Monday, January 14, 2019

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fifteenth century (2)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #19, "Fifteenth century (2)" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see the Index #1. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Index #1] [Previous: 15th century (1) #18] [Next: 16th century (1) #20]

15th century (1454-1500).

[Above (enlarge): "Man of Sorrows"[2] depiction of the Shroud with its distinctive wounds, bloodstains and crossed hands:

"... the wounds of the Christ can be seen to be Shroud-related. Not only are the hands crossed in the Shroud manner and Christ's body peppered with most-Shroud-like scourge-marks, particularly telling are long streams of blood as from the nail-wounds that are depicted running down the front of the forearms"[3]
in 1485 by French miniaturist Jean Colombe (c. 1430-c. 1493)[4], on behalf of Charles I, Duke of Savoy (r. 1482-1490) (left), to commemorate his marriage in that year to Blanche (Bianca) de Montferrat (1472–1519)[5] (right). This miniature was added to the collection, Les Très Riches Heures (the "Very Rich Hours") of King John II (r.1350–1364)'s son John, Duke of Berry (1340–1416)[6], by Duke Charles I, John's descendant[7] [See "1485a"].]

1457 On 29 May, evidently having learned that Marguerite de Charny (c. 1393–1460) [see "c.1393"] had transferred the Shroud four years earlier to Duke Louis I of Savoy (r. 1440-65)[8] [see "1453a"], the Lirey church canons continued with their extortion racket [see part (1)] by issuing her, the rightful owner of the Shroud [see "1398"], with a pro-forma writ of excommunication through the ecclesiastical Court of Besançon [see 09Nov18], if she did not return the Shroud to them immediately[9] [see 1418b, 1443 and 1447]! Then on the next day, 30 May 1457, Marguerite was excommunicated[10]!

1459 Marguerite de Charny's half-brother Charles de Noyers[11], a son of Marguerite's mother's second marriage[12] [see 03Jul18], negotiated compensation to the Lirey canons for their `loss' of `their' Shroud[13], which they specifically recognise they will not now recover[14]. On the promise of payment of monetary compensation[15], which never was paid[16], Marguerite's excommunication was lifted[17].

1460 On 7 October Marguerite de Charny died[18], leaving her Lirey lands to her cousin and godson Antoine-Guerry des Essars (c. 1408-74)[19]. As previously mentioned (see "c. 1392" and 11Jul16), Antoine-Guerry des Essars was the son of Guillemette de Poitiers (1370–1450), who in turn was one of four illegitimate children of Bishop Henri de Poitiers (r. 1354–1370) and his nun concubine, Jeanne de Chenery (1340–)! According to the 1389 Memorandum of the Bishop of Troyes, Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-1395), one of his predecessors, Bishop Henri de Poitiers, had discovered that the Shroud was "cunningly painted" and even the "artist who had painted it":

"... Henry of Poitiers ... then Bishop of Troyes ... after diligent inquiry and examination, he discovered the fraud and how the said cloth had been cunningly painted, the truth being attested by the artist who had painted it, to wit, that it was a work of human skill and not miraculously wrought or bestowed"[see "1389d"].
But not only: 1) is the Shroud not painted [11Jul16]; 2) there is no evidence that Bishop de Poitiers had a problem with the Shroud[21Aug18]; 3) Geoffroy II de Charny married Marguerite de Poitiers, who was Bishop de Poitiers' niece[c. 1392]; and 4) so close was the relationship between Marguerite de Charny and her mother's de Poitiers family, and Guillemette de Poitiers in particular, that Marguerite was the godmother of Guillemette's son Antoine and left him her Lirey lands! A more comprehensive refutation of the d'Arcis Memorandum is difficult to imagine!

1464 The Liray canons, having received nothing from Marguerite or Charles de Noyer, next approached Duke Louis I of Savoy (r. 1440-65)[20]. On 6 February by an accord drawn up in Paris, Louis agreed to pay the Lirey canons an annual rent of fifty francs[21], to be drawn from the revenues of the castle of Gaillard, near Geneva, as compensation for their loss of the Shroud[22]. The accord notes that the Shroud had been given [sic] to the church of Lirey by Geoffroy I de Charny, and that it had then been transferred to Duke Louis by Marguerite de Charny[23]. This is the earliest surviving document to record the de Charny's Shroud of Lirey had become Savoy property[24].

1465 Duke Louis I died at Lyon[25]. He was succeeded by his son Duke Amadeus IX (r. 1465-72)[26] [Right (enlarge)[27].], who shared with his wife Duchess Yolande (1434-78), a daughter of King Charles VII of France (r. 1422-61), a particular devotion to the Shroud[28]. Due to his retiring nature and epilepsy[29], Amadeus delegated to Yolande the day-to-day admin-istration of his territories[30].

1467a On 21 April Pope Paul II (r. 1464-71) approved the upgrading of the Chambéry Royal Chapel [see "1408"], where the Shroud had been primarily kept since 1453 [see "1453b"] to a collegiate church[31], with twelve canons[32].

1467b In that same year, the Franciscan theologian Francesco della Rovere was appointed a Cardinal[33]. In his 1464 treatise The Blood of Christ, della Rovere wrote:

"... the Shroud in which the body of Christ was wrapped when he was taken down from the cross. This is now preserved with great devotion by the Dukes of Savoy, and it is coloured with the blood of Christ"[34].
On the death of Pope Paul II, Cardinal della Rovere was elected Pope and took the name Sixtus IV (r. 1471-84)[35].

1471a Commencement by Duke Amadeus IX of the enlargement and embellishment of the Chambéry Royal Chapel[36]. Pope Sixtus IV approved its name to be the Sainte Chapelle, Chambéry[37] [see "1479"], after the Sainte Chapelle, Paris, which was completed in 1248 by King Louis IX (r. 1226–1270) to house Passion relics, including the Crown of Thorns[38].

1471b On 20 September the Shroud was taken from Chambéry, France over the Alps to Vercelli, Italy[39]. It may have been due to a fear that with the impending death of Duke Amadeus IX [see next], Yolande's estranged brother King Louis XI (1461-83), would try to seize the Shroud [see "1476"]. The Shroud would be away from Chambéry for four years [see "1475b"].

1472 Death of Duke Amadeus IX[40]. He was succeeded by his six-year old son Philibert I (r. 1472-82)[41]. His mother, Dowager Duchess Yolande [Left (enlarge)[42].], assumed the role of regent during his minority[43]. But this was contested by Yolande's brother King Louis XI[45], who in 1451 had married, without the permission of his father King Charles VII, the ~10 year old Charlotte of Savoy (c.1441-83), a daughter of Duke Louis I and Anne de Lusignan (1418–62)[44]. Louis XI presumably wanted his own 2 year-old son, Charles VIII (1470–98), to succeed Amadeus IX as the next Duke of Savoy.

1473a On 14 May representatives of the Lirey canons visited Regent Yolande in Chambéry and pressed her for eight years' arrears in the promised rent [see "1464"], or return of the Shroud to them[46]. But Yolande, presumably knowing that their claim was fraudulent [see "1457"], sent them away empty-handed, because they then petitioned Louis IX requesting that the king himself assign them revenues as compensation for their loss of revenue from the Shroud[47]! Louis responded by sending letters to the baillis of Sens, Troyes and Chaumont[48], presumably to seize the Shroud if it entered their jurisdictions.

1473b On 2 July 1473 the Shroud was taken from Vercelli to Turin[49].

[Right (enlarge)[50]: The rear of the Palazzo Madama, Turin, which in the 15th century was a Savoy castle. Presumably the Shroud was kept here from July to October 1473.]

1473c Then on 5 October the Shroud was moved from Turin to Ivrea[51].

[Left (enlarge)[52]: The 14th century Savoy castle in Ivrea, Italy. Presumably the Shroud was here from October 1473 to July 1474 and August 1474 to October 1475 - see below.]

1474a On 18 July the Shroud was moved from Ivrea to Moncalieri[53].

[Right (enlarge)[54]: Savoy Castle of Moncalieri. The twin towers were part of the 15th century castle where the Shroud was presumably kept in July and August 1474.]

1474b On 25 August the Shroud was taken from Moncalieri back to Ivrea[55].

1475a End of the Hundred Years' War between England and France with the signing of the Treaty of Picquigny by King Louis XI of France and King Edward IV of England (1461–1470, 1471–1483)[56].

1475b Then on 5 October 1475b the Shroud was returned from Ivrea back to Chambéry[57].

1476 Like her late younger brother Charles, Duke of Berry (1446–72), Yolande was an ally of her near neighbour Charles, Duke of Burgundy (r. 1467–77) against her eldest brother King Louis XI of France[58]. But after Burgundy's humiliation at the Battle of Grandson in 1476, the Duke of Burgundy accused Yolande of being in league with Louis, attacked Savoy, seized Yolande and imprisoned her[59]. But Yolande was released by Louis[60] and remained on good terms with him thereafter[61].

1477-8 The Shroud was in the Piedmont towns of Susa, Avigliano and Rivoli[62].

[Left (enlarge)[63]: The unfinished Savoy castle at Rivoli, Italy[64]. Presumably the Shroud was here in 1477-8.]

1478 On 20 March (Good Friday), the Shroud was exhibited at Pinerolo[65].

Duke Louis and his successors needed to visit their extensive properties[66], and in doing so they took the Shroud with them[67], both to safeguard it from theft[68], and to protect them as a palladium (a guarantee of Divine protection)[69]. In some or all of these above places the Savoys may have exhibited the Shroud as a symbol of their rising dynastic status[70], but except for Pinerolo, the records have not survived.

It is noteworthy that from 1473 to 1478 above it must have been Dowager Duchess Yolande, acting as regent for her very young son, Duke Philibert I (1465-82), who carried the Shroud around with them and exhibited it!

1479 Completion of the Sainte Chapelle, Chambéry[71].

[Above (enlarge): The Sainte-Chapelle, Chambéry[72], as it is today, after the 1532 fire fire [see future "1532"].]

1482a A warrant is issued on behalf of the Lirey canons that the Dowager Duchess Yolande should observe the agreement made by Duke Louis I [see "1464"] [73]. But again no payment was forthcoming and as this was the Lirey canons' last attempt to obtain compensation, they evidently gave up on what had clearly become a lost cause[74].

1482b In this same year Duke Philibert I of Savoy, now about sixteen years old, dies in a hunting accident[75]. He is succeeded by his fourteen-year-old brother Charles, who becomes Duke Charles I (r. 1482-1490)[76], inheriting through the 1458 marriage of his late younger brother Louis II of Savoy (c. 1436–82) to Charlotte de Lusignan, Queen of Cyprus (1444–87) the empty titles of King of Cyprus and King of Jerusalem[77].

1483a Death of King Louis XI of France[78] who is succeeded by his eldest surviving son King Charles VIII (r. 1483-98)[79].

1483b An inventory dated 6 June 1483 of the Sainte Chapelle at Chambéry, described the Shroud as "enveloped in a red silk drape, and kept in a case covered with crimson velours, decorated with silver-gilt nails, and locked with a golden key"[80].

1485a On 1 April Duke Charles I of Savoy married Blanche (Bianca) de Montferrat (1472–1519)[81]. That same year the French painter Jean Colombe added to a Book of Hours that Duchess Bianca had inherited, a Shroud-like miniature of the risen Christ, with the coats of arms and portraits of Duke Charles and Duchess Bianca [see above] [82]. Duchess Bianca followed in the footsteps of the previous Duchesses of Savoy in her piety and veneration of the Shroud[83].

1485b On 2 June of that year a clerk Jean Renguis, who seems to have had special charge of the Shroud, is recorded as being paid 2 ecus 'in recompense for two journeys which he made from Turin to Savigliano carrying the Shroud'[84].

1488a On Easter Sunday 1488 the Shroud was exhibited at Savigliano[85].

1488b A Passion play known as the Passion de Semur was written in this year, probably at Semur-en-Auxois in Burgundy, that includes what mediaevalist Lynette Muir (1930-2007) described as "an explicit and undeniable reference to the Lirey Shroud"[86]. In the scene of the Marys [sic-see 27May12] visiting the tomb on Easter Day, the second Mary says, "There is nothing but the Shroud", followed by Mary Magdalen exclaiming, "See the trace of the wound". This is then followed a little later by a stage direction requiring that Mary Magdalen "shall take the Shroud "sudorem" and display it thus"[87].

1490 Death of Duke Charles I of Savoy at the age of twenty-one[88], his seven-month-old son becoming Duke Charles II (r. 1490-96)[89]. Dowager Duchess Bianca acted as regent and ruler of Savoy for her son Duke Charles II, until he died six years later [see "1496"][90].

1492 Conspiracy theorists Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince claimed

[Right[91]: Their blurb states:

"Despite often bitter opposition from many vested interests, Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince have fearlessly exposed cover-ups and conspiracies, from the faking of the Shroud of Turin ..." [92]. But as I showed on 14Jul09, they "are patent liars in this matter ..."!]


"Leonardo [da Vinci (1452–1519)] faked the Shroud in 1492 ... just two years before the Shroud emerged from its forty-year period of obscurity"[93].
But for starters [see Scavone, 1996], as can be seen above, far from having been in "obscurity" for forty years until 1494 [see "1494], i.e. from 1453-94, the Shroud was publicly exhibited only four years before 1492, in 1488 at Savigliano! And there must have been many people who attended both the 1488 Savigliano exposition and the 1494 Vercelli exposition, who would have noticed that the Shroud they saw only six years earlier was not the same[94]!

1494 On Good Friday Dowager Duchess Bianca of Savoy exhibited the Shroud at Vercelli in the presence of Rupis, secretary to Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua (r. 1484-1519)[95]. According to Rupis' report:

"A sudarium was exhibited, that is, a sheet in which the body of our Lord was wrapped before being laid in the tomb, and on which his image can be seen outlined with blood - both front and back - and it looks as though blood is still issuing"[96].

1496 Death of the now seven-year-old Duke Charles II of Savoy[97]. And with his death the male line of Duke Amadeus IX (r. 1465-72) became extinct[98]. The next in line was Philip II, Count of Bresse (r. 1496-97), who became Duke of Savoy at age 58[99]. Phillip II (1438–1497) was was actually a younger son than Amadeus IX (1435-72) of Duke Louis I and Anne de Lusignan[100]!

1496 Death of Duke Philip II of Savoy[101]. He is succeeded by his seventeen-year-old son Philibert II (r. 1497-1504)[102].

1498 An inventory lists the Shroud at Turin this year as:

"a coffer covered with crimson velours, with silver gilt roses, and the sides silver and the Holy Shroud inside wrapped in a cloth of red silk"[103]

To be continued in the next part #20 of this series.

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "File:Folio 75r - The Man of Sorrows.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 4 June 2018. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1994, "A New Finding," BSTS Newsletter. No. 38, August/September, pp.16-19, 17; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.285. [return]
4. "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry," Wikipedia, 24 August 2018. [return]
5. Wilson, 1994, p.17; Wilson, 1998, p.285. [return]
6. "John, Duke of Berry," Wikipedia, 12 October 2018. [return]
7. Wilson, 1994, p.17. [return]
8. Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, p.103; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.217; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.243-244. [return]
9. Wilson, 1979, pp.217, 261; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
10. Humber, 1978, p.103; Wilson, 1979, pp.217, 261; Currer-Briggs, N., 1995, "Shroud Mafia: The Creation of a Relic?," Book Guild: Sussex UK, p.40; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Wilson, 2010, p.244; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.15. [return]
11. Wilson, 1979, p.213; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.36; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.51; Wilson, 2010, p.240. [return]
12. Oxley, 2010, p.70. [return]
13. Wilson, 1979, pp.217, 261; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
14. Wilson, 1979, p.217; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Whiting, 2006, p.54; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
15. Oxley, 2010, p.71. [return]
16. Humber, 1978, pp.104-105. [return]
17. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Oxley, 2010, p.71. [return]
18. Wilson, 1979, pp.217, 261; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.47; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.16; Whiting, 2006, p.54; Wilson, 2010, pp.244, 303. [return]
19. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.40; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Oxley, 2010, pp.70-71. [return]
20. Humber, 1978, p.104. [return]
21. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, 2001, p.17. [return]
22. Ibid; Ibid; Oxley, 2010, p.71; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
23. Humber, 1978, p.104; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Oxley, 2010, p.71; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
24. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Oxley, 2010, p.71; Wilson, 2010, p.244. [return]
25. Wilson, 1998, p.283; "Louis, Duke of Savoy," Wikipedia, 18 December 2018. [return]
26. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, 2001, p.17. [return]
27. "File:Antoine de Lohny Amedeo IX.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 26 October 2013. [return]
28. Wilson, 1998, p.283. [return]
29. "Yolande of Valois," Wikipedia, 29 December 2018. [return]
30. Wilson, I., 1994, "A Chronology of the Shroud 1452-1509, BSTS Newsletter, No. 38, August/September, pp/20-25, 21. [return]
31. Wilson, 1998, p.283. [return]
32. Guerrera, 2001, p.24. [return]
33. Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, 2001, p.24. [return]
34. Wilson, 1979, p.217; Wilson, 1998, p.283; Guerrera, 2001, pp.24-25; Oxley, 2010, pp.75-76; Wilson, 2010, p.245. [return]
35. "Pope Sixtus IV," Wikipedia, 16 October 2018. [return]
36. Wilson, 1979, p.218; Wilson, 1998, pp.283-284; Guerrera, 2001, p.17. [return]
37. Guerrera, 2001, p.24. [return]
38. Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.19. [return]
39. Wilson, 1998, pp.116, 284; Oxley, 2010, p.74; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
40. Wilson, 1998, p.284; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
41. Ibid; Wilson, 2010, p.246. [return]
42. "File:Dedication by Guillaume Fichet of his book Rhetorica to Yolande of France, Duchess of Savoy.jpg," (1471), Wikimedia Commons, 6 January 2017. [return]
43. Wilson, 1998, p.284; Oxley, 2010, p.74. [return]
44. "Charlotte of Savoy," Wikipedia, 11 December 2018. [return]
45. Wilson, 1998, p.284. [return]
46. Humber, 1978, p.104; Wilson, 1998, p.284; Oxley, 2010, p.72. [return]
47. Humber, 1978, pp.104-105. [return]
48. Humber, 1978, p.104; Wilson, 1998, p.284. [return]
49. Wilson, 1998, pp.116, 284; Oxley, 2010, p.74; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
50. "Palazzo Madama in Turin," Aree Protette del Po e della Collina Torinese, 2015. [return]
51. Wilson, 1998, pp.116, 284; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
52. "File:Castello Ivrea-1.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 12 September 2017. [return]
53. Wilson, 1998, pp.116, 284; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
54. "Castle of Moncalieri," Wikipedia, 11 March 2015. [return]
55. Wilson, 1998, pp.116, 284; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
56. "Treaty of Picquigny," Wikipedia, 5 October 2018. [return]
57. Wilson, 1998, pp.116, 284; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
58. "Yolande of Valois," Wikipedia, 29 December 2018. [return]
59. Crispino, D.C., 1988, "To Know the Truth: A Sixteenth Century Document with Excursus," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 28/29, September/December, pp.25-40, 39; "Yolande of Valois," Wikipedia, 29 December 2018. [return]
60. Crispino, 1988, p.39. [return]
61. Ibid. [return]
62. Wilson, 1998, p.284. [return]
63. "File:CastelloRivoli.JPG," Wikimedia Commons, 6 July 2014. [return]
64. "Rivoli, Piedmont: Main sights," Wikipedia, 16 December 2018. [return]
65. Wilson, 1998, pp.116, 284. [return]
66. Wilson, 1998, p.116; Scott, J.B., 2003, "Architecture for the Shroud: Relic and Ritual in Turin," University of Chicago Press: Chicago & London, p.39. [return]
67. Wilson, 1998, p.116; Scott, 2003, p.39; Oxley, 2010, pp72, 74; de Wesselow, 2012, p.16. [return]
68. Scott, 2003, p.39. [return]
69. Scott, 2003, p.39; Oxley, 2010, p.73; de Wesselow, 2012, p.16. [return]
70. Scott, 2003, pp.39, 47. [return]
71. Scott, 2003, p.39. [return]
72. "File:Sainte-Chapelle (Chambéry).jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 7 May 2016. [return]
73. Wilson, 1998, p.284. [return]
74. Oxley, 2010, p.72. [return]
75. Wilson, 1998, p.284. [return]
76. Ibid. [return]
77. Ibid; Wilson, 2010, p.246. [return]
78. Ibid. [return]
79. Ibid. [return]
80. Ibid; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
81. Ibid; Oxley, 2010, p.74; Wilson, 2010, p.248; "Blanche of Montferrat," Wikipedia, 12 April 2018. [return]
82. Wilson, 1998, p.284; Wilson, 2010, p.246. [return]
83. Oxley, 2010, p.74. [return]
84. Wilson, 1998, p.284; Wilson, 2010, p.246. [return]
85. Wilson, 1998, p.285; Oxley, 2010, p.74; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
86. Wilson, 1998, p.285. [return]
87. Ibid. [return]
88. Ibid; Wilson, 2010, p.246. [return]
89. Ibid; Wilson, 2010, p.246. [return]
90. "Blanche of Montferrat," Wikipedia, 12 April 2018. [return]
91. "The Official Website of Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince," 27 June 2015. [return]
92. Ibid. [return]
93. Picknett, L. & Prince, C., 2006, "The Turin Shroud: How da Vinci Fooled History," [1994], Touchstone: New York NY, Second edition, Reprinted, 2007, p.138. [return]
94. Oxley, 2010, p.75. [return]
95. Wilson, 1979, p.262; Wilson, 1998, p.285; Oxley, 2010, p.74; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
96. Wilson, 1998, p.285; Oxley, 2010, p.74; Wilson, 2010, p.248. [return]
97. Wilson, 1998, p.285; Wilson, 2010, p.246. [return]
98. Wilson, 2010, p.247. [return]
99. Wilson, 1998, p.285; Wilson, 2010, p.246. [return]
100. Wilson, 2010, p.247. [return]
101. Wilson, 1998, p.285; Wilson, 2010, p.246. [return]
102. Ibid; Ibid. [return]
103. Ibid; Ibid. [return]

Posted: 14 January 2019. Updated: 9 April 2022.

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