
37. Wilson, 1979, p.224D; Adams, 1982, p.31; Maher, 1986, p.961; Wilson, 1986, p.5; Wilson, 1998, p.127; Guerrera, 2001, p.103; Tribbe, 2006, p.42; Wilson, 2010, pp.302-303. [return]
38. Wilson, 1998, p.127; Guerrera, 2001, p.103. [return]
39. Wilson, 1998, p.126; Scott, 2003, p.12; Wilson, 2010, p.221; Foster, A., 2012. [return]
40. Guerrera, 2001, p.103; Scott, 2003, p.12; Foster, A., 2012; Wilson, 2010, p.221. [return]
41. Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, p.246; Guerrera, 2001, p.103. [return]
42. Latendresse, 2012. [return]
43. Wilson, 1979, p.224D; Maher, 1986, p.96; Wilson, 1986, p.5; Wilson, 1998, p.127; Antonacci, 2000, p.150; Tribbe, 2006, p.42; Wilson, 2010, p.221. [return]
44. Wilson, 1979, p.224D; Wilson, 1986, p.5; Wilson, 1998, p.127; Antonacci, 2000, p.150; Guerrera, 2001, p.103; Scott, 2003, p.12; Wilson, 2010, p.221. [return]
45. Wilson, 1998, p.127; Guerrera, 2001, p.103; Scott, 2003, p.12. [return]
46. Oxley, 2010, p.52; Wilson, 2010, p.222. [return]
47. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.128; Oxley, 2010, p.49. [return]
48. Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, p.246; Antonacci, 2000, p.151; Oxley, 2010, p.49. [return]
49. Oxley, 2010, p.49. [return]
50. Bulst, 1957, p.9; Wilson, 1979, pp.90, 193, 259; Currer-Briggs, N., 1984, "The Holy Grail and the Shroud of Christ: The Quest Renewed," ARA Publications: Maulden UK, p.65; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.49; Scavone, 1989, pp.15-16; Wilson, 1991, p.20; Wilson, 1998, p.128; Antonacci, 2000, p.152; Guerrera, 2001, p.10; Tribbe, 2006, p.42; Wilson, 2010, p.303. [return]
51. Wilson, 1998, p.278; Wilson, 2010, pp.224, 229. [return]
52. Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, p.242; Wilson, 1991, p.20; Wilson, 1998, pp.128, 278; Guerrera, 2001, p.11; Wilson, 2010, p.224. [return]
53. "File:Battle-poitiers(1356).jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 23 April 2017. [return]
54. Wilson, 1979, p.199; Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.18; Oxley, 2010, p.471; Wilson, 2010, p.224. [return]
55. "Battle of Poitiers," Wikipedia, 29 April 2018. [return]
56. Adams, 1982, p.44; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.49. [return]
57. Wilson, 1979, p.199; Antonacci, 2000, p.151; "Battle of Poitiers," Wikipedia, 29 April 2018. [return]
58. Wilson, 1998, p.278; "Battle of Poitiers," Wikipedia, 29 April 2018. [return]
59. "Battle of Poitiers," Wikipedia, 29 April 2018. [return]
60. Ibid. [return]
61. Adams, 1982, p.44; Guerrera, 2001, p.12; "Geoffroi de Charny: Death," Wikipedia, 17 April 2018. [return]
62. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.49; Wilson, 1998, p.278; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.64. [return]
63. Wilson, 1979, p.91; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.49; Wilson, 1991, p.21; Wilson, 1998, p.278; Ruffin, 1999, p.64. [return]
64. Wilson, 1998, p.278. [return]
65. Wilson, 1979, p.91; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.49; Wilson, 1991, p.21. [return]
66. "John II of France: Surrender and capture," Wikipedia, 6 April 2018. [return]
67. "John II of France: Treaty of Brétigny," Wikipedia, 6 April 2018. [return]
68. "John II of France: Louis' escape and returning to England," Wikipedia, 6 April 2018. [return]
69. "John II of France: Death," Wikipedia, 6 April 2018. [return]
70. Oxley, 2010, p.51. [return]
71. Wilson, 1998, p.279; Guerrera, 2001, p.12; Oxley, 2010, p.52. [return]
72. Oxley, 2010, p.50. [return]
73. Oxley, 2010, pp.51-52. [return]
74. "Château de Montfort," Tourisme en Bourgogne, 2014. [return]
75. Piana, 2007. [return]
76. Oxley, 2010, p.51. [return]
77. Wilson, 1986, p.11; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.37; Wilson, 1998, p.129; Ruffin, 1999, p.65; Antonacci, 2000, p.151; Scott, 2003, p.13; Oxley, 2010, p.51. [return]
78. Wilson, 1979, p.203; Adams, 1982, p.33; Wilson, 1991, p.18; Wilson, 1998, p.279; Guerrera, 2001, pp.12-13; Oxley, 2010, p.68; Wilson, 2010, p.229. [return].
79. Wilson, 1979, pp.203, 205; Adams, 1982, p.33; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.43; Wilson, 1991, p.18; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.34; Guerrera, 2001, p.13; Oxley, 2010, p.83. [return]
80. Wilson, 1991, p.18; Wilson, 2010, pp.229-230. [return]
81. Wilson, 1991, p.18. [return]
82. Oxley, 2010, p.83. [return]
83. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.43. [return]
84. Wilson, 1979, p.203; Wilson, 1991, p.21; Wilson, 1998, p.279; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.43. [return]
85. Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, p.245; Scavone, 1991, p.199. [return]
86. Scavone, 1991, pp.199-200. [return]
87. Ibid; Guerrera, 2001, p.12. [return]
88. Scavone, 1991, p.200. [return]
89. Ibid. [return]
90. Ibid; Guerrera, 2001, p.12. [return]
91. Guerrera, 2001, p.12. [return]
92. "House of Vergy: Notable members," Wikipedia, 18 November 2017. [return]
93. "Guillaume de Vergy," Wikipedia, 8 March 2018. [return]
94. "House of Vergy: Notable members," Wikipedia, 18 November 2017. [return]
95. Wilson, 1998, p.69. [return]
96. Ibid. [return]
97. Wilson, I., 1990, "Recent Publications," BSTS Newsletter, No. 26, September/October, pp.11-18, 14. [return]
98. Wilson, 1998, p.69. [return]

Posted: 13 April 2018. Updated: 12 July 2018.

4 comments:

Anonymous said...

When will we be able to read your book Dr. Jones ?
Kind Regards
Paul

Stephen E. Jones said...

Paul

>When will we be able to read your book Dr. Jones ?

I am plain Mr Jones.

As I mention regularly in my Shroud of Turin News, the last having been March 2018, I am writing a book in my very limited spare time: "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!"

However, I have no planned publication date. At my current rate, it will be many years!

Stephen E. Jones
----------------------------------
MY POLICIES. Comments are moderated. Those I consider off-topic, offensive or sub-standard will not appear. Except that comments under my current post can be on any one Shroud-related topic without being off-topic. To avoid time-wasting debate I normally allow only one comment per individual under each one of my posts.


AS

Anonymous said...

Regarding the Victoria and Albert MUseum's piece of medieval herringbone twill, I would have thought the yellow part was the reconstruction.

Stephen E. Jones said...

Anonymous

>Regarding the Victoria and Albert MUseum's piece of medieval herringbone twill, I would have thought the yellow part was the reconstruction.

According to Ian Wilson, "The shaded portions are a reconstruction":

"Fig 9 Very rare mediaeval example of the Shroud's herringbone twill weave A block-painted fragment of linen of 3.1 chevron twill (or 'herringbone') weave, in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum. From the painted design, known from silks of the second half of the 14th century, a similar date is attributed to this fragment, making it a near unique example of herringbone weave from the mediaeval period. The shaded portions are a reconstruction. (Victoria and Albert Museum ref. no. 8615-1863)" (Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.69).

Although Wilson does not say that this is "The only known other example of a herringbone twill weave in linen" just that it is "Very rare mediaeval example of the Shroud's herringbone twill weave" and "near unique" (which is bad English - something can only be unique or not), to my knowledge, no other example of "3.1 chevron twill (or 'herringbone') weave" has yet been cited. So I will stick to my assumption that this is "The only known other example of a herringbone twill weave in linen" until that happens.

But even if this fragment turns out to be only "very rare" it is still a major problem of the forgery theory, how an unknown medieval forger obtained a 4.1 m x 1.1 m 3:1 herringbone twill linen sheet to imprint (by some unknown means), a front and back, head to head, double image of a naked, scourged, crowned with thorns, legs not broken, speared in the side, dead, Jesus!

Stephen E. Jones