Monday, January 14, 2019

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fifteenth century (2)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
FIFTEENTH CENTURY (2)
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the fifth installment of part #19, "Fifteenth century (2)" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. This part (2) has been split off from part (1). For more information about this series see ithe Index #1. As previously mentioned in my posts of 27Dec18 and 08Jan19, to save time installments will now be to the whole post and not specifically linked. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Index #1] [Previous: 15th century (1) #18] [Next: 16th century #20]


15th century (1454-1500).

[Above (enlarge): "Man of Sorrows"[2] depiction of the Shroud with its distinctive wounds, bloodstains and crossed hands:

"... the wounds of the Christ can be seen to be Shroud-related. Not only are the hands crossed in the Shroud manner and Christ's body peppered with most-Shroud-like scourge-marks, particularly telling are long streams of blood as from the nail-wounds that are depicted running down the front of the forearms"[3]
in 1485 by French miniaturist Jean Colombe (c. 1430-c. 1493)[4], on behalf of Charles I, Duke of Savoy (r. 1482-1490) (left), to commemorate his marriage in that year to Blanche (Bianca) of Montferrat (1472–1519)[5] (right). This miniature was added to the collection, Les Très Riches Heures (the "Very Rich Hours") of King John II (r.1350–1364)'s son John, Duke of Berry (1340–1416)[6], by Duke Charles I, John's descendant[7] [See future "1482" and "1485"].]

1457 On 29 May, evidently having learned that Marguerite de Charny (c. 1393–1460) [see "c.1393"] had transferred the Shroud four years earlier to Duke Louis I of Savoy (r. 1440-65)[8] [see "1453a"], the Lirey church canons continued with their extortion racket [see part (1)] by issuing her, the rightful owner of the Shroud [see "1398"], with a pro-forma writ of excommunication through the ecclesiastical Court of Besançon [see 09Nov18], if she did not return the Shroud to them immediately[9] [see 1418b, 1443 and 1447]! Then on the next day, 30 May 1457, Marguerite was excommunicated[10]!

1459 Marguerite de Charny's half-brother Charles de Noyers[11], a son of Marguerite's mother's second marriage[12] [see 03Jul18], negotiated compensation to the Lirey canons for their `loss' of `their' Shroud[13], which they specifically recognise they will not now recover[14]. On the promise of payment of monetary compensation[15], which never was paid[16], Marguerite's excommunication was lifted[17].

1460 On 7 October Marguerite de Charny died[18], leaving her Lirey lands to her cousin and godson Antoine-Guerry des Essars (c. 1408-74)[19]. As previously mentioned (see "c. 1392" and 11Jul16), Antoine-Guerry des Essars was the son of Guillemette de Poitiers (1370–1450), who in turn was one of four illegitimate children of Bishop Henri de Poitiers (r. 1354–1370) and his nun concubine, Jeanne de Chenery (1340–)! According to the 1389 Memorandum of the Bishop of Troyes, Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-1395), one of his predecessors, Bishop Henri de Poitiers, had discovered that the Shroud was "cunningly painted" and even the "artist who had painted it":

"... Henry of Poitiers ... then Bishop of Troyes ... after diligent inquiry and examination, he discovered the fraud and how the said cloth had been cunningly painted, the truth being attested by the artist who had painted it, to wit, that it was a work of human skill and not miraculously wrought or bestowed"[see "1389d"].
But not only: 1) is the Shroud not painted [11Jul16]; 2) there is no evidence that Bishop de Poitiers had a problem with the Shroud[21Aug18]; 3) Geoffroy II de Charny married Marguerite de Poitiers, who was Bishop de Poitiers' niece[c. 1392]; and 4) so close was the relationship between Marguerite de Charny and her mother's de Poitiers family, and Guillemette de Poitiers in particular, that Marguerite was the godmother of Guillemette's son Antoine and left him her Lirey lands! A more comprehensive refutation of the d'Arcis Memorandum is difficult to imagine!

1464 The Liray canons, having received nothing from Marguerite or Charles de Noyer, next approached Duke Louis I of Savoy (r. 1440-65)[20]. On 6 February by an accord drawn up in Paris, Louis agreed to pay the Lirey canons an annual rent of fifty francs[21], to be drawn from the revenues of the castle of Gaillard, near Geneva, as compensation for their loss of the Shroud[22]. The accord notes that the Shroud had been given [sic] to the church of Lirey by Geoffroy I de Charny, and that it had then been transferred to Duke Louis by Marguerite de Charny[23]. This is the earliest surviving document to record the de Charny's Shroud of Lirey hadbecome Savoy property[24].

1465 Duke Louis I died at Lyon[25]. He was succeeded by his son Duke Amadeus IX (r. 1465-72) [Right (enlarge)[26].], who shared with his wife Duchess Yolande (1434-78), a daughter of King Charles VII of France (r. 1422-61), a particular devotion to the Shroud[27].

1467a On 21 April Pope Paul II (r. 1464-71) approved the upgrading of the Chambéry chapel [see "1408"] to a collegiate church[28], with twelve canons[29].

1467b In that same year, the Franciscan theologian Francesco della Rovere was appointed a Cardinal[30]. In his 1464 treatise The Blood of Christ, della Rovere wrote:

"... the Shroud in which the body of Christ was wrapped when he was taken down from the cross. This is now preserved with great devotion by the Dukes of Savoy, and it is coloured with the blood of Christ"[31].
On the death of Pope Paul II, della Rovere was elected Pope and took the name Sixtus IV (r. 1471-84)[32].

To be continued in the sixth installment of this part #19 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "File:Folio 75r - The Man of Sorrows.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 4 June 2018. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1994, "A New Finding," BSTS Newsletter. No. 38, August/September, pp.16-19, 17; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.285. [return]
4. "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry," Wikipedia, 24 August 2018. [return]
5. Wilson, 1994, p.17; Wilson, 1998, p.285. [return]
6. "John, Duke of Berry," Wikipedia, 12 October 2018. [return]
7. Wilson, 1994, p.17. [return]
8. Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, p.103; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.217; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.243-244. [return]
9. Wilson, 1979, pp.217, 261; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
10. Humber, 1978, p.103; Wilson, 1979, pp.217, 261; Currer-Briggs, N., 1995, "Shroud Mafia: The Creation of a Relic?," Book Guild: Sussex UK, p.40; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Wilson, 2010, p.244; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.15. [return]
11. Wilson, 1979, p.213; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.36; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.51; Wilson, 2010, p.240. [return]
12. Oxley, 2010, p.70. [return]
13. Wilson, 1979, pp.217, 261; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
14. Wilson, 1979, p.217; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Whiting, 2006, p.54; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
15. Oxley, 2010, p.71. [return]
16. Humber, 1978, pp.104-105. [return]
17. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Oxley, 2010, p.71. [return]
18. Wilson, 1979, pp.217, 261; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.47; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.16; Whiting, 2006, p.54; Wilson, 2010, pp.244, 303. [return]
19. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Oxley, 2010, pp.70-71. [return]
20. Humber, 1978, p.104. [return]
21. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, 2001, p.17. [return]
22. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, 2001, p.17; Oxley, 2010, p.71; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
23. Humber, 1978, p.104; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Oxley, 2010, p.71; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
24. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Oxley, 2010, p.71; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
25. Wilson, 1998, p.283; "Louis, Duke of Savoy," Wikipedia, 18 December 2018. [return]
26. "File:Antoine de Lohny Amedeo IX.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 26 October 2013. [return]
27. Wilson, 1998, p.283. [return]
28. Wilson, 1998, p.283. [return]
29. Guerrera, 2001, p.24. [return]
30. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, 2001, p.24. [return]
31. Wilson, 1979, p.217; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, 2001, pp.24-25; Oxley, 2010, pp.75-76; Wilson, 2010, p.245. [return]
32. "Pope Sixtus IV," Wikipedia, 16 October 2018. [return]

Posted: 14 January 2019. Updated: 18 January 2019.

Tuesday, January 8, 2019

Abgar V: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia

Turin Shroud Encyclopedia
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones
[1]

Abgar V #2

This is the seventh and final installment of "Abgar V," part #2 of my new Turin Shroud Encyclopedia. As mentioned in my post of 27Dec18, to save time installments will now be to the whole post and not specifically linked. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated, For information about this series, see part #1, "Index A-Z"

[Index #1] [Previous: Index #1] [Next: Abgar VIII #3]


Abgar V Abgar V Ukkama bar Ma'nu (r. 4 BC-AD 7, 13-50), was the

[Right (enlarge): King Abgar V of <Edessa> is depicted in this mid-10th century icon at Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, receiving the Image of Edessa (the Shroud "four-doubled" - tetradiplon) from Jesus' disciple <Thaddeus>. Abgar's face is that of Byzantine Emperor <Constantine VII> (r. 913-959), to commem-orate the arrival of the <Image of Edessa> / Shroud in <Constantinople> on 15 August <944> [see 13May17].]

King of Osroene, the capital of which was <Edessa>, today Urfa. Abgar V's predecessor was his father Ma'nu III Saphul (r. 23BC –4 BC) and his successor was his son Ma'nu V bar Abgar (AD 50–57). Abgar V's Abgarid dynasty were probably Arabs. Abgar V came to power in 4 BC. He became a Roman client, was deposed in AD 7, but regained his throne in 13, from when he reigned until his death in 50.

Osroene was a semi-independent kingdom under the protection of the Parthian Empire from c. 132 BC until AD 114 when it was absorbed into the Roman Empire as a semiautonomous vassal state, after which it fell under direct Roman rule in c. 242.

The church historian Eusebius (263-339) recorded that he had read in Edessa's archives letters in Syriac between Abgar V and Jesus. Eusebius, a native of Palestine, translated the letters into Greek in his Church History.

In Abgar's letter to Jesus he asked Jesus to come to Edessa to heal him. In Jesus' reply letter to Abgar, He declined Abgar' invitation but promised that after His Ascension He would send a disciple to heal Abgar and convert him and his people to Christianity.

Historians have dismissed the Abgar-Jesus correspondence as a "pious fraud," albeit based on "a substratum of fact". But Mt 4:23-25 records that Jesus' "fame spread throughout all Syria" because of His "healing every disease and every affliction among the people." The Roman province of Syria shared a border with Osroene, so an ill Abgar would surely have heard of Jesus' healings. And it is not unlikely that a king would write an official letter to Jesus to give weight to his request. What does seem unlikely is that Jesus, knowing that He is God the Son (Jn 8:58-59; 10:30-36), would provide a pagan king with a physical letter that could become an object of idolatrous worship. Especially when a verbal reply would have sufficed.

But both Abgar's letter to Jesus and Jesus' reply letter to Abgar contain anachronisms. Abgar's letter to Jesus appears to be based on Jesus' verbal reply to the disciples of John the Baptist (Mt 11:1-3; Lk 7:18-21):

Mt 11:5 "the blind receive their sight and the lame walk, lepers are cleansed and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them."

Lk 7:22 "And he answered them, `Go and tell John what you have seen and heard: the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, the poor have good news preached to them."
And in Jesus reply to Abgar, there is no Old Testament verse resembling the quotation:
"For it is written concerning me, that they who have seen me will not believe in me, and that they who have not seen me will believe and be saved."
but there are New Testament verses that it evidently was based on:
John 6:36 "But I said to you that you have seen me and yet do not believe."

John 20:29 "Jesus said to him, 'Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.'"
Nevertheless, after Jesus Ascension (Acts 1:9-11), one of Jesus' disciples, Thaddeus (Syriac Addai), one of the Seventy-two (Lk 10:1,17), not to be confused with the Apostle Thaddeus (Mt 10:3; Mk 3:18), did go to Edessa and lay the foundations of Christianity there. That Thaddeus also did heal Abgar, as stated in an addendum to the Abgar-Jesus letters, is evident in that Abgar V died ~20 years later in AD 50, and if Abgar was never sick and healed via Jesus it would never have been recorded in the Abgar-Jesus correspondence in the first place.

And by the early late second/early third century, under <Abgar VIII> (r. 177-212), Edessa did become the world's first Christian city and Abgar VIII the world's first overtly Christian king!

So a verbal request from Abgar V to Jesus and a verbal reply from Jesus to Abgar, both of which were later transcribed from oral tradition into letters, embellished with relevant New Testament passages, would explain this.

In the late 5th century (c. 490), the Gelasian Decree, attributed to Pope Gelasius I (r.492-496), classified the correspondence between Abgar V and Jesus as apocryphal.

In 544 the Edessans invoking Jesus' letter failed to lift the siege of Edessa by the Persian king Khosrow I (r. 531-579). But the Shroud brought to Edessa from Ravenna in 540 by fleeing Ostrogoth Arians (according to my theory), did cause the Persian siege tower to catch fire and the Persians to abandon their siege. From then on the Shroud folded "four doubled" (<tetradiplon>) became the Image of Edessa and replaced Jesus' letter as Edessa's new palladium (guarantee of a city's Divine protection).

In 944 the Abgar-Jesus letters were, with the Image of Edessa/Shroud, taken to <Constantinople> (as depicted above by John Skylitzes in c. 1070), where on 15 August <944>, they were received into the Church of St. Mary of Blachernae. The letters were subsequently lost, either in the <1204> Sack of Constantinople or more likely they had before then deteriorated into illegibility.

The story of Abgar V was progressively updated in subsequent centuries to incorporate the growing realisation that under the face-only <Image of Edessa> was the full-length Shroud bearing Jesus' bloodstained, double body image.

Although the earliest surviving account of Abgar V's healing, that of Eusebius in the third century, does not mention a cloth or image, Eusebius does mention that Edessa's archives recorded that Abgar was healed upon seeing "a great vision" when Thaddeus appeared before him:

"And immediately upon his [Thaddeus'] entrance a great vision appeared to Abgarus [Abgar] in the countenance of the apostle Thaddeus ... [and] ... Abgarus was cured of the disease and of the suffering which he had."
The Doctrine of Addai (i.e. Teaching of Thaddeus) was composed in Edessa in the fourth century (c.375-90) and built on the Abgar story that Abgar's keeper of the archives, Hannan, painted Jesus's portrait "with choice paints." This is the earliest mention of a likeness of Jesus associated with Abgar. It also suggests that there was in Edessa's archives a record of Abgar V having been healed and converted by an image of Jesus (i.e. the Shroud) shown to him by Thaddeus (Addai). See above.

See also my post of 07Aug12 and comments under it where St. Athanasius, the Bishop of Alexandria (c. 328-373), "affirmed that a sacred Christ-icon, traceable to Jerusalem and the year 68, was then present in Syria." And that Emperor Constantine I's half-sister, Flavia Julia Constantia (c.293–c.330), asked Eusebius the whereabouts of that image so she could add it to Constantine's relic collection in Constantinople. And how Eusebius instead of saying there was no image, was evasive and appeared to be covering for that image. So Eusebius would have had a reason to not mention that Edessa's archives recorded that the "great vision" that Abgar saw was a portrait of Jesus, i.e. the Shroud.

In the sixth century (c.590) historian Evagrius Scholasticus (c.536-594), recorded in in his Ecclesiastical History that in Khosrow I's 544 siege of Edessa (see above) it was "the divinely made image not made by the hands of man, which Christ our God sent to King Abgar," which saved the city:

"The mine was completed; but they [the Edessans] failed in attempting to fire the wood, because the fire, having no exit whence it could obtain a supply of air, was unable to take hold of it. In this state of utter perplexity they brought out the divinely made image not made by the hands of man, which Christ our God sent to King Abgar when he desired to see him. Accordingly, having introduced this sacred likeness into the mine and washed it over with water, they sprinkled some upon the timber ... the timber immediately caught the flame, and being in an instant reduced to cinders, communicated with that above, and the fire spread in all directions".
The seventh century Acts of Thaddeus is in Greek and so likely was composed in Edessa when it was under Byzantine rule, i.e. before 639. It is a further update of the Abgar V legend, which described Christ's image as having been imprinted on a tetradiplon ("four-doubled") which was a sindon ("linen sheet"):
"And Ananias [Abgar V's courier], having gone and given the letter, was carefully looking at Christ, but was unable to fix Him in his mind. And He knew as knowing the heart, and asked to wash Himself; and a towel [tetradiplon "doubled in four"] was given Him; and when He had washed Himself, He wiped His face with it. And His image having been imprinted upon the linen [sindon] ... "
And as Ian Wilson experimentally proved, when the Shroud is doubled four times, with the face always uppermost, it results in the face centred in landscape aspect, exactly as it is in early copies of the Image of Edessa! (see below). This is proof beyond reasonable doubt that the

[Above (enlarge): Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin illustrated: The full-length Shroud of Turin (1), is doubled four times (2 through 5), resulting in Jesus' face within a rectangle, in landscape aspect (5), exactly as depicted in the earliest copies of the Image of Edessa, the 11th century Sakli church, Turkey (6) and the 10th century icon of King Abgar V of Edessa holding the Image of Edessa, St. Catherine's monastery, Sinai (7).]

Image of Edessa was the Shroud, doubled four times, mounted on a board and framed, so that only Jesus' face was visible in landscape aspect. And therefore that the Shroud already existed in the seventh century!

In the eighth century, St. John of Damascus (c.675–749), in his De Fide Orthodoxa (The Orthodox Faith), updated the Abgar story by referring to the cloth that Jesus' face was imprinted upon as a himation:

"Abgar, king of the city of Edessa, sent an artist to paint the Lord's image but could not do so because of the shining brilliance of his face. The Lord therefore placed a large cloth [himation] on his divine and life-giving face and wiped his own imprint onto it. He sent this to Abgar in answer to his request"[2]
A "himation" was "an outer garment worn by the ancient Greeks over the left shoulder and under the right." See

[Left (enlarge): A "himation was with the ancient Greeks ... a loose robe ... worn over [clothes] ... alike for both sexes"[3].]

Mt 5:40; 9:20-21; 14:36; Mk 5:27-30; Jn 19:2 and Acts 12:8 where the Greek "himation" is translated "coat," "cloak" and "robe." So in the seventh century, when the Image of Edessa/Shroud was still at Edessa, it was known to be, under the face-only Image of Edessa, the full-length Shroud!

Also in the eighth century, Pope Stephen III (r. 768–772), in 769 delivered a sermon in which he referred to the Abgar V story, where he paraphrased Jesus' reply to Abgar:

"Since you wish to look upon my physical face, I am sending you a likeness of my face on a cloth"
See below an early twelfth century interpolation of Jesus' "whole body ... divinely transformed" into Stephen's sermon.

In the mid-tenth century, soon after he became sole Emperor in 945, Constantine VII (r. 913-959), commissioned an icon, now at Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai (see above), which visually told the Abgar story, with Thaddeus handing the Edessa Cloth (with Jesus' face in landscape aspect as it is when the Shroud is "four-doubled" tetradiplon) to Abgar V.

At about the same time, Constantine VII commissioned an official history of the Image of Edessa, the Narratio de imagine Edessena (Story of the Image of Edessa). This "Official History," which may have been written by the scholarly Constantine VII himself, gives two alternative, mutually exclusive, versions of the origin of the Image. The first is the traditional explanation that Jesus washed his face in water, wiped it on a towel, and his likeness was impressed on the towel, which he then gave to Abgar V's servant Ananias, who in turn gave it to Abgar V. The second version is that the image was formed during Jesus' agony in the Garden of Gethsemane when His "sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground" (Lk 22:44), This second version can only be explained by drops of blood being seen on the face of the Image of Edessa, as they are seen on the Shroud face!

An early twelfth century Vatican Library codex, No. 5696, Fol. 35 (pre-1130), contains an update of Pope Stephen III's eighth century sermon (above, which paraphrased Jesus reply to Abgar, that: "I am sending you a likeness of my face on a cloth.". The twelfth century version added that Jesus was sending Abgar a cloth on which was the image of His "whole body ... divinely transformed":

"If indeed you desire to look bodily upon my face, I send you a cloth on which the image not only of my face, but of my whole body had been divinely transformed."
Also in the early twelfth century, about 1130, an English-born Normandy monk Ordericus Vitalis (1075–c.1142), in his History of the Church, retold the Abgar story, but with an update - Jesus had wiped the sweat from His face with "a linen cloth" and His "image ... was miraculously imprinted" on it displaying "the form and size of the Lord's body" :
"Abgar the ruler reigned at Edessa; the Lord Jesus sent him a sacred letter and a beautiful linen cloth He had wiped the sweat from His face with. The image of the Saviour was miraculously imprinted on to it and shines out, displaying the form and size of the Lord's body to all who look on it."
In these two early twelfth century updates of the Abgar story, this can only be the Shroud, in Constantinople, ~130 years before its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date!

In the early thirteenth century (c. 1212), Gervase of Tilbury (c.1150 – c.1228), an English born but Rome-educated lawyer, referring in his Otia Imperialia to the Abgar story in which Jesus had impressed an image of His face on a cloth and sent it to King Abgar V, added that Jesus had prostrated himself full length on a linen cloth and the likeness ... of the whole body of the Lord was impressed upon the cloth":

"... it is handed down from archives of ancient authority that the Lord prostrated himself full length on most white linen, and so by divine power the most beautiful likeness not only of the face, but also of the whole body of the Lord was impressed upon the cloth".
This is another (see Vatican Library codex, No. 5696 and Ordericus Vitalis above) altered versions of the Abgar V story which substituted for the miracle of Jesus' pressing his face onto a cloth to explain His face on the Image of Edessa, with Jesus lying full length on a cloth to imprint a likeness of His whole body on it!

Again, this can only be an early 13th century reference to the Shroud, nearly a half-century before the earliest radiocarbon date of 1260, and mentioned in archives which were "ancient" even then!

To be continued in the next part #3 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Guscin, M., 2009, "The Image of Edessa," Brill: Leiden, Netherlands & Boston MA, pp.151-152. [return]
3. "Himation," Wikipedia (Danish), 30 November 2014. [return]

Posted: 8 January 2019. Updated: 14 January 2019.

Saturday, January 5, 2019

"News and Editorial," Shroud of Turin News, December 2018

Shroud of Turin News - December 2018
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

[Previous: November 2018, part #1] [Next: January 2019, part #1]

This is the second and final installment of the December 2018 issue of my Shroud of Turin News. I have renamed it "News and Editorial" to better reflect its order and what it is. I have listed below linked news articles about the Shroud in December as a service to readers, without necessarily endorsing any of them.

News:
• "Riccardo Levi-Setti, Holocaust survivor who uncovered trilobites and subatomic particles, dies at 91," Washington Post, November 20, 2018, Harrison Smith. I had missed this in November:

"He also used the instrument to examine fibers in the Shroud of Turin, the purported burial shroud of Jesus, uncovering traces of limestone that may have come from Jerusalem — grist for believers in the cloth’s authenticity." [see 27Dec18 & 22Mar13]
• "Megan Fox fulfills her lifelong dream of becoming Indiana Jones in Travel Channel series," USA Today, 3 December 2018, Patrick Ryan:
"Fox: ... I would love to be able to retest the Shroud of Turin (the alleged burial cloth of Jesus Christ). It was tested in the '80s and I don't think that the testing was handled well, but also the advancements in technology have been so great that there's a lot more we could do if we could get permission from the Vatican to take that."
• "Jesus 'death mask' is REAL – expert makes bombshell claim on Turin Shroud," Daily Star, 4 December 2018, Henry Holloway:
"... the Turin Shroud – is not a Medieval fake and scientific investigations into the mysterious cloth must be reopened, an expert has claimed. ... Turin Shroud scholar David Rolfe has spent forty years investigating the length line of linen which is alleged to contain an imprint of the body of Jesus. It is said the cloth ... was the burial shroud which Christ was wrapped in after the crucifixion. Scientists have dismissed the shroud as a forgery, claiming radiocarbon dating puts only as old as the 14th century, 1400 years after Jesus is said to have been executed in Jerusalem. Rolfe – who produced a documentary on the shroud The Silent Witness – has called for the case to be reopened .. He disputes the accuracy of the dating, claiming the details are too precise to have been faked, and has previously said there is a `strong case' for the shroud being real. The shroud even turned him into a Christian, he claims."
• "Shroud of Turin SHOCK: Demands for investigation into Jesus’ burial cloth to be REOPENED," Daily Express, Sean Martin, 5 December 2018.
• "Shroud of Turin mystery: New film being made about supposed burial cloth of Jesus," Christian Post, 5 December 2018, Stoyan Zaimov.

Editorial
Rex Morgan's Shroud News: In December I completed scanning and word-processing the final two issues of Shroud News, nos. 117 January 2001 and 118 December 2001. There were no issues of Shroud News in 2000 and only those two issues in 2001. Issues in Barrie Schwortz' archive are still up to #110, December 1998, but he emailed me that there will be a Shroud.com update on 21 January 2019, which will include those remaining issues.

I thank Rex Morgan who almost single-handedly wrote, published and distributed internationally those 118 issues over a 21 year time span from September 1980 to December 2001. Rex once described Shroud News as his life work, so he can now know in his declining years that his life work has been preserved in perpetuity. I also thank Ian Wilson who provided me the 118 issues of Shroud News, and Barrie Schwortz who converted my Microsoft Word files and jpg images into PDFs and published them on his Shroud.com website. Above all, I thank Jesus, the Man on the Shroud, for keeping my aged computer, scanner and body going!

I recently came across a 2014 criticism of me on Dan Porter's now closed blog, by an anti-authenticist Andrea Nicolotti, for not including page numbers in the British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter issues no. 1-42 and Shroud News:
"Andrea Nicolotti on August 13, 2014 at 11:39 am. I do not understand why you you lose so much time to comment things, usually meaningless, that Jones writes. It is a mystery to me. By the way, I think he did a good job with the scans of the newsletters, but unfortunately missing something fundamental: the page numbers of the original. So his work, for quoting with scientific purposes, it is useless, because it is necessary in any case to check on the printed copy."
The word-processor files I emailed to Barrie Schwortz of both the BSTS Newsletter #42-1 backwards and Shroud News included page numbers and it was Schwortz's decision to not include them. As should have been evident to Nicolotti because BSTS Newsletters #43-73 were already online in Schwortz's archive when I started scanning issues #42-1 backwards on 14 August 2011 and those issues don't have page numbers. But if anyone, including Nicolotti and his anti-authenticist ilk, needs to know the page numbers of an article in those above issues that I scanned, I will be happy to supply them.

Media release: I still have had no response from the news outlets to my emailed Microsoft Word version of my media release, "Were the Turin Shroud radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker?," not even an acknowledgment. So I presume they all found my hacker theory too difficult to `digest.' Especially because it renders false every other pro-authenticist explanation of why the 1st century Shroud has a 13th-14th century radiocarbon date.

Shroud Conference, Canada, August 2019 "Science, Theology and the Turin Shroud," Conference August 14-17, 2019. Redeemer University College, Ancaster, ON, Canada.

Then on 30 December I received an email from a Robert A. Rucker, as follows:

"I would like to announce the 2019 International Conference on the Shroud of Turin entitled “Science, Theology and the Turin Shroud” and call for abstracts for oral or poster presentations to be made at the conference. This conference will take place on Wednesday Aug. 14 to Saturday Aug. 17, 2019, at Redeemer University College, 777 Garner Rd E, in Ancaster, ON, Canada. For details on abstract format, submission, and conference registration, please visit the conference website at: http://custance.org/conference. This conference is being organized by Dr. Gary Chiang. Please forward this announcement to others that might be interested. All my best to you. Bob Rucker"
I was thinking of submitting a new, referenced, version of my Media Release as a paper to be read in my absence at that conference, but I have now realised that Rucker is a proponent of the Neutron Flux theory, which my Media Release states is "highly implausible" (footnotes omitted):
"Also highly implausible are theories that just the right amount of neutron flow, or carbon contamination, or a `bioplastic coating', or medieval repairs, 'just happened' to shift the radiocarbon date of the 1st century Shroud 13-14 centuries into the future to the 'bull's eye' date 1325."
So I doubt that my paper would get a fair hearing in my absence, assuming it even got accepted!

Therefore I will put into practice my New Year's word, "patience"! Our pastor suggested that instead of a New Year's resolution, we each seek a New Year's word from the Lord, and "patience" came strongly to my mind. So I assume that "patience" is Jesus' word for me in 2019.

Posts: In December I blogged 3 new posts (latest uppermost): "Dirt #30: Other marks and images: The evidence is is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!" - 27th; "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth century (2)" - 20th & "`Editorial and Contents,' Shroud of Turin News, November 2018" - 18th.

Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud. I still have had no response to my "Open letter to Professor Christopher Ramsey."

Updates Updates of past posts in the background included splitting my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth century" into two parts, part (1) and part (2), which was a new post. Into part (1) I inserted Roberto Falcinelli's discovery of Shroud-like features in three c.1151 stained glass windows in Chartres Cathedral, France (see one of them below).

[Above (enlarge). Photograph of the "Crucifixion panel," in the "Window of the Passion and Resurrection," Chartres Cathedral, emailed to me by Prof. Roberto Falcinelli. In this "Crucifixion panel," Jesus is depicted with a realistic reversed `3' or epsilon (ε) bloodflow on his forehead [see also 29Nov18b], and also a nail wound in his right wrist [see 23Sep17 and 29Nov18c], both exactly as on the Shroud!].]

In my Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows post I made the point that:

"This discovery by Prof. Falcinelli of a realistic depiction of the Shroud's reversed `3' bloodstain ... in one of three Shroud-like depictions of Jesus in c.1150 stained glass windows in Chartres Cathedral, is at least as significant as the `poker holes' in the Pray Codex [see 21Aug18] in proving the Shroud pre-dated by at least a century its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date. That is because while sceptics can try to dismiss the Pray Codex as merely symbolic, they cannot so dismiss the Chartres Cathedral's literal reversed `3'! And there are at least thirteen unusual features in common between three of these stained glass windows and the Shroud ... compared with the Pray Codex's at least fourteen [see 04Oct18a]. Yet I had not heard about it until I read that item in my scanning of Shroud News ..."!

Comments: 08Dec18 under my post, "Shroud-like Jesus in a stained glass window (c.1150) in Chartres Cathedral, France," an anonymous commenter sent me a link to an anti-Shroud article by anti-authenticist and former Editor of the BSTS Newsletter, Hugh Farey. I focused on Farey's admission:

'Although I am well aware of all the arguments for authenticity, here I assume from the start that the Shroud is medieval."
My response included, "Unless he repents, Farey will receive from Jesus, the Man on the Shroud, his just reward," followed by Bible verses in my past comments where, "... Jesus made it clear that the severest punishment was reserved for those who had received the most light, but chose to deny it"

My radiocarbon dating hacker theory As can be seen above, I blogged no new post on my hacker theory in December.

My book: I continued making progress in December, writing a dot-point outline of my book, "Shroud of Turin: The Burial Sheet of Jesus!" on my

[Right (enlarge): The planned cover of my book.]

smartphone using Gmail (see 09May17 and 06Jul17).

Then on Christmas Day, having the night before on Christmas Eve emailed the last issue no. 118 of Shroud News to Barrie Schwortz, copy to Rex Morgan (see above), I commenced writing the word-processed, first draft of my book! As previously mentioned I will use the time saved on not scanning and word-processing Shroud News to write my book.

Pageviews: At midnight on 31 December 2018, Google Analytics [Below (enlarge)] gave this blog's "Pageviews all time history" as 998,352. This

compares with 832,506 from the same time in December 2017. That is 165,846 pageviews over the past 12 months, or an average of ~454 pageviews per day. Last month I predicted that "at that rate ... this blog may pass 1 million pageviews in January 2019." And in the early morning of 3 January, pageviews did pass 1 million!

Google Analytics also gave the most viewed posts for the month (highest uppermost) as: Re: Shroud blood ... types as AB ... aged blood always types as AB, so the significance of this ... is unclear," Mar 18, 2011 - 147; "Shroud-like Jesus in a stained glass window (c.1150) in Chartres Cathedral, France," Nov 29, 2018 - 109; "`The Turin Shroud is a fake ... and it's one of 40': Antonio Lombatti" Jun 15, 2012; "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present: 1st century and Index," Jul 24, 2016 - 97 and "Introduction to my The Shroud of Turin (TSoT) blog!," Jun 30, 2007 - 86.

Notes:
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]

Posted: 5 January 2019. Updated: 7 January 2019.

Friday, January 4, 2019

Date index 2019: The Shroud of Turin blog

The Shroud of Turin blog
DATE INDEX 2019
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the date index to the 2019 posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog. The posts are listed in reverse date order (recent uppermost). For further information on this date index series see the Main Index. The linked subject headings of future 2019 posts will be added to this page in the background.

[Main index] [Previous: 2018] [Next: 2020]


2019

[Above (enlarge): Secondo Pia's 1898 negative photograph of the Shroud face[08Jul15], which because it is a photographic positive, proved that the Shroudman's image is a photographic negative[11Nov16]! It is therefore, next to the man's image itself, the most important photograph ever taken. This is from my post of 05-Jan-19 below.]

14-Jan-19: Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fifteenth century (2)
08-Jan-19: Abgar V: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia
05-Jan-19: "News and Editorial," Shroud of Turin News, December 2018
04-Jan-19: Date index 2019: The Shroud of Turin blog
03-Jan-19: Index A-Z: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia


Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "Holy Face of Jesus," Wikipedia, 7 November 2018. [return]

Posted: 4 January 2019. Updated: 14 January 2019.

Thursday, January 3, 2019

Index A-Z: Turin Shroud Encyclopedia

Turin Shroud Encyclopedia
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

Index A-Z #1

One of my New Year's resolutions for 2019 is to try once more to

[Right (enlarge): Secondo Pia's 1898 negative photograph of the Shroud face, which because it is a photo-graphic positive, proved that the Shroud image is a photographic neg-ative! It is therefore, next to the Shroudman's image itself, the most important photograph ever taken!]

write an Encyclopedia of the Shroud. So this Index A-Z is part #1 of my new Turin Shroud Encyclopedia! This supersedes my previous attempts at a Shroud Encyclopedia on 20Jan15 and 20Jul14, and a Shroud Dictionary on 13Jan15. As before, to save time I will normally not cite references where a link will do. Entries within an entry will be indicated by angle brackets, e.g. <Edessa>. Numbers will be be in order of their first letter, e.g "1st century" will be in order of "first". If they are not linked, they are future. Each entry will be a separate post. Entries will normally be posted in the below alphabetic order. When this index page grows too long I will split it into "A-M" and "N-Z", etc. I will try to post an Encyclopedia entry between every other post. I will notify of entry updates in the background in that month's Shroud of Turin News. When an entry below is hyperlinked it has been posted.

[Next: Abgar V #2]


[Abgar V] [Abgar VIII] [Adler, A] [Allen, N] [AMS] [Antioch] [Barbet, P] [Besançon] [Bible] [bioplastic] [blood] [bloodstains] [Bucklin, R] [Bulst, W] [burns] [Byzantine empire] [catacombs] [Chambéry] [Chartres cathedral] [Chevalier, U] [Christianity] [Christ-see Jesus] [Clement VII] [coins] [coins over eyes] [Constantine I] [Constantine VII] [Constantinople] [crucifixion] [crusades] [Danin, A] [d'Arcis, P] [de Charny, G] [de Charny, G. I] [de Charny, G. II] [de Charny, M] [de Clari, R] [de la Roche, O] [de Lusignan, A] [de Poitiers, H] [de Vergy, J] [Delage, Y] [DNA] [Edessa] [Enrie, G] [1st century] [flowers] [forgery] [Frei, M] [Gove, H] [Gregory Referendarius] [hacker] [Image of Edessa] [Jerusalem] [Jesus] [Justinian I] [Koch, K] [linen] [Linick, T] [Lirey] [Louis I] [McCrone, W] [Mesarites, N] [Morgan, R] [Nickell, J] [Pia, S] [pollen] [Pilgrim's badge] [Pray codex] [radiocarbon dating] [Ravenna] [Savoy] [Shroud] [Sox, D] [Stephen III] [STURP] [10th century] [Thaddeus] [13th century] [Thurston, H] [Turin] [Umberto II] [Vignon, P] [waterstains] [Whanger, A] [Wilson, I] [wounds] [Zugibe, F]
Continued in part #2 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]

Posted: 3 January 2019. Updated: 13 January 2019.

Thursday, December 27, 2018

Dirt #30: Other marks and images: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!

DIRT #30
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is part #30, "Other marks and images: Dirt," of my series, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!" For more information about this series, see the "Main index #1" and "Other marks and images #26." See also, "The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (3): Dirt ." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. To save time I had trialed in this post progressively updating the whole post in each installment and as it grew longer, using temporary number-letter footnotes which I converted to sequential numbers near the final installment. I will continue doing that in future long posts.

[Main index #1] [Previous: `Poker holes' #29] [Next: Flower & plant images #31]


    Other marks and images #26
    1. Dirt #30

Introduction There is dirt on the nose, left knee and feet of the man on the Shroud[2].

[Above (enlarge): Bloodstained images of the feet, on the dorsal (back) side of the Shroud[3]. The dorsal image is upside down (see Shroud Scope). The man's right foot (apparent left foot because of mirror reversal)[4] is on our left. The imprint and bloodstain of His left foot is smaller due to it having not fully touched the cloth[5]. This was because it was forced over his right foot and both feet were transfixed by a single nail[6]. Then at the man's death on a cross, his legs and feet were fixed by rigor mortis in that crucifixion position[7]. There are also microscopic traces of dirt in this feet area of the Shroud, but they are not readily seen with the unaided eye (see below).]

Dirt on the nose There are traces of dirt on the tip of the nose of the man on the Shroud[8]. This and the dirt on the left knee (below) indicate that the man fell forward onto a hard, dusty surface with his hands unable to break his fall[9]. This is consistent with the Gospel accounts that Jesus went out from Jerusalem bearing his own cross (Jn 19:17), but on the way to the site of crucifixion, Golgotha (Mt 27:33; Mk 15:22; Jn 19:17) [which still exists - see 08May18], a passerby, Simon of Cyrene, was compelled by the Romans to carry Jesus' cross for Him (Mt 27:32; Mk 15:21; Lk 23:26)[10].

Dirt on the left knee The Shroudman also has traces of dirt on his left knee[11]. Experiments have shown that a right-handed man carrying a crossbeam over his shoulder, with both hands tied to it, if he stumbles, will fall on his left knee[12]. This and the dirt on his nose (above), is consistent with the man on the Shroud being Jesus, who started out carrying His cross, was unable to continue, so the Romans compelled a passerby, Simon of Cyrene, to carry Jesus' crossbeam for him (see above). This would have been only necessary if Jesus, carrying a heavy crossbeam on His shoulders, tied to His hands, and weakened by a severe scourging (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15) [see 15Jul13], stumbled, fell on His left knee and then face[13], and was unable to continue[14].

Dirt on the feet There are microscopic traces of dirt on the soles of the feet of the dorsal image of the man on the Shroud[15]. During STURP's 1978 investigation of the Shroud, husband and wife team Roger and Marty Gilbert discovered using reflectance spectroscopy [right[16]] that there was a markedly different light spectra in the feet area than the rest of the Shroud[17]. When STURP optical engineer Sam Pellicori examined the heel area under a microscope at 500 times magnification[18], he found there was dirt there unlike anywhere else on the Shroud[19]. It was likely transferred to the Shroud from the feet of a barefoot man[20].

In 1986 optical crystallographer Dr Joseph Kohlbeck of the Hercules Aerospace Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah, with the assistance of Dr Riccardo Levi-Setti (1927–2018) of the University of Chicago, using a scanning ion microprobe[21], reported that dirt on a fibre from the Shroud's heel area contained travertine aragonite, a comparatively rare form of limestone[22]. And travertine aragonite is the type of the limestone in the Jerusalem rock tombs[23]! Moreover, Kohlbeck and Levi-Setti

[Above: Dr Ricardo Levi-Setti's scanning ion microprobe comparisons of Jerusalem limestone (black) and limestone on Shroud (red)[24]. The Jerusalem limestone came from near the Damascus Gate, which is the gate closest to Golgotha[25]. The Shroud sample analysed was from the same foot area of the Shroud where Roger and Marty Gilbert had found the abovementioned dirt[26]. As can be seen above, from their spectral patterns it was clear that the Shroud and Jerusalem tomb limestone samples were a very close match[27]. Both the Shroud and the Jerusalem samples contained small amounts of iron and strontium, but no lead[28]. They would have been an even closer match but for a slight organic variation due to particles of flax which could not be separated from the Shroud's calcium[29].]

found that the spectral signature of the travertine aragonite limestone dust on the heel of the man on the Shroud, very closely matched that of the samples from Jerusalem tombs (see above)[30]!

Problem for the forgery theory. (see previous three: #27, #28 and #29). The dirt on the feet is subliminal[31] (i.e. it is just above the threshold of human perception[32], so it can be seen with the unaided eye only if one knows where to look for it[41]). So it cannot reasonably be ascribed to a hypothetical artist-forger because he himself would have barely seen it, so there was no reason for him to put it there, since others viewing his work would not have seen it[34]. It was only by reflectance spectroscopy and a microscope that the dirt on the foot was identified[35]. That there are microscopic traces of limestone dust on the feet of the man on the Shroud, that limestone is the comparatively rare travertine aragonite found in Jerusalem rock tombs, and the spectral signal of the limestone on the feet of the Shroudman very closely matches that of Jerusalem tombs, is evidence that rather than being merely a painting, or a statue, the Shroud really had once wrapped the body of a scourged [15Jul13] and crucified[02Dec13] man, who had been entombed in the environs of Jerusalem[36]!

Conclusion According to the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud," 1260-1390[37], i.e. 1325 ±65 years, was "the time when the flax used to make the shroud's linen was harvested"[38]. So the hypothetical 13th-14th century forger would have had to obtain limestone dust from around Jerusalem's tombs, not knowing that it was the comparatively rare travertine aragonite limestone, since aragonite was only named in 1797[39]. Let alone him knowing that Jerusalem limestone had a very special spectral signal. The sceptical alternative that the forger obtained the Shroud as a linen sheet from Jerusalem, which just happened to have Jerusalem limestone dirt at exactly the right places on the nose, left knee and soles of the feet, is clearly effectively impossible. But then why would the forger go to so much trouble, when: 1) he applied the Jerusalem limestone dirt so faintly that his viewers could not see it; and 2) they would have been satisfied with much less:

"Also is it not rather incredible that this unknown individual [medieval forger] should have gone to so much trouble and effort to deceive in an age in which, as twentieth-century journalists have reminded us, a large proportion of the populace would have been very easily duped by a feather of the Archangel Gabriel or a phial of the last breath of St Joseph?"[40]
After all, as Oxford radiocarbon dating laboratory's Director, Professor Edward Hall (1924-2001) pointed out, all that a 13th-14th century forger would have needed to do was, `get a bit of linen, fake it up and flog [sell] it':
"There was a multi-million-pound business in making forgeries during the fourteenth century. Someone just got a bit of linen, faked it up and flogged it"[41].
So again (see #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #14, #28 & #29) the evidence is overwhelming that the 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud was WRONG!

To be continued in the next part #31 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.152; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, pp.59, 71; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.32, 109, 120; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.65. [return]
3. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," Sindonology.org. [return]
4. Bucklin, R., 1970, "The Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ," Medicine, Science and the Law, January; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.30; Case, T.W., 1996, "The Shroud of Turin and the C-14 Dating Fiasco," White Horse Press: Cincinnati OH, p.23; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.267. [return]
5. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, pp.64-65; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.144. [return]
6. Bucklin, R., 1982, "The Shroud of Turin: Viewpoint of a Forensic Pathologist," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 5, December, pp.3-10; Heller, 1983, p.216. [return]
7. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, pp.46-47; Bucklin, 1970; Zugibe, F.T., 1988, "The Cross and the Shroud: A Medical Enquiry into the Crucifixion," [1982], Paragon House: New York NY, Revised edition, p.132; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, pp.166, 196; Bucklin, R., 1997, "An Autopsy on the Man of the Shroud," Third International Scientific Symposium on the Shroud of Turin, Nice, France, 12 May; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, pp.25, 111; Antonacci, 2000, p.32; Tribbe, 2006, pp.234-235.; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.144-145. [return]
8. Bucklin, 1982; Iannone, 1998, pp.56, 59; Antonacci, 2000, p.32; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
9. Heller, 1983, p.152; Bucklin, R, 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: A Pathologist's Viewpoint," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.271-279, 274; Antonacci, 2000, pp.32-33; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
10. Antonacci, 2000, p120. [return]
11. Heller, 1983, p.152; Iannone, 1998, pp.56, 59; Antonacci, 2000, p.32; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
12. Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.22; Iannone, 1998, p.56. [return]
13. Antonacci, 2000, pp.32-33, 120; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
14. Ricci, G., "Historical, Medical and Physical Study of the Holy Shroud," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, p.69; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, pp.44-45; Iannone, 1998, p.55; Ruffin, 1999, p.43; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.165. [return]
15. Heller, 1983, pp.152, 216; Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.325-344, 328; Iannone, 1998, p.59. [return]
16. "Reflectance difference spectroscopy," Wikipedia, 16 September 2017. [return]
17. Heller, 1983, p.112; Ruffin, 1999, p.84; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, pp.92-93; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.65-66; Oxley, 2010, p.210. [return]
18. Maloney, P.C., 2002, "Science, Archaeology, and the Shroud of Turin," Approfondimento Sindone, 1 September. [return]
19. Heller, 1983, p.112. [return]
20. Jackson, 1991, p.328; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 28; Iannone, 1998, p.59. [return]
21. Guscin, M., 1998, "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, p.79; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.105; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
22. Guscin, 1998, p.79; Iannone, 1998, p.59; Guerrera, 2001, p.65; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.93. [return]
23. Guscin, 1998, p.79; Antonacci, 2000, p.109; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
24. Kohlbeck, J.A. & Nitowski, E.L., 1986, "New evidence may explain image on Shroud of Turin," Biblical Archeological Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp.23-24. [return]
25. Guscin, 1998, p.79. [return]
26. Kohlbeck & Nitowski, 1986. [return]
27. Wilson, 1998, p.106. [return]
28. Wilson, 1998, p.105. [return]
29. Wilson, 1998, p.106. [return]
30. Antonacci, 2000, p.109; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.93. [return]
31. Jackson, 1991, p.328; Borkan, 1995, p.28. [return]
32. Ruffin, 1999, p.84. [return]
33. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.93. [return]
34. Heller, 1983, p.112; Jackson, 1991, p.328; Borkan, 1995, p.28; Guscin, 1998, p.79; Iannone, 1998, p.71. [return]
35. Guscin, 1998, p.79. [return]
36. Jackson, 1991, p.328; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.93. [return]
37. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615. [return]
38. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, pp.7, 264; Hulse, T.G., 1997, "The Holy Shroud," Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London, p.28; Wilson, 1998, p.106. [return]
39. "Aragonite," Wikipedia, 29 October 2018. [return]
40. Wilson, 1998, pp.59-60). [return]
33. Sheridan, M. & Reeves, P., 1988, "Turin Shroud shown to be a fake," The Independent, 14 October in Wilson, 1998, p.7; Oxley, 2010, p.221. [return]

Posted: 27 December 2018. Updated: 8 January 2019.

Thursday, December 20, 2018

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth century (2)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
TWELFTH CENTURY (2)
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is part #13, "Twelfth century (2)" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. See also 29Mar14. For more information about this series see part #1, "1st century and Index." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. As mentioned [see 29Nov18], I decided to split this my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth Century" (1101-1200) into two parts 1101-1151 (1) and 1152-1200 (2), and insert a summary of the c. 1151 Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows into the first part (1). An then renumber this part as #13 and increase the already posted parts #13 to #15.

[Index #1] [Previous: 12th century (1) #12] [Next: 13th century #14]


12th century (1101-1200).

[Above (enlarge): "The Entombment" (upper) and "Visit to the Sepulchre" (lower) in the Hungarian Pray Manuscript, or Pray Codex, (1192-95)[2]. According to Wikipedia:

"The Codex Pray, Pray Codex or The Hungarian Pray Manuscript is a collection of medieval manuscripts. In 1813 it was named after György Pray, who discovered it in 1770. It is the first known example of continuous prose text in Hungarian. The Codex is kept in the National Széchényi Library of Budapest. One of the most prominent documents within the Codex (f. 154a) is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer ... It is an old handwritten Hungarian text dating to 1192-95. Its importance of the Funeral Sermon comes from that it is the oldest surviving Hungarian, and Uralic, text ... One of the five illustrations within the Codex shows the burial of Jesus. It is sometimes claimed that the display shows remarkable similarities with the Shroud of Turin: that Jesus is shown entirely naked with the arms on the pelvis, just like in the body image of the Shroud of Turin; that the thumbs on this image appear to be retracted, with only four fingers visible on each hand, thus matching detail on the Turin Shroud; that the supposed fabric shows a herringbone pattern, identical to the weaving pattern of the Shroud of Turin; and that the four tiny circles on the lower image, which appear to form a letter L, `perfectly reproduce four apparent "poker holes" on the Turin Shroud', which likewise appear to form a letter L.[3] The Codex Pray illustration may serve as evidence for the existence of the Shroud of Turin prior to 1260–1390 AD, the alleged fabrication date established in the radiocarbon 14 dating of the Shroud of Turin in 1988"[4].
See "1192" below. Also see 21Jun17; 11Apr17; 07Aug16; 07May16; 27Dec15; 11Jan10; 08Dec09; 08Oct09 & 03Apr08].

1157 Nicholas Soemundarson, the Abbot of Thingeyrar Benedictine monastery, Iceland[5], returned from a pilgrimage to Constantinople[6]. He then drew up a very detailed inventory in medieval Icelandic of the relics[7] in Constantinople he had seen[8]. In that list was the sveitakuk (sweat cloth) and the maetull (Mandylion)[9] or Shroud (see "990")[10] with the blood and body of Christ on it[11]. The reference to blood means that these were burial cloths[12].

c. 1167 This Christ Acheiropoietos (not made with hands) copy of the Mandylion/Image of Edessa (the face panel of the Shroud "four-doubled" - tetradiplon) in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow (see below), is estimated to date from 1167[13]. It has, by my count, 12 out of a

[Above: Twelfth century Christ Acheiropoietos (not made with hands - see Mk 14:58; Acts 7:48, 19:26; 2Cor 5:1; Heb 9:11, 24), copy of the Mandylion/Shroud face panel) from the Assumption (Dormition) Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin, now in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow[14]. This icon is closely related to the Holy Face of Laon (see below).]

possible 14 (since there is no throat for the transverse line across it - VM13 - to be depicted) Vignon markings (see above). This is one of a few Image of Edessa/Mandylion icons which contain most of the 15 Vignon markings[15] and, together with all the other evidence for it, prove beyond reasonable doubt that the Image of Edessa/Mandylion was the face panel of the tetradiplon ("four-doubled") Shroud. So this is yet more evidence that medieval artists saw the Shroud, centuries before its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date[16]!

1171 Chronicler William of Tyre (c.1130–1186), as Archbishop of Tyre[17], accompanied a state visit of King Amaury I (L. Amalric I) of Jerusalem (r. 1163-74) to Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (L. Comnenus) (r.1143-80) in Constantinople[18]. The purpose of the visit was to gather support to drive the Muslims from the Eastern part of the Byzantine Empire[19]. William recorded his party being shown "the most precious evidences of the passion of our Lord Jesus Christ" including "the shroud" [sindon][20]. William did not mention an image on the shroud, but this can be explained either by him only seeing its reliquary within which was the folded cloth[21] or the light being too dim for him to distinguish the Shroud's faint image [see "Faint"] . [See also 29Mar14 & 21Jun17].

c. 1175 The Holy Face of Laon (French: "Sainte Face de Laon"[22]) is a glazed panel painted presumably at Constantinople[23] about

[Above (enlarge): "Icon of the Holy Face (Mandylion) of Laon. Purchased in 1249 in Bari (Italy) by Jacques Pantaleon, later to become Pope Urban IV"[24]. The close relationship between this icon and the Christ Acheiropoietos icon (above) is evident.]

1175[25]. In 1249, Jacques Pantaleon (1195–1264), then Archdeacon of Laon[26], and later to become Pope Urban IV (r.1261–1264)[27], gave the icon to his sister Sibylle, the abbess of a nearby convent at Montreuil-en-Thierache[28]. It is now kept in the Cathedral of Laon, Picardy, France[29]. The icon is actually a copy of the Image of Edessa or Mandylion[30], as its background has a trellis pattern[31] like other depictions of the Image. It also shows a brown monochrome, rigidly front facing, disembodied head of Jesus on cloth, strongly reminiscent of the Shroud[32]. This icon corresponds more closely to the face on the Shroud than any other[33], having 13 of the 15 Vignon markings (see above)[34]. It also bears an inscription in ancient slavonic: OBRAZ GOSPODIN NA UBRUSJE "the portrait of the Lord on the cloth"[35], which must mean that the artist worked directly from the Shroud[36], which was in Constantinople between 944 and 1204[37] [see "944b" and "1204"]. But since the Sainte Face dates from the end of the 12th century, and it is a copy of the Shroud image, then the Shroud itself must date from well before 1200[38]. This cannot be reconciled with the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating[39]! [See 21 Jun17].

c. 1181 A champlevé enamel panel which forms part of the altar in the Klosterneuburg monastery, near Vienna, was completed no later than 1181 by Nicholas of Verdun (1130–1205)[40]. As can be seen below,

[Above (enlarge): Entombment of Jesus, c. 1181, by Nicholas of Verdun, Klosterneuburg Abbey, Vienna[41].]

Jesus is depicted being wrapped in a double body length burial shroud[42], with His hands crossed over His loins, right over left (as it appears on the Shroud), crossing awkwardly at the wrists[43], exactly as on the Shroud[44]! Yet this was at least 79 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! [See 21 Jun17].

1185 Establishment of a Knights Templar administrative and training preceptory in the village of Templecombe, Somerset, England[45]. While the Templars never possessed the Shroud (see above), they

[Above (enlarge)[46]: Painted face on the lid of a wooden chest found in c. 1944 wired to the ceiling of a building which had been part of a twelfth century Templar preceptory in Templecombe, Somerset, England. The face has similarities to copies of the Image of Edessa in the "Holy Face" style (see the "Holy Face of Genoa").].

owned and revered painted copies of the Image of Edessa/Shroud. Evidence of this is first, at their trial following the order's 1307 arrest (see above), one the charges brought against the Templars was that they worshipped an idol which was a head with a reddish beard[47]. And second, during World War II (c. 1944) a nearby bomb blast in the village of Templecombe, Somerset, England, dislodged a piece of plaster in the ceiling of an outbuilding which was originally part of the above Templar preceptory, and revealed to its tenant, a Mrs Molly Drew, a painted face wired to the ceiling and covered with plaster[48] (see above). Mrs Drew and the owner of the house a Mrs A. Topp, had the panel removed from the outbuilding and brought it into the house[49]. They then called in the local rector, a retired Bishop George Wright, who had it moved to his rectory and then cleaned, removing some of the original paint[50]. But fortunately Mrs Drew had taken a black and white photograph of the panel before it was cleaned[51] (see below), which showed a trellis pattern around the

[Above (enlarge): A black and white photograph of the Templecombe panel, taken by Mrs Molly Drew, before it was cleaned with loss of historical information. As can be seen, the face had a trellis pattern around it, as the Image of Edessa did (see above).]

face[52], confirming that it was a copy of the Image of Edessa/Shroud!

1187 Fall of Jerusalem. The Kurdish general, Saladin (1137–93), had succeeded in uniting the Muslims[53]. In 1169 Saladin defeated a combined Crusader-Byzantine attack on the port of Damietta, Egypt[54]. In 1174 Saladin conquered Damascus[55], and by 1183 Saladin's Muslim state surrounded the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem on its north, east, and south[56]. In 1187 at the Battle of Hattin, near Tiberias in today's Israel, the Muslim armies under Saladin decisively defeated the combined Crusader forces[57]. After a brief seige Jerusalem surrendered in 1187 to Saladin's forces, and the the loss of most of the Holy Land, including Acre on the Mediterranean coast, speedily followed[58].

1189 The Third Crusade (1189-92). The loss of Jerusalem and most of the Holy Land to the Muslims roused Europe to the Third Crusade (1189-1192) to retrieve those losses[59]. Three great armies were led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (r. 1155–90), by King Philip II of France (r. 1179-1223), and by King Richard I of England (r. 1189-99)[60]. The Crusaders arrived in Constantinople in 1189, where they were warned in a note from Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem (r. 1186–1190) of a secret alliance between Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos (r. 1185–95, 1203–04) and Saladin[61]. This would have further added to the bitterness felt in the West towards the Byzantine Empire following its lack of support in the Second Crusade (see above ), and further helps to explain the 1204 Sack of Constantinople by Western forces on their way to the Fourth Crusade [see "1204"], especially since it was the same Emperor! But Frederick was accidentally drowned in 1190 while crossing a river in Cilicia, plunging his army into chaos, with only a small fraction of the original force reaching Acre[62]. The death of Frederick left the Crusader armies under the command of Philip II and Richard I, who were rivals in Europe, and this led to the Third Crusade's subsequent failure[63]. In 1191 Richard captured Cyprus from Isaac Komnenos (c.1155–1196)[64]. Richard used the island as a supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens[65]. In 1992 Richard sold the island to the Knights Templar, who in turn sold it that year to Guy of Lusignan (c.1150–1194), king of the crusader state of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 through his marriage in 1180 to Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem[66]. His brother and successor Aimery (1155-1205) was recognised as King of Cyprus by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1191–1197)[67]. Anne de Lusignan (1418–62), wife of Duke Louis I of Savoy (1413–65), owner of the Shroud, was a direct descendant of Aimery, King of Cyprus[68]. Richard's forces helped recover Acre[69] and established Mediterranean coastal crusader states[70], but Philip and his army returned to France[71], leaving Richard's forces alone unable to retake Jerusalem[72]. This failure of the Third Crusade to recover Jerusalem from Muslim control led to the Fourth Crusade, which had very important consequences for the Shroud [see "1204"]!

1192-5 The Hungarian Pray Manuscript, or Codex (see above), is dated 1192-95[73]. The Codex was compiled at the ancient Benedictine monastery at Boldva, Hungary[74]. Hungary was then ruled by King Bela III (r.1172–1196), who had spent six years (1163–1169) as a young man in the imperial court at Constantinople[75]. Two pen and ink drawings[76] on one page of the Codex, one above the other (see above), document the existence of the Shroud in the late twelfth century[77]. The upper drawing is a depiction of Jesus' body being prepared for burial[78]. Correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud include: 1. Jesus is nude[79]; 2. His hands are crossed awkwardly at the wrists, right over left (as it appears on the Shroud), covering His genitals[80]; 3. No thumbs are visible on Jesus' hands[81]; 4. His hands and fingers are unnaturally long[82]; 5. Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (see below)[83] and 6.

[Above (enlarge): Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (highlighted green) in the Pray Codex upper Entombment scene (see above).]

Red marks on Jesus' scalp and forehead are in the same position as the bloodstains (including the "reversed 3") on the Shroud[84]. In the lower drawing an angel is showing three women disciples Jesus' empty tomb symbolised by a sarcophagus with an open lid[85]. Correspondences between this lower drawing and the Shroud include: 7. The sarcophagus lid has a herringbone weave pattern[86]; 8. Red zigzags match the inverted V-shaped blood trickles down the Shroud man's arms[87] and 9. L-shaped patterns of tiny circles in the herringbone weave of the sarcophagus lid match the `poker holes' on the Shroud[88]. Thomas de Wesselow, an agnostic art historian[89] concludes:

"We have now identified eight [there are at least nine - see above] telling correspondences between the Shroud and the drawings on a single page of the Pray Codex ... It is inconceivable that all these detailed links with the Shroud, several of which are found nowhere else, could have occurred on a single manuscript page by chance. The only reasonable conclusion is that the artist of the Pray Codex was aware of the Shroud. The Shroud existed and was already damaged, then, by 1192-5, when the illustrations in the Pray Codex were drawn. Given the close links at the time between Hungary and Byzantium, it can hardly be doubted that the artist saw the relic in Constantinople. The Shroud was the Byzantine Sindon."![90]
On plate IV of Berkovits (1969), the same artist has shown two more telling correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud: 10. the nail in the wrist of the right hand (as it appears on the Shroud)

[Above (enlarge): Extract of plate IV in Berkovits (1969), showing the nail wound in the wrist of Jesus' right hand (as it appears on the Shroud), while the nail wound in the left hand (which is covered on the Shroud) is traditionally in the palm. This shows the artist knew the traditional view but deliberately chose to depict the nail in Jesus' right wrist because that is what he saw on the Shroud! Also note that the fingers of Jesus' right hand are unnaturally long, and the rest of that hand is unnaturally short, as it is on the Shroud because the latter are xray images of the Shroud man's finger and hand bones! See "X-Raya #22".]

of the resurrected and enthroned Jesus[91]; and 11. The angel is holding Jesus' cross with three nails[92], matching the three nail wounds on the Shroud[93].

Because of these, not eight, but eleven telling correspondences with the Shroud, the Pray Codex is the final nail in the coffin of the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud[94]. That is because, being the sindon of Constantinople [see "1204"] [95], the Shroud arrived there in 944 [see "944b"] from Edessa where it had been since 544 [see "544"][96], which makes the Shroud more than seven centuries older than the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date!

Continued in the next part #14 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page.[return]
2. Berkovits, I., 1969, "Illuminated Manuscripts in Hungary, XI-XVI Centuries," Horn, Z., translated, West, A., revised., Irish University Press: Shannon, Ireland, pl. III. [return]
3. Scavone, D.C., 1996, "Book Review of "The Turin Shroud: In Whose Image?," Shroud.com. [return]
4. "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 12 April 2017. [return]
5. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.53; Ricci, G., 1981, "The Holy Shroud," Center for the Study of the Passion of Christ and the Holy Shroud: Milwaukee WI, p.xxxv. [return]
6. Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, 1983, p.72; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.58. [return]
7. Heller, 1983, p.72; Scavone, D.C., "The Shroud of Turin in Constantinople: The Documentary Evidence," in Sutton, R.F., Jr., 1989a, "Daidalikon: Studies in Memory of Raymond V Schoder," Bolchazy Carducci Publishers: Wauconda IL, pp.311-329, 320. [return]
8. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.120; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
9. Wilson, 1979, p.167; Iannone, 1998, p.120; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.184. [return]
10. Hynek, R.W., 1951, "The True Likeness," [1946], Sheed & Ward: London, p.8; Ricci, 1981, p.xxxv; Heller, 1983, p.73; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
11. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Ricci, 1981, p.xxxv; Heller, 1983, p.73; Scavone, 1989a, p.320; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
12. Scavone, 1989a, p.320. [return]
13. de Riedmatten, P., 2008, "The Holy Face of Laon," BSTS Newsletter, No. 68, December, p.7. [return]
14. "File:Christos Acheiropoietos.jpg," Wikipedia, 24 August 2005. [return]
15. de Riedmatten, 2008, p.7. [return]
16. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.141. [return]
17. "William of Tyre," Wikipedia, 21 September 2017. [return]
18. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.8; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.165; Iannone, 1998, pp.120-121; Wilson, 1998, p.271; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.6; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.25; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.177. [return]
19. Iannone, 1998, pp.120-121. [return]
20. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Hynek, 1951, p.8; Wilson, 1979, pp.165-166; Scavone, D.C., 1989b, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.321; Iannone, 1998, p.121; Wilson, 1998, p.271; Tribbe, 2006, p.25; de Wesselow, 2012, p.177. [return]
21. Bulst, 1957, p.8. [return]
22. Currer-Briggs, N., 1984, "The Holy Grail and the Shroud of Christ: The Quest Renewed," ARA Publications: Maulden UK, p.158; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988a, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.45. [return]
23. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, pp.58-59. [return]
24. "File:Icône Sainte Face Laon 150808.jpg, Wikimedia Commons, 13 September 2008. Translated from French by Google. [return]
25. de Riedmatten, 2008, p.7. [return]
26. Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.21. [return]
27. "Pope Urban IV," Wikipedia, 30 September 2017. [return]
28. Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.45; Wilson, 1991, pp.47, 78. [return]
29. Wilson, 1986, p.110F. [return]
30. Wilson, 1991, p.78. [return]
31. Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.60; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.158; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.136; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.131. [return]
32. Wilson, 1979, pp.114-115; Wilson, 1998, pp.150-151. [return]
33. Currer-Briggs, N., 1995, "Shroud Mafia: The Creation of a Relic?," Book Guild: Sussex UK, p.56. [return]
34. Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.58. [return]
35. Wilcox, 1977, p.97; Wilson, I., 1983, "Some Recent Society Meetings," BSTS Newsletter, No. 6, September/December, p.13; Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.21; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.157; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988b, "Dating the Shroud - A Personal View," BSTS Newsletter No. 20, October, pp.16-17; Wilson, 1991, p.47; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.205; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.108. [return]
36. Wuenschel, 1954, pp.58-59; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.158; Oxley, 2010, p.108. [return]
37. Wilson, 1991, p.78. [return]
38. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.56. [return]
39. Currer-Briggs, 1995, pp.56-57]. [return]
40. Wilson, I., 2008, "II: Nicholas of Verdun: Scene of the Entombment, from the Verdun altar in the monastery of Klosterneuburg, near Vienna," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 67, June; Wilson, 2010, p.182. [return]
41. Wilson, 2008. [return]
42. Wilson, 2008. [return]
43. Wilson, 1979, p.160. [return]
44. Wilson, 2008; Wilson, 2010, pp.182-183. [return]
45. "Templecombe Preceptory," Wikipedia,15 August 2017. [return]
46. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.116. [return]
47. Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 197. [return]
48. Morgan, R., 1987a, "Was the Holy Shroud in England?," Shroud News No. 42, August, pp.3-17, 5; Morgan, R., 1987b, "The Templecombe Panel Painting," BSTS Newsletter, No. 17, September, pp.3-11, 4. [return]
49. Morgan, 1987a, p.6; Morgan, 1987b, pp.6-7. [return]
50. Morgan, 1987a, p.6; Morgan, 1987b, p.7. [return]
51. Morgan, 1987a, p.13; Morgan, 1987b, p.8. [return]
52. Wilson, 1987, "Templecombe Panel-Painting Carbon Dated," BSTS Newsletter, No. 16, May, pp.3-5, 4-5. [return]
53. Latourette, K.S., 1953, "A History of Christianity: Volume 1: to A.D. 1500," Harper & Row: New York NY, Reprinted, 1975, p.411; Walker, W., 1959, "A History of the Christian Church," [1918], T. & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Revised, Reprinted, 1963, p.222. [return]
54. "Saladin: Vizier of Egypt," Wikipedia, 8 August 2017; "Damietta: History," Wikipedia, 11 September 2017. [return]
55. Walker, 1959, p.222; "Saladin: Conquest of Damascus," Wikipedia, 8 August 2017. [return]
56. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222. [return]
57. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Battle of Hattin," Wikipedia, 13 October 2017. [return]
58. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Siege of Jerusalem (1187)," Wikipedia, 10 October 2017. [return]
59. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Siege of Jerusalem (1187): Aftermath," Wikipedia, 10 October 2017. [return]
60. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Third Crusade," Wikipedia, 14 October 2017. [return]
61. "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
62. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
63. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
64. "Cyprus: Middle Ages," Wikipedia, 30 October 2018. [return]
65. Ibid. [return]
66. Ibid. [return]
67. Ibid. [return]
68. Jones, S.E., 2016, "Savoy Family Tree," Ancestry.com.au (members only); Oxley, 2010, p.68. [return]
69. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Richard I of England: In the Holy Land," Wikipedia, 16 October 2017. [return]
70. "Third Crusade: Aftermath," Wikipedia, 13 November 2017. [return]
71. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Philip II of France: Third Crusade," Wikipedia, 8 October 2017. [return]
72. Walker, 1959, p.223; "Richard I of England: In the Holy Land," Wikipedia, 16 October 2017; "Third Crusade: Advances on Jerusalem, regicide, and negotiations," Wikipedia, 14 October 2017. [return]
73. Berkovits, 1969, p.19. [return]
74. Berkovits, 1969, p.19. [return]
75. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
76. Wilson, 1991, p.150; Guerrera, 2001, p.104. [return]
77. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
78. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
79. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
80. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.91; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
81. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, pp.59-60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
82. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91. [return]
83. Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
84. Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
85. de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
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Posted: 20 December 2018. Updated: 31 December 2018.