Monday, December 27, 2021

The Shroud man and Jesus were scourged #37: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is Jesus' burial sheet!

THE SHROUD MAN AND JESUS WERE SCOURGED #37
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is part #37, "The Shroud man and Jesus were scourged," of my series, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is Jesus' burial sheet!" For more information about this series, see the "Main index #1" and "Other marks and images #26." See also "The Shroud of Turin: 3.3. The man on the Shroud and Jesus were scourged." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Main index #1] [Previous: The Shroud man and Jesus were beaten #36] [Next: The Shroud man and Jesus were crowned with thorns #38]


  1. The Bible and the Shroud #33
    1. The Shroud man and Jesus were scourged #37

The man on the Shroud had been scourged with a Roman flagrum The Shroudman had been scourged with a Roman flagrum (see below)[2].

[Right (enlarge): Enhan-ced photograph of the Shroud[3], showing the man's bloodstains and wounds, including those from scourging with a Roman flagrum.]

Jesus was scourged with a Roman flagrum The Gospels record that Jesus was scourged (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; Lk 23:16; Jn 19:1)[4]. Matthew's and Mark's gospels (Mt 27:26 & Mk 15:15) the word translated "scourged" is Greek phragelloo[5], a Latin loan-word which means to be flogged with a Roman flagrum[6]. The gospels of Luke and John (Lk 23:16 & Jn 19:1) use the general terms "chastise" (paideuo) and "flog" (mastigoo), respectively[7].

Jesus received an especially severe scourging The Roman governor Pontius Pilate (r. c. AD 26–36), had originally intended that Jesus be scourged and then released (Lk 23:16)[8]. He had hoped that the Jewish religious leaders would regard the scourging of Jesus as sufficient punishment for their charge of blasphemy[9] and Pilate tried unsuccessfully to reason with them to let Jesus go (Jn 19:1-16)[10]. Seeing that he was gaining nothing and that a riot was beginning (Mt 27:24), Pilate, having already scourged (phragelloo) Jesus (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15), delivered Him over to crucifixion (Mt :26; Mk 15:15; Lk 23:25; Jn 19:16)[11]. So Jesus unusually received both an extreme scourging[11] and then was crucified, which explains why He was unable to continue carrying His crossbeam (Mt 27:31-32; Mk 15:29-21; Lk 23:26; Jn 19:17)[12] and why He died after a comparatively short time on the cross (Mk 15:42-45)[15]. This unusual double punishment of an especially severe scourging and crucifixion was, as can be seen above, inflicted on the man in the Shroud[16].

The scourge wounds on the Shroud There are scourge wounds all over the Shroudman's body (see above), except for his head, arms and feet[17], which is consistent with him having been scourged with his arms tied above his head (see below)[18]. Each of the scourge wounds is shaped like a tiny dumbbell (see below)[19].

[Above (enlarge)[20]: Upper back of the man on the Shroud, showing the dumbbell shape of each scourge wound; their criss-cross pattern meaning there were probably two scourgers on either side[21] (see below); and the smudging of the scourge wounds over the shoulders consistent with the man having carried a cross-beam after his scourging (see below) - as Jesus did (Mt 27:26,32; Mk 15:15,21; Lk 23:16,26 & Jn 19:1,17).]

There was a Roman flagrum which matches the Shroud man's dumbbell-shaped scourge wounds (see below). It had a

[Right (enlarge)[22]: Roman flagrum reconstructed by Paul Vignon (1865-1943) from the Shroudman's scourge wounds[23]. A flagrum similar to this was later recovered from the Roman city of Herculaneum[24], which, with its neighbour Pompeii, was buried in the eruption of Mt Vesuvius in AD 79[25]. That flagrum was presumably excavated since 1939, as Vignon in his book of that year doesn't mention it. For the same reason, this type of flagrum, causing dumbbell-shaped scourge wounds, was unknown in the Middle Ages.]

short handle, three leather thongs and two lead balls (plumbatae) spaced near the end of each thong[26]. Some Shroudies make the unsubstantiated claim that, "the balls ...would dig into body of the victim and would subsequently rip out pieces of flesh ... resulting in substantial blood loss[27], when self-evidently the balls were designed to cause internal bleeding so that the intended crucifixion victim would not die prematurely from loss of blood[28].

How many scourge wounds? Shroud literature contains widely different numbers of scourge wounds on the Shroud (presumably counting each pair of dumbbell shaped-wounds as one), from a low of 60[29] to a high of 220[30] with between 100 and 120 in the middle: 100[31], 100-120[32], 120[33]. This leads to another common unsubstantiated claim by some Shroudies that, while the Jews were prohibited from administering more than 40 lashes (Dt 34:3)[34] and in practice they only administered 39 (2Cor 11:24)[35], Roman executioners were not bound by this law and were limited only by the need to keep the victims alive until they could be crucified[36]. But it was evidently Roman policy to respect deeply held Jewish religious beliefs. For example, according to ancient Roman custom the condemned had to carry his crossbeam naked through the streets of his city or town[37], but Jews were spared this final humiliation and were allowed to be clothed while carrying their crossbeam to their place of crucifixion (Mt 27:31,35; Mk 15:20,24; Lk 23:34; Jn 19:23)[38]. And the Roman governor Pontius Pilate (r. c. AD 26–36) complied with the Jewish leaders' request that the bodies of Jesus and the two other crucifixion victims not remain on their crosses on a sabbath (Jn 19:31)[39]. So it is likely that the number of scourge wounds the Shroudman received was 39 x 3 thongs = 117[40]. This is close to the most common estimate of 120 (see above).

How many scourgers? From the criss-crossed pattern of the

[Right (enlarge): "Reconstruction of the flagellation" (Ricci, 1976)[41]. Except that the Shroudman would not have been wearing a loincloth because, as can be seen in the National Geog-raphic photograph above, there are scourge marks on his buttocks[42].]

scourge wounds (see above), it is evident that there were two scourgers on either side and one was taller than the other[43].

Further features of the scourge wounds. These include:
• Under a microscope, each scourge wound has a slightly depressed centre and raised edges (see below)[44].

• Tiny scratches expected from a Roman flagrum which are only obviously visible under a microscope in ultraviolet light[45].

• Blood clot retraction serum halos (see below) some of which are only obviously visible under a microscope in ultraviolet[46] and others are only visible under a microscope in ultraviolet light[47].

[Above (enlarge)[48]: A blood clot under a microscope in white light (left) and ultraviolet light (right). Note the serum halo which remained after its clot had retracted as it dried. Some of the scourge wound serum halos are barely visible to the unaided eye[49] and others are only visible under a microscope in ultraviolet light[50]. Each of the 100-plus scourge wounds has a tiny dried blood clot with a retraction serum halo! As has every other of the hundreds, if not thousands, of clotted blood bloodstains on the Shroud have a near-invisible retraction serum halo[51]!]

• Smudged scourge wounds on the man's upper back and shoulders consistent with him having carried a crossbeam (see above)[52].

Problem for the forgery theory. See previous three: #34, #35 & #36.
• Where did the medieval forger obtain his detailed and accurate information about first-century Roman scourging? Not from the Gospels. As the late theologian Bishop John A.T. Robinson (1919–83) pointed out:

"... no forger starting, as he inevitably would, from the details of the Gospels ... would have created the shroud we have"[53].
Robinson wasn't saying the Shroud is inconsistent with the Gospels[54], only that there isn't enough information in the Gospels for a medieval forger to derive the Shroud details (including scourging) from them. Here is all that the Gospels record of the actual scourging of Jesus:
"Then he [Pilate] released for them Barabbas, and having scourged Jesus, delivered him to be crucified" (Mt 27:26).

"So Pilate, wishing to satisfy the crowd, released for them Barabbas, and having scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified" (Mk 15:15).
• Specifically, where did the medieval forger get his detailed and accurate information about a first century Roman flagrum with dumbbell-shaped lead balls? Not from books:
"And where did he [the medieval forrger] get the knowledge of a flagrum? Constantine the Great [r. 306–33] had outlawed crucifixion. In the Middle Ages, there were no dictionaries describing Greek and Roman artifacts. There were no books written about crucifixion in those days; that type of archeological research and the analysis of artifacts came along with the scientific years of the Nineteenth Century. The only libraries in the Middle Ages were in great church centers, and the books were pretty well confined to religious matters. In fact, it can truly be said that nobody knew anything about the details of crucifixion until the research activated by the photograph of the Shroud of Turin"[55].
Nor from Roman art or artifacts. The only contemporary depictions of ancient Roman flagrums (as far as I am aware) were of gladiators fighting and those flagrums were sharp and designed to cut (see below), not blunt and designed to cause internal bleeding as on the Shroud (see above).

[Left (enlarge)[56]. A Roman gladiator wielding a sharp flagrum on a denarius coin minted in 112-113 BC by Titus Didius (-89 BC).]

• A medieval forger in depicting the scourge wounds would need a modern knowledge of the physiology of blood clot retraction and would have to produce images of serum rings and scratches that are only obviously evident under ultraviolet light[57]. In doing so, the medieval forger would need to have anticipated the discovery by Johann Wilhelm Ritter (1776–1810) of ultraviolet light in 1801[58]!

• A forger would have to depict the intricate details found on each of the 100-plus scourge wounds, when many of these details would have been invisible to him, and if he got just one of these invisible details wrong, it would have betrayed his work as a forgery[59].

• In fact, so accurate are the scourge wounds that the modern science of goniometry can calculate back along their path to determine how the scourger(s) "placed himself behind his victim, how high he held his hand," etc:

"Goniometry is the science of calculating angles, that is, for instance, enabling the direction of fire of a rifle to be calculated from the path of a bullet through a victim's body. The Shroud whip marks spread from the tops of the shoulders to the lower reaches of the calves, in places extending to the front of the body, in an astonishingly convincing-looking distribution pattern. From horizontal across the loins they fan upward over the upper back, crisscross over the shoulders, and fan downward on the thighs and calves. If the work of a forger, he has taken the care to think out exactly how the whipmaster swung this way and that, how he placed himself behind his victim, how high he held his hand, yet all so subtly conveyed that the marks are hardly visible on the Shroud itself, and can only properly be followed on the photographic negative"[60].
• Because the Shroud bloodstains are of human blood[61] and the blood was on the cloth before the image[62], the forger would have had to paint the wounds, including each of the 100-plus scourge wounds, with human blood without the image to guide him[63]. Such a feat, requiring microscopic work 300 years before the invention of the microscope[64], would be more miraculous than the Shroud being authentic[65]!

• The Shroud's scourge wounds are dramatically different from any depiction of the dead or dying Christ from the Middle Ages[66]. The vast majority of these don't depict any scourge marks at all[67]. When rarely in medieval art Jesus is shown bleeding from the scourging it is always crude and unreal-istic[68]. Even the fifteenth-century artist Jean Colombe (c. 1430- 93), who knew the Shroud, was unable to reproduce in his "Man of Sorrows" (1485-86) [Right (enlarge)[69]], the Shroud's convincing pattern of scourge marks[70].

Conclusion Each of the 100-plus scourge wounds on the Shroud has a tiny blood clot, complete with a serum retraction halo, which was unknown in the Middle Ages. And some of those halos are only visible under ultraviolet light, which also was unknown in the Middle Ages. This is as understandable a refutation of the Shroud forgery theory that there could be. How could a forger depict what he couldn't see? And if he could, why would he? Or consider the maths of a forger depicting each of 100 scourge wounds (ignoring the rest of the Shroud). If he spent 1 hour on each one, that would be 100 hours or 4.2 days non-stop without eating or sleeping! If he worked 16 hours a day, allowing 8 hours for eating and sleeping, at 1 hour for each of 100 scourge wounds, it would take him 6.25 days! At half an hour each, that would still take him 3.2 days. Why would a forger do that, even if he could? It is telling that, of those sceptics who claim to have replicated the Shroud, not one of them has attempted to depict even one of the 100-plus scourge wounds on the Shroudman's body!

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, pp.34-35; Barbet, P., 1953, "A Doctor at Calvary," [1950], Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, Reprinted, 1963, pp.91-92; McNair, P., "The Shroud and History: fantasy, fake or fact?," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud ," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.23; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, pp.47-48; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, pp.69-70; Cruz, J.C., 1984, "Relics: The Shroud of Turin, the True Cross, the Blood of Januarius. ..: History, Mysticism, and the Catholic Church," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.50; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 34; Morgan, R.H., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, pp.89-90; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.44; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.31; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, p.85; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.234-227; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, pp.52-54; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.32-33, 42; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, pp.34-26; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, pp.37-38; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, pp.134, 172-173; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.45-46. [return]
3. Weaver, K.F., 1980, "Science Seeks to Solve ... The Mystery of the Shroud," National Geographic, Vol. 157, June, p.740. [return]
4. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.44; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.84-85; Iannone, 1998, p.52; Guerrera, 2001, pp.37-38. [return]
5. Green, J.P., Sr., ed., 1986, "The Interlinear Bible: One Volume Edition," [1976], Hendrickson Publishers: Peabody MA, Second edition, pp.765 & 784. [return]
6. Bauer, W., Arndt, W.F., Gingrich, F.W. & Danker, F.W., 1979, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature," University of Chicago Press: Chicago IL, Second edition, p.865. [return]
7. Green, 1986, pp.815 & 838. [return]
8. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.48; Iannone, 1998, p.52; Ruffin, 1999, p.41; Bennett, 2001, p.122; Oxley, 2010, p.161 . [return]
9. Bulst, 1957, p.48; Ruffin, 1999, p.42; Oxley, 2010, p.161. [return]
10. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.85. [return]
11. Ruffin, 1999, p.41; Oxley, 2010, p161. [return]
11. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.44; Oxley, 2010, p.42. [return]
12. Antonacci, 2000, p.120; Zugibe, F.T., 2005, "The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry," M. Evans & Co.: New York NY, pp.47-48. [return]
15. Barbet, 1953, p.72; Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, p.45; Bulst, 1957, p.79; Guscin, M., 1998, "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, p.36; Iannone, 1998, pp.79-80; Antonacci, 2000, p.117; Zugibe, 2005, p.25; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.67. [return]
16. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.90. [return]
17. de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.122. [return]
18. Bucklin, R., 1970, "The Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ," Medicine, Science and the Law, January; Borkan, 1995, p.25; Tribbe, 2006, p.60; Oxley, 2010, p.172; de Wesselow, 2012, p.123. [return]
19. Barnes, 1934, p.34; McNair, 1978, p.23; Wilson, 1986, p.31; Zugibe, F.T., 1988, "The Cross and the Shroud: A Medical Enquiry into the Crucifixion," [1982], Paragon House: New York NY, Revised edition, p.18; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.85; Borkan, 1995, p.34; Wilson, 1998, pp.32, 42; Ruffin, 1999, pp.34-26; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.100; Oxley, 2010, p.172; Wilson, I., 2010, p.45; de Wesselow, 2012, p.122. [return]
20. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Vertical," Rotated 180°, Sindonology.org. [return]
21. Iannone, 1998, p.53; de Wesselow, 2012, p.122. [return]
22. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.56; de Wesselow, 2012, p.144. [return]
23. Vignon, P., 1939, "Le Saint Suaire de Turin: Devant La Science, L'archéologie, L'histoire, L'iconographie, La Logique," Masson et Cie. Éditeurs: Paris, Second edition, p.56. [return]
24. Wilson, 1979, p.48; Iannone, 1998, p.53; Antonacci, 2000, p.100; de Wesselow, 2012, p.122. [return]
25. "Herculaneum," Wikipedia, 23 December 2021. [return]
26. Barbet, 1953, pp.91-92; Wilson, 1979, pp.47-48; Morgan, 1980, p.90; Borkan, 1995, p.34; Iannone, 1998, pp.52-53; Antonacci, 2000, p.100; Guerrera, 2001, pp.37-38; Zugibe, 2005, p.19; Oxley, 2010, p.134; Wilson, I., 2010, p.45; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, pp.122-123. [return]
27. Borkan, 1995, p.34; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.85. [return]
28. Iannone, 1998, p.53. [return]
29. Iannone, 1998, p.53. [return]
30. Ricci, G., "Historical, Medical and Physical Study of the Holy Shroud," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, p.60; Ruffin, 1999, p.26. [return]
31. Wilson, 2010, p.45. [return]
32. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.44; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.85; Case, T.W., 1996, "The Shroud of Turin and the C-14 Dating Fiasco," White Horse Press: Cincinnati OH, p.20; Antonacci, 2000, p.77; Guerrera, 2001, p.37; de Wesselow, 2012, p.122. [return]
33. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.166; Guerrera, 2001, p.37. [return]
34. Bulst, 1957, p.48; Tribbe, 2006, p.60; Oxley, 2010, p.12. [return]
35. Bulst, 1957, p.48; Antonacci, 2000, p.100; Tribbe, 2006, p.60; Oxley, 2010, p.134. [return]
36. Bulst, 1957, p.48; Antonacci, 2000, p.100; Tribbe, 2006, p.60; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.122-123; Iannone, 1998, pp.53-54. [return]
37. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.45; Bennett, J., 2001, "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, p.134; Oxley, 2010, p.134. [return]
38. Bulst, 1957, p.45; Bennett, 2001, p.134; Oxley, 2010, p.126. [return]
39. Bennett, 2001, p.134. [return]
40. Zugibe, 2005, p.22. [return]
41. Ricci, G., 1981, "The Holy Shroud," Center for the Study of the Passion of Christ and the Holy Shroud: Milwaukee WI, p.76. [return]
42. Wilson, 1998, p.32. [return]
43. Borkan, 1995, p.25; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.166; Guerrera, 2001, p.81; Tribbe, 2006, p.60; Oxley, 2010, pp.172-173. [return]
44. Antonacci, 2000, p.26. [return]
45. Adler, A.D., 2000b, "Chemical and Physical Characteristics of the Bloodstains," in Adler, A.D. & Crispino, D., ed., 2002, "The Orphaned Manuscript: A Gathering of Publications on the Shroud of Turin," Effatà Editrice: Cantalupa, Italy, pp.129-138, 132; Adler, 2000c, "Chemical and Physical Aspects of the Sindonic Images," in Adler & Crispino, 2002, pp.10-27, 14. [return]
46. Adler, 2000b, pp.131-132; Adler, 2000c, p.14; Antonacci, 2000, p.26. [return]
47. Borkan, 1995, p.27; Case, 1996, p.20. [return]
48. "Evaluation of clotted blood using direct and uv light," Kearse, K.P., 2019, "Blood clotting, serum halo rings and the bloodstains on the Shroud," Science, Theology and the Turin Shroud, International Shroud Conference, Redeemer University College, Ancaster, Ontario, Canada, August 14-17, 2019. [return]
49. de Wesselow, 2012, p.104. [return]
50. Borkan, 1995, p.27; Antonacci, 2000, p.27. [return]
51. Heller, J.H. & Adler, A.D., 1981, "A Chemical Investigation of the Shroud of Turin," in Adler & Crispino, 2002, pp.34-57, 44; Baima-Bollone, P. & Zaca, S., 1998, "The Shroud Under the Microscope: Forensic Examination," Neame, A., transl., St Pauls: London, pp.19-20; Antonacci, 2000, p.28. [return]
52. Barnes, 1934, pp.35-36; Barbet, 1953, p.98; Cruz, 1984, 51; Borkan, 1995, p.25; Iannone, 1998, p.55. [return]
53. Robinson, J.A.T., " The Shroud of Turin and the Grave-Clothes of the Gospels," in Stevenson, 1977, pp.23-30, 23; Robinson, J.A.T., "The Shroud and the New Testament," in Jennings, 1978, pp.69-81, 69; Borkan, 1995, p.45. [return]
54. Robinson, 1977, p.23; Robinson, 1978, p.69. [return]
55. Adams, 1982, p.70. [return]
56. "Ancient Roman Republican Gladiator Denarius, 113 BC," 1stDibs.com, Inc, 2022. [return]
57. Adler, 2000c, p.14. [return]
58. Case, 1996, p.40. [return]
59. Antonacci, 2000, p.77; Oxley, 2010, p.238. [return]
60. Wilson, 1986, p.20. [return]
61. Baima Bollone, P., Jorio, M. & Massaro, A.L., 1983, "Identification of the Group of the Traces of Human Blood on the Shroud," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 6, March, pp.2-6; Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.220; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, pp.62-63; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, pp.210-211; Baima-Bollone & Zaca, 1998, pp.21-22; Wilson, 1998, pp.4-5, 89-91; Antonacci, 2000, p.28; Guerrera, 2001, pp.49, 148. [return]
62. Heller, 1983, pp.202-203; Minor, M., 1990, "Shroud of Turin Manuscript Discovered By Texas Member," The Manuscript Society News, Vol. XI, No. 4, Fall, pp.117-122, 122; Borkan, 1995, p.28; Iannone, 1998, p.66; Adler, A.D., 1999, "The Nature of the Body Images on the Shroud of Turin," in Adler & Crispino, 2002, pp.103-112, 106-107; Adler, A.D., 2000a, "The Shroud Fabric and the Body Image: Chemical and Physical Characteristics," in Adler & Crispino, 2002, pp.113-127, 121; Adler, 2000b, pp.134-135; Adler, 2000c, p.22; Antonacci, 2000, p.79; Guerrera, 2001, p.71; Rogers, R.N., 2008, "A Chemist's Perspective on the Shroud of Turin," Lulu Press: Raleigh, NC, p.36; Oxley, 2010, pp. 239, 249; Wilson, 2010, pp.60-61; de Wesselow, 2012, p.104. [return]
63. Minor, 1990, p.122; Borkan, 1995, p.28; Guerrera, 2001, p.71; Wilson, 2010, p.61; de Wesselow, 2012, p.104. [return]
64. Minor, 1990, p.122. [return]
65. Minor, 1990, p.122. [return]
66. de Wesselow, 2012, p.123. [return]
67. de Wesselow, 2012, p.123. [return]
68. O'Rahilly, A. & Gaughan, J.A., ed., 1985, "The Crucified," Kingdom Books: Dublin, p.53; de Wesselow, 2012, p.123. [return]
69. Extract from "File:Folio 75r - The Man of Sorrows.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 25 September 2021. [return]
70. de Wesselow, 2012, p.123. [return]

Posted 27 December 2021. Updated 7 June 2024.

Tuesday, November 16, 2021

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twentieth century (1)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
TWENTIETH CENTURY (1)
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is part #25, "Twentieth century" (1) of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see the Index #1. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. This page was initially based on Ian Wilson's 1996, "Highlights of the Undisputed History: 1900."

[Index #1] [Previous: 19th century #24] [Next: 20th century (2) #26]


20th century (1) (1901-39).

[Above (enlarge)[2]: Sepia print of a negative photograph of the Shroud face taken by Giuseppe Enrie in 1931 [see 1931b below]:

"`Were those the lips that spoke the Sermon on the Mount and the Parable of the Rich Fool?'; `Is this the Face that is to be my judge on the Last Day?'"[3].

1901 November 15. Roman Catholic historian Canon Ulysse Chevalier (1841–1923) receives from the French Academie des Inscriptiones et Belles-Lettres, a gold medal of 1,000 francs for his fraudulent (see "1923" below)[4] monograph, Le Saint Suaire de Turin, est-il l'original ou une copie? ("The Shroud of Turin, is it the original or a copy?") [see 1899] attacking the authenticity of Shroud[5].

1902a April 21 (afternoon), Agnostic anatomy professor Yves Delage

[Right (enlarge)[6]]. From the anatomical details of the Shroud-man's image in Secondo Pia (1855–1941)'s negative photo-graphs, Delage realised that the Shroud could not have been produced by an artist and therefore was Jesus' burial shroud[7]!

(1854–1920), presents a paper on the Shroud to the Academy of Sciences, Paris, arguing for the Shroud's medical and general scientific convincingness, and stating his opinion that it genuinely wrapped the body of Christ[8].

1902b April 21 (evening) Secretary for the physics section of the Academy, Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907), inventor of thermo-chemistry, and a militant atheist, orders Delage to rewrite his paper (for publication in the Comptes rendus de l' Acadmie des Sciences [Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences]) so that it treats only on the vaporography of zinc and makes no allusion to the Shroud or to Christ[9].

1902c April-May. Publication of French biologist and Roman Catholic colleague of Delage, Paul Vignon (1865-1943)'s [Left[10].] important pro-authenticist book, Le linceul du Christ: étude scientifique (Masson et Cie, Paris)[9], followed in the same year by its English translation, "The Shroud of Christ" (Archibald Constable, Westminster)[12].

1903 Publication of English anti-Shroud Jesuit, Fr. Herbert Thurston (1856–1939)'s influential but fraudulent article, "The Holy Shroud and the Verdict of History"[13].

1904a Church historian Adolf von Harnack (1851–1930) realised that in the Liber Pontificalis (Book of the Popes) the request from Lucio Britannio rege that Pope Eleutherus (r. 174-189) send missionaries to his realm, "Britannio" was not Britain as the English historian Bede (c. 673-735) assumed but Britium, short for Britio Edessenorum the

[Above (enlarge)[14]: The ruins of Edessa's citadel, within the modern city of Sanliurfa, Turkey.]

citadel of Edessa (above)[15]. [See "205]." So the King Lucius was not a non-existent 3rd century Christian King Lucius of Britain, but Edessa's King Abgar VIII (r. 177-212), whose full name was King Lucius Aelius Septimius Megas Abgarus VIII[16].

1904b 15 September. Birth to King Victor Emmanuel III (1904-46) and Queen Elena of Montenegro (1873-1952), their only son, Prince Umberto II (1904–83), who would become the last King of Italy, reigning for only 34 days (9 May-12 June 1946)[17].

1912 Fr Herbert Thurston (see above) wrote an article on the Shroud for the Catholic Encyclopedia, the unofficial guidebook of the Catholic faith[18]. In the article, which is still online[19], Thurston presented the false and indeed fraudulent arguments of Canon Chevalier (see above)[20], that the Shroud was a painting, `proved' by the 1389 Memorandum of Bishop Pierre d'Arcis [see "1389e"][21]. Thurston went further and provided his own `scientific' argument (which has been removed from the online article):
"It appears to me quite conceivable that the figure of our Lord may have been originally painted in two different yellows, a bright glazed yellow for the lights and a brownish yellow for the shadows. What chemist would be bold enough to affirm that under the action of time and intense heat (like the fire of 1354 [sic 1532]) the two yellows may not have behaved very differently, the bright yellow blackening, the brown yellow fading?"[42].
But Vignon had already refuted that colour inversion theory in 1902[23]. Neither Thurston nor Chevalier, had never seen the Shroud, and they refused to accept the evidence of those who had, that the Shroud image was not painted[24]. But despite the falsity, and indeed fraudulence, of Thurston's encyclopedia article, very few Catholics, and indeed very few Christians, believed in the Shroud after it appeared[25]. Thurston's article set a seal on the standing of the Shroud in the English speaking world[26]. It wasn't until 1968, fifty-six years later, that Thurston's article was replaced by a balanced, factual one, one written by pro-authenticist, Fr Adam Otterbein (1915-98)[27]. Otterbein concluded his article with:
"There are still many unanswered questions, but the accumulation of evidence from different fields of knowledge presents a formidable argument in favor of authenticity. The rapid progress of science and scholarship has made a new exposition of the shroud advisable"[28].
1914 28 June. Assassination by a Serbian nationalist of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (1863–1914) and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg (1868-1914)[29]. In response, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and Russia entered into an alliance with Serbia[30]. Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy were in their already established Triple Alliance and by July France, Russia and Britain had entered an opposing Triple Entente[31]. By August the two coalitions were at war[32]. Italy decided to stay out of the war on the grounds that Triple Alliance was defensive[33]. However, Italy's real motive was Italian

[Right (enlarge)[34]. "Italian ethnic regions claimed in the 1930s"].

irredentism[35]: completing the unification of Italy by inclusion within it of areas of other countries where ethnic Italians and/or Italian-speaking individuals formed a majority or substantial minority[36].

1915 May 3. Following negotiations with Austria and the Triple Entente (see above) for territorial concessions at the end of the war to fulfil Italy's irrendentist claims, which Austria rejected but the Triple Entente partially accepted, Italy revokes its membership of the Triple Alliance and prepares to declare war against Germany and Austria-Hungary[37].

1918 6 May. In response to the threat of German aerial bombing, the Shroud is removed from Turin's Royal Chapel and taken to Turin's Royal Palace, where it is secretly placed inside a locked strongbox within a strengthened small room two floors below ground level[38]. After the war the Shroud is removed from the strongroom in Turin's Royal Palace and taken to be kept in Turin Cathedral[39].

1920 7 October. Death of Prof. Yves Delage (1854–1920)[40]. "His honesty remains for us a precious souvenir, an example for our days"[41].

"For while he [Yves Delage] did not believe in a divine Christ, he still admitted the historical existence of Jesus, and believed that the marks on the relic had been made by His dead body. In the face of the bitter attacks that followed his bold espousal of the relic's cause, he held to that belief unwaveringly. Such integrity and clarity of mind concerning the two most agitated questions of the day-religion and science-were not exactly common in fin de siecle [end of century] Paris. They are not common today"[42].
1922a 6 February. Achille Ratti (1857–1939), onetime mountaineering companion of Paul Vignon (see above)[43], becomes Pope Pius XI (r. 1922-39)[64]. Ratti was surely the most pro-Shroud Pope ever. In 1931 at the exhibition of the Shroud to mark the wedding of Prince Umberto and Princess Marie Jose of Belgium (1906-2001), he declared:
"We say, not as the Pope, but as a scientist, we have personally followed all examinations of the Shroud and we are persuaded that the Holy Shroud is authentic. All arguments against the authenticity of the Shroud do not hold. In fact, the Holy Shroud alone is sufficient evidence that this linen was not made by human hands"[45].
Ratti saw the Shroud at its 1898 exposition[46] and as Pope he authorised a special 1933 exposition to commemorate 1900 years [sic] since the death and resurrection of Jesus[47].

1922b 31 October. Following the March on Rome (28–30 October) of 30,000 Fascists, King Victor Emmanuel III appointed Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) Prime Minister[48]. Within five years, Mussolini would transform Italy into a totalitarian state with himself as its Dictator[49].

1923 Death of Canon Ulysse Chevalier (1841-1923) (see above)[50]:

"Though a Catholic priest and professor of history at the Catholic university of Lyon ... Chevalier maintained an independent critical attitude even on religious questions. In the controversy on the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin (sudario), he worked by tracing back the history of the cloth, which was undoubtedly used as a shroud, but he argued was not produced before the 14th century and was probably no older ... In 2006 French historian Emmanuel Poulle wrote in a peer-reviewed journal that Ulysse Chevalier showed in this case intellectual dishonesty ... Chevalier deliberately did not correctly mention the Papal bulls of antipope Clement VII issued in 1390. In fact Clement VII never opted for the forgery thesis"[51].

1924 Paul Vignon (see above) is appointed professor on the Faculty of Philosophy of the Institut Catholique de Paris, where until his death in 1943 he occupied the Chair of "Philosophy of Zoology and Introduction to the Philosophy of Biology"[52].

1930 8 January. Marriage in Rome of Prince Umberto II (1904–83) and Princess Marie Jose of Belgium (1906-2001)[53].

1931a 4-24 May. Twenty-one day public expostion of the Shroud to

[Left (enlarge): A poster advertising the exposition of the Shroud from 4-24 May, 1931[54].]

commemorate the royal wedding[55]. Two million view the Shroud[56]!

1931b 21-23 May. Turinese professional photographer Giuseppe Enrie (1886-1961)[57] photographs the Shroud (see above and below), with much improved photographic equip-ment[58], and confirms the 1898 findings of Secondo Pia [see "1898a"]

[Above (enlarge): Sepia print of Enrie's 1931 photograph of the Shroud on the steps of Turin Cathedral[59].]

that the Shroud image is a photographic negative[60] (see below). The

[Above (enlarge)[61]: Comparison of Pia's (left) and Enrie's (right) negative photographs of the Shroud face, showing that Enrie (1931) confirmed Pia's (1898) finding that the Shroud image is a photographic negative!]

~76 year-old Secondo Pia and the ~66 year-old Paul Vignon were Enrie's assistants[62]! Enrie's photographs proved that the Shroudman's image was not painted, because so much finer was their resolution that each thread of the cloth could be distinctly seen and that there was no paint or pigment covering them, nor clogging of the spaces between the threads[63]! Enrie's photographs were the basis of many Shroud studies, including those of Vignon, Barbet, STURP, Filas, Whanger and Danin (see future)[64].

1931c From study of Enrie's Shroud face photograph (see above), Paul Vignon (see above)[65], developed his "Iconographic Theory"[66] which proposed that the similarities betwen the Shroud face and Christian depictions of Jesus' face back to the 5th century, are because the artists had the Shroud as their model[67]!

1932a Dr Pierre Barbet (1884–1961), Chief Surgeon at St. Joseph's

[Right (enlarge)[68] Dr Pierre Barbet. Note: photos of "Pierre Barbet" which look like that below are of a writer who adopted "Pierre Barbet" as a pseudonym.]

Hospital, Paris[69], and a Roman Catholic[70], began research on the Enrie photographs[71], with a focus on the "Five Wounds of Christ"[72]: a nail wound in each hand, a spear wound in the side, and a nail wound in each foot[73]. Barbet had noted that on the Shroud the exit wound of the nail was in the man's left wrist, not the back of his palm[74] (see below). Although

[Above (enlarge): The nail exit wound and bloodstain on the back of the left hand of the man on the Shroud[75]. Only one nail wound is visible because the corresponding wound in the right wrist (indicated by blood flows down his right forearm) is covered by his left hand[76]. Note the thumbs are not visible (see below why); that these are xray images of the man's finger and hand bones [see 20Apr17a] and that the man's left thumb bones can be seen through the flesh of his left hand [see 20Apr17b]!]

Christian tradition, based on a simplistic interpretation of "hands" in Lk 24:39 & Jn 20:20,25,27, located the hand nail wounds in Jesus' palms[77], it was self-evident to Barbet that nails through the palms could not support the weight of a man hanging on a cross, but would tear through the palm's weak vertical structures[78]. Barbet confirmed this by experiments with freshly amputated arms of cadavers at St Joseph Hospital[79]. When such amputated arms were each suspended by a nail through the palms and weight added to simulate a man's body hanging on a cross, the nails tore through the palms[80]. Next

[Above (enlarge)[81]: "Destot's space ... The space in the wrist bounded by the hamate, capitate, triquetral and lunate bones. This place is referred to as a place where the nails of Jesus Christ crucifixion pierced his wrist"[82]. See also 07Dec13.]

Barbet experimented with driving a large nail through the wrists of amputated arms at the location indicated on the Shroud, which he knew was "Destot's space" (see above)[83]. Barbet expected the nail to crush one or more of the surrounding wrist bones[84], but instead, in repeated experiments, the nail entered Destot's space and pushed aside the wrist bones without crushing any of them[85]! Moreover, the nail was held fast by the four wrist bones surrounding Destot's space and the transverse carpal ligament[86]. Truly Jesus, the Man on the Shroud, is "the Lamb who was slain from the foundation of the world" (Rev 13:8)! Barbet also found that when he drove the nail into the Space of Destot the thumb retracted into the palm, due to the nail damaging the median nerve[87]. Barbet then realised that is why on the Shroud the thumbs are not visible (see above)[88]. "Could a forger have imagined this?". Barbet asked[89], and the answer clearly is no! Finally, to dispose of the armchair criticism of the late Dr Frederick T. Zugibe (1928-2013) (Barbet did the experiments-Zugibe didn't), that:

"Barbet made another serious error, claiming that when he drove the nail through Destot's Space, anywhere from 1/2 to 2/3 of the trunk of the median nerve was severed. This is not anatomically possible, because the median nerve is not located in the area of Destot's Space but instead runs along the wrist on the thumb side and along the thenar furrow into the palm of the hand"[90].
Admittedly, Barbet was verbally imprecise when he wrote:
"Dissections showed me that the trunk of the median was always extensively injured by the nail. It was divided and crushed ... sometimes in its half, its third or two thirds" (my emphasis)[91].
And:
"Now, dissections have revealed to me that the trunk of the median nerve is always seriously injured by the nail; it is divided into sections, being broken sometimes halfway and sometimes two-thirds of the way across, according to the case" (my emphasis)[92].
But it is obvious (and should have been to Zugibe if he hadn't been blinded by his prejudice against Barbet) from an xray of the head of the large Roman nail in Figure IV of Barbet's "A Doctor at Calvary"

[Above (enlarge): (Left) Xray showing how the large, square, Roman nail forced outwards the bones surrounding Destot's space[93]. (Right) Extract of a drawing of the nerves in the hand. "A" and "B" are the muscular and digital branches of the median nerve and "C", "D" and "E" are the dorsal, superficial and digital brances of the ulnar nervee[94]. The red square shows the approximate location of the large, square Roman nail. As can be seen, the nail would have forced the bones surrounding Destot's Space outward, crushing and cutting the delicate branches of the median and ulnar nerves.]

(above left) that the hand bones being forced outwards by the nail would have crushed and cut the delicate median and ulnar nerves. So Zugibe's argument againt Barbet on this point is merely verbal, not real! If Barbet (or his English translator) had been more verbally precise, he would have written, "the median nerve is always seriously injured by the hand bones displaced by the nail" and it would be clear that in this Zugibe had no real point.

1932b 25 December. Pope Pius XI (r. 1922-39) (see above), declares 1933-34 is to be a Holy Year to commemorate the nineteenth centenary of the death of Christ[95]. However the most likely date of Jesus' death is 7 April 30[96].

1933 24 September to 15 October 15: At the request of Pope Pius XI the

[Left (enlarge)[97]: Poster advertising the 1933 Exposition.]

Shroud is exhibited as part of the celebrations for Holy Year[98]. The young Salesian priest Fr. Peter Rinaldi (1910-93), fluent in French and English, as well as Italian, acts as interpreter[99]. On the final day, 15 October, the Shroud is held out in daylight on the steps of the cathedral where Dr. Pierre Barbet views it from a distance of less than a yard (0.91 metre)[100]. He writes:

"I saw that all the images of the wounds were of a color quite different from that of the rest of the body, and this color was that of dried blood which had sunk into the stuff. There was, thus, more than the brown stains on the Shroud reproducing the outline of the corpse. The blood itself had colored the stuff by direct contact. It is difficult for one unversed in painting to define the exact color, but the foundation was red ('mauve carmine' said M. Vignon, who had a fine sense of color), diluted more or less according to the wounds"[101].
1934 June. Fr. Peter Rinaldi, having returned to the USA from the 1933 exposition, publishes "The Holy Shroud," in The Sign, the first ever USA magazine article on the Shroud[102]. This sparks such interest in the Shroud that it was the start of the involvement of many Shroudies in the USA[103].

1935 3 October. Italy, under Prime Minister Benito Mussolini (r. 1922–43) and King Victor Emmanuel III (r. 1900-46), invade Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War (1935-37)[104]. On 7 May King Victor Emmanuel III proclaims himself Emperor over the new Italian province of East Africa[105].

1937 March. An article, "The problem of the Holy Shroud," by Paul Vignon (see above), translated by Fr Edward Wuenschel (1899-1964), is published in Scientific American[106]. In it Vignon, with positive and negative photographs of the Shroud, points out that the image is a photographic negative, and therefore not a painting:

"The figures on the Shroud, in fact, are not paintings at all. As already stated, they are negative images, and the idea of a negative became known only through the invention of photography in the 19th Century. No artist of any earlier period, therefore (certainly none of the 14th Century and, above all, none before the 5th), could have conceived the idea of painting a negative"[107].
In the article Vignon also outlined his Iconographic Theory:
"It is quite certain that the figures on the Shroud are not paintings of the 14th Century. There are many representations of Christ, notably the image of Edessa, which could have been derived only from the Shroud. A careful study of these copies, which I completed recently, shows that the present Shroud of Turin was in Constantinople during the 12th Century, and that the face visible upon it served as a model for artists as early as the 5th. The artists did not copy slavishly, but tried to interpret the face, translating the mask-like features into a living portrait, which was still a recognizable copy of the original. This disposes of the only positive objection ever brought forward in the name of history"[108].

1938 Publication of Paul Vignon's "Le Saint Suaire de Turin devant la science, l' archologie, l' histoire, l' iconographie, la logique ("The Holy Shroud of Turin in the Light of Science, Archaeology, History, Iconography and Logic"[109]), which sets out Vignon's Iconographic Theory[110].

1939a 7 April. Italy invades Albania[111] and Victor Emmanuel III assumes the title, King of the Albanians[112].

1939b 3-4 May. First National Congress on Shroud Studies is held in Turin, with some twenty papers presented[113].

1939c 1 September. Germany, under Adolf Hitler (r. 1933-45), invades Poland, triggering World War II[114].

1939d 7 September. Due to fear of Allied bombing[115] and that Hitler might confiscate the Shroud[116], the Archbishop of Turin Cardinal Maurilio Fossati (r. 1930-65), had the Shroud secretly taken in an ordinary box to the Sanctuary of Montevergine, in southern Italy[117].

[Right (enlarge): The Benedictine monastery at Montevergine, Italy, where the Shroud was secretly kept during World War II, from 25 September 1939 to 29 October 1946[118].]

The King approved the plan because enroute the Shroud was hidden in the Royal Palace in Rome[119]. Only the Prior and three others are told that the box contained the Shroud[120]. It remained there, hidden under a side altar for seven years and a month[121]. During the war the Nazis had searched for the Shroud but were told by Cardinal Fossati that the Savoys had removed it[122]. See future 31 October 1946 on the return of the Shroud to Turin.]

To be continued in part #26, "Twentieth century" (2) of this series.

Notes:
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Vignon, P., 1939, "Le Saint Suaire de Turin: Devant La Science, L'archéologie, L'histoire, L'iconographie, La Logique," Masson et Cie. Éditeurs: Paris, Second edition, plate I. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.189. [return]
4. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.185-186; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.151-152; Markwardt, J., 2001, "The Conspiracy Against the Shroud," BSTS Newsletter, No. 55, June 2002. [return]
5. Walsh, J.E., 1963, "The Shroud," Random House: New York NY, p.57; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, pp.54-55. [return]
6. Portrait of Professor Delage (1911-12), by Mathurin Méheut (1882–1958)," Station Biologique de Roscoff, France. [return]
7. Brent, P. & Rolfe, D., 1978, "The Silent Witness: The Mysteries of the Turin Shroud Revealed," Futura Publications: London, p.36; Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, p.4; Antonacci, 2000, p.4; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.51. [return]
8. McNair, P., "The Shroud and History: Fantasy, Fake or Fact?," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud ," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.28; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.298-299. [return]
9. Wilson, 1998, p.299. [return]
10. Extract from de Gail, P., 1983, "Paul Vignon," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 6, March, pp.46-50, 46. [return]
11. McNair, P., "The Shroud and History: Fantasy, Fake or Fact?," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.28; Zeuli, T., 1984, "Jesus Christ is the Man of the Shroud," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 10, March, pp.29-33, 31; van Cauwenberghe, A., 1992, "The 1902 Concealment," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 41, December, pp.13-19, 15. [return]
12. Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.54; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, pp.100. [return]
13. McNair, 1978, p.28; Wilson, 1998, p.245; Markwardt, 2001. [return]
14. Extract from "Edessa citadel in Urfa, Turkey (Google Maps)," Virtual Globetrotting, 2016. [return]
15. Wilson, I., 1996, "Joseph of Arimathea, the Holy Grail and the Edessa Icon," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 44 , November/December; Scavone, D.C., 2002, "Joseph of Arimathea, The Holy Grail & the Edessa Icon," BSTS Newsletter, No. 56, December. [return]
16. Scavone, D., 1997, "British King Lucius and the Shroud," Shroud News, No. 100, February, pp.30-39, 35; Scavone, D.C., 2010, "Edessan sources for the legend of the Holy Grail," Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, ENEA Frascati, Italy, 4-6 May 2010, pp.1-6, p.3. [return]
17. "Umberto II of Italy," Wikipedia, 28 November 2021. [return]
18. Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.23 [return]
19. Thurston, H. (1912). "The Holy Shroud (of Turin)." In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Co: New York, New Advent, 2020. [return]
20. Scavone, 1989, p.23 [return]
21. Nelson , H., 1993, "Rush To Judgement," Shroud News, No 76, April, p.6. [return]
42. O'Rahilly, A. & Gaughan, J.A., ed., 1985, "The Crucified," Kingdom Books: Dublin, p.51; Wilcox, R.K., 2010, "The Truth About the Shroud of Turin: Solving the Mystery," [1977], Regnery: Washington DC, p.122. [return]
23. Vignon, P., 1902, "The Shroud of Christ," University Books: New York NY, Reprinted, 1970, p.1113; Wilcox, 2010, pp.122-123. [return]
24. Wilcox, 2010, p.122. [return]
25. Scavone, 1989, p.23. [return]
26. Smith, P., 1988, "The Place of Shroud News in Sindonology," Shroud News, No 50, December, pp.22-24, 23. [return]
27. Wilcox, 2010, pp.122, 123. [return]
28. Wilcox, 2010, p.123. [return]
29. "World War I," Wikipedia, 23 November 2021. [return]
30. Ibid. [return]
31. Ibid. [return]
32. Ibid. [return]
33. Ibid. [return]
34. "Italian irredentism," Wikipedia, 21 April 2021. [return]
35. "1914 in Italy: August," Wikipedia, 21 April 2021. [return]
36. "Italian irredentism," Wikipedia, 21 April 2021. [return]
37. "1915 in Italy: April," Wikipedia, 31 March 2021. [return]
38. "1915 in Italy: April," Barberis, A., 1987, "The Secret Chamber: An Episode in Shroud History," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 22, March, pp.15-17, 16; Wilson, 1998, p.299. [return]
39. Rinaldi, P.M., 1983, "I Saw the Holy Shroud," Don Bosco Publications: New Rochelle NY, p.81. [return]
40. "Yves Delage," Wikipedia, 21 January 2021. [return]
41. van Cauwenberghe, 1992, p.18. [return]
42. Walsh, 1963, p.95. [return]
43. Walsh, 1963, pp.50-61; Crispino, D.C., 1982, "Commemorations," Shroud Spectrum International, No, 2, March, pp.33-35, 33-34; van Cauwenberghe, 1992, p.18. [return]
64. "Pope Pius XI," Wikipedia, 30 October 2021. [return]
45. Van Haelst, R., 1988, "First Belgian Touring Exhibition," Shroud News, No 46, April, pp.8-12, 10. [return]
46. Crispino, 1982, p.33; van Cauwenberghe, 1992, p.18. [return]
47. Crispino, 1982, pp.33-34; Van Haelst, 1988, p.10. [return]
48. "Benito Mussolini," Wikipedia, 26 November 2021. [return]
49. Ibid. [return]
50. "Ulysse Chevalier," Wikipedia, 2 July 2021. [return]
51. Ibid. [return]
52. de Gail, 1983, p.47. [return]
53. "Umberto II of Italy: Marriage and issue," Wikipedia, 28 November 2021 & "Marie-José of Belgium: Marriage and children," Wikipedia, 29 November 2021. [return]
54. "Poster exhibition litografia Turin Shroud Exposition 1931 100 Cm X 70cm Sindone Holy Shroud," www.todocoleccion.net. [return]
75. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, p.29; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.56; Wilson, 1998, p.300; Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.27; Guerrera, 2001, p.22. [return]
56. Adams, 1982, p.56; Wilson, 1998, p.300. [return]
57. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, pp.24-25; Drews, 1984, p.7; de Wesselow, 2012, p.21. [return]
58. Adams, 1982, p.56; Drews, 1984, p.7. [return]
59. Moretto, 1999, p.27. [return]
60. Adams, 1982, p.57; Wilson, 1998, p.300; Antonacci, 2000, p.47. [return]
61. Vignon, P., 1939, "Le Saint Suaire de Turin: Devant La Science, L'archéologie, L'histoire, L'iconographie, La Logique," Masson et Cie. Éditeurs: Paris, Second edition, plate I & "Holy Face of Jesus," Wikipedia, 28 August 2021. [return]
62. Adams, 1982, pp.56-57. [return]
63. Adams, 1982, p.57; Wilson, 1998, p.300; Antonacci, 2000, p.47. [return]
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Posted: 15 November 2021. Updated: 23 April 2022.