Sunday, June 5, 2022

The Shroudman and Jesus were crucified #39: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is Jesus' burial sheet!

Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is part #39, "The Shroudman and Jesus were crucified," of my series, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is Jesus'burial sheet!." Formerly "... is authentic," which is unclear. I will go back and replace "authentic" with "Jesus' burial sheet" in the title of all 38 of my previous posts in this series. For more information about this series, see the "Main index #1" and "Other marks and images #26." See also "The Shroud of Turin: 3.6. The man on the Shroud and Jesus were crucified." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Main index #1] [Previous: The Shroud man and Jesus were crowned with thorns #38] [Next: The Shroud man and Jesus died on a cross #40]

  1. The Bible and the Shroud #33
    1. The Shroud man and Jesus were crucified #39

The Shroudman and Jesus were crucified. Both the man on the

[Above: "Crucifixion," sculpture in wood by Giulio Ricci (1913-95), based on his intensive study of the Shroud[2].]

Shroud[3] and Jesus (Mt 27:35; Mk 15:25; Lk 23:33 & Jn 19:18)[4] were crucified[5].

The Shroud man and Jesus carried a cross Jesus carried a cross (Jn 19:17)[6], part of the way to the site of His crucifixion[7] (see below). It was an integral part of Roman crucifixion that the condemned man carried his own cross to the site of his execution (Mt 10:38; Mk 8:34; Lk 9:23; 14:27)[8]. It could not have been the full cross that was carried, as depicted in Christian art, because that would have been too heavy, but rather it was the crossbeam only, called in Latin the patibulum[9], to which the victim's outstretched arms were bound[10]. At the site of crucifixion the patibulum, bearing the nailed or tied victim, was attached to the much heavier, upright, stipes[11]. It was also part of Roman crucifixion that the victim was made to carry his cross naked through the streets to the site of his execution[12], but as a concession to Jewish morality, Jesus was given back his clothes after being scourged (Mt 27:31; Mk 15:20)[13].

The man on the Shroud carried a cross[14]. He has abrasions on his

[Above (enlarge)[15]: Shoulder blades of the man on the Shroud, rotated 180°, showing the blurring of the scourge marks, evidently due to him carrying across his upper back, over his clothes (Mt 27:31; Mk 15:20) a heavy object, such as a crossbeam, illustrated by the parallel lines from the man's higher right to lower left.]

shoulders[16], comsistent with him having carried across his back a heavy object[17], such as the transverse beam of a cross[18]. This must have occurred after he was scourged because the scourge wounds are underneath the shoulder abrasions[19]. But if the crossbeam had been in direct contact with his scourged shoulders, the lacerations would have widened, but on the Shroud, they have kept their shape[20]. This is consistent with the man on the Shroud carrying his cross under which was a garment protecting his scourged shoulders[21], as the gospels recorded of Jesus (Mt 27:31 & Mk 15:20).

The Shroudman and Jesus fell. The man on the Shroud fell. He

[Above (enlarge): [22]. Knees of the Shroudman, showing that both knees (see contextspear-wound in the side bloodstain is on the man's right side), and the left knee (left - apparent right because of lateral inversion[23]) in particular, has a circular piece of the kneecap missing[24].]

has cuts to both knees, especially to his left knee, indicating an unprotected fall onto a hard surface[25]. A Roman crucifixion victim (crucarius[26]) was made to carry the horizontal crossbeam tied to his outstretched arms and placed across the back of his neck[27]. Which meant that he frequently stumbled and fell in his scourged-weakened condition under the heavy weight of the crossbeam[28]. And when fell, he could not protect his face from the impact of the fall[29]. This explains why the man on the Shroud's nose is swollen, displaced and had been bleeding[30]. It also explains why the nose and knees areas of the Shroud have a high concentration of dirt particles[31].

Jesus fell. The gospels don't record that Jesus fell carrying the crossbeam[32]. However three of the gospels say that that a passerby named Simon of Cyrene was compelled by the Romans to carry Jesus' cross for Him (Mt 27:32; Mk 15:21; Lk 23:26)[33], and this implies that Jesus, weakened by his unusually severe scourging (see "The Shroud man and Jesus were scourged #37"), was unable to carry the crossbeam all the way to the place of His crucifixion[34]. It is therefore likely that it was Jesus' repeated stumbling and falling under the weight of the crossbeam which prompted his executioners to compel Simon of Cyrene to carry the cross for Him[35].

The Shroudman and Jesus were crucified. The man of the Shroud was crucified. He had been nailed to a cross[36]. He has a bloodstain on the back of his left hand, which overlays his right hand,

[Right (enlarge)[37]: Nail exit wound in the Shroudman's left wrist (which appears to be right because of lateral inversion - see above). Only one nail wound is visible because the man's left hand covers his right wrist[38]. But a similar nail wound in the hidden right wrist can be inferred from the identical pattern of bloodstains along the right arm to those along the left arm, when he hung from the nails in his wrists affixed to the crossbeam (see below)[39]. The man's fingers seem too long because they are x-rays of his finger and hand bones under his skin[40]! (see 20Apr17b)]

showing that his hands were pierced by nails through his wrists, not

[Left (enlarge): Bloodflows on the left arm of the man on the Shroud[41], flipped horizontally and then rotated 90 degrees, showing how the blood dripped off the arm vertically under gravity.]

through his palms[42]. This is anatomically accurate as French surgeon Dr. Pierre Barbet (1884–1961) demonstrated, that nails through the palms would tear through by the weight of a man's body on a cross[43]. The man's

[Above (enlarge)[44]: The dorsal (back) feet bloodstains on the Shroud (see context). The larger stain is a complete imprint from the nail wound in the man's right foot[45]. The square hole made by the Roman nail can be seen slightly below centre above (enlarged)[46]. The smaller stain is an incomplete imprint of the heel and middle of the man's left foot[47], which had been nailed to the cross by a single nail through it and the right foot[48].

left foot appears to have been forced over his right foot and both fixed to the cross by a single nail driven through the insteps[49].

Jesus was crucified. All four Gospels record that "they crucified him" (Mt 27:31-38; Mk 15:20-27; Lk 23:24-33; Jn 19:16-20)[50]. There was no need for the Gospel writers to describe details of Jesus' crucifixion[51] since these were common knowledge, as the Romans carried out their crucifixions along public thoroughfares so that the greatest number could watch and be deterred[52]. Jesus was nailed to the cross[53] (tying with rope was an option)[54]. To prove that He had risen bodily from the dead, Jesus showed the disciples (absent the Apostle Thomas) the wounds in "his hands and his side" (Jn 20:20)[55], and later Jesus invited Thomas to put his finger in the nail wounds in His hands and side (Jn 20:25,27)[56]. Earlier, to two disciples on the road from Jerusalem to Emmaus, the risen Jesus had said, "See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself" (Lk 24:39-40)[57], which can only mean that Jesus had nail wounds in both hands and both feet[58].

The Shroudman and Jesus died on a cross The man on the Shroud died on a cross. He is dead[59]. He has a swollen abdomen which indicates that he died of asphyxiation, the way crucifixion victims died[60]. Also, the body of the man on the Shroud is in a state of rigor mortis, in which the muscles stiffen, keeping the body in the position it was immediately prior to death[61]. Signs of rigor mortis on the Shroud man include: his head is bent forward, the chest and abdomen are `frozen', and his whole body is rigid and stiff, occupying some of the positions it did on the cross (see above), especially his left leg[62]. Further evidence that the man on the Shroud was dead is the post-mortem blood flows, especially from the speared in the side wound (see below)[63]. If the man's heart had been beating the blood would have spurted out onto the cloth, instead of oozing out as it did[64].

Jesus died on a cross. All four gospels record that Jesus died on a cross (Mt 27:50; Mk 15:37; Lk 23:46; Jn 19:30)[65]. The gospels of Mark and Luke explicitly state that Jesus "breathed his last" on the cross (Mk 15:37; Lk 23:46)[66]. The Roman centurion in charge of Jesus' crucifixion confirmed to the Roman Governor Pontius Pilate that Jesus, who was then still on the cross, was dead (Mk 15:44-45)[67].

The Shroudman's and Jesus' legs were not broken The Shroudman's legs were not broken[68]. This is despite the crurifragium, the breaking of a crucifixion victim's lower leg-bones with a heavy mallet[69], to hasten his death[70], because he then would be

[Right (enlarge)[71]: As can be seen, the legs of the man on the Shroud are not broken.

unable to use his legs to raise himself up to breathe[72], being the norm in Roman crucifixions[73]. The Gospel of John records that the Roman soldiers broke the legs of the two robbers crucified with Jesus, to bring about their immediate deaths (Jn 19:31-32)[74].

Jesus' legs were not broken. The Roman soldiers, having broken the legs of the two robbers crucified with Jesus, when they came to Jesus they saw that he was already dead, and so they did not break His legs (Jn 19:32-33)[75]. Despite breaking of the legs of crucifixion victims being the norm in Roman crucifixions, neither the man on the Shroud nor Jesus had their legs broken, which is further evidence that the man on the Shroud is Jesus[76]!

The man on the Shroud and Jesus were speared in the side. The man on the Shroud was speared in his right side[77]. Clearly visible on the Shroud is a lance stab wound in the man's right side together with an effusion of blood and clear fluid[78]. The wound is on the left-hand side of the Shroud image but because of mirror reversal it was in the right side of the man of the Shroud[79]. The wound and its bloodstain is immediately adjacent to one of the triangular-shaped burn marks from the fire of 1532[80] (see "part #27"), yet miraculously[81] was not consumed by it[82]. The origin of the flow of

[Above (enlarge)[83]: The wound on the right side of the man on the Shroud (on our left because the Shroud is, like a plaster cast, a mirror image[84]). Note the wound (circled in red) which corresponds to the incision of a Roman lancea and the light and dark stains corresponding to blood and lung cavity fluid.]

blood and fluid is an elliptical wound at its top edge[85] about 4.4 cm long by 1.1 cm wide (1.75 x 0.44 inches)[86]. The size and shape of the wound in cross-section[87] conforms perfectly to a Roman lancea (Greek λογχη - logche)[88]. The wound is in the intercostal space between the right fifth and sixth ribs[89]. From below this is directly in line with the right auricle of the heart which fills with blood after death[90]. From the angle of flow[91] the body must have been erect and leaning forward when the side was pierced, for the blood and the fluid flowed downwards and frontwards from the wound[92].

There was a post-mortem flow of blood and fluid from the wound in the side across the small of the back (see below), evidently from when the body was laid on the Shroud[93].

[Above (enlarge)[94.]: The post-mortem flow of blood across the small of the back from the wound in the side.]

Jesus was speared in the side. As we saw above, the Roman executioners did not break Jesus' legs because they could see that he was dead. But to make absolutely certain that Jesus was dead[95], one of the soldiers speared him in the side with a lance, and immediately there came out blood and water (Jn 19:32-34)[96]. The Greek word logche), for the Roman lancea, was the very word used in John 19:34 to describe the weapon used by the Roman soldier to check that Jesus was dead[97].]

This eyewitness testimony of the Apostle John (Jn 19:34-35; 21:24)[98] of "blood and water" flowing from the lance-wound in the dead Jesus' side, matches the blood and fluid on the right side, under the heart, of the man on the Shroud[99](see above). Most medical specialists agree that the "water" was probably fluid that had steadily accumulated in Jesus' lung cavity as a result of the unusually brutal scourging (see "The Shroud man and Jesus were scourged" part 37) that He was subjected to[100]. The lance then released this watery type fluid from the lung cavity followed by blood from the perforated heart[101]. A mixture of blood and lung fluid is also the basis of the stains around the nasal area of the Sudarium of Oviedo, which is more evidence that both it and the Shroud once covered the same body[102]. But the Sudarium of Oviedo has been in Spain since the 6th century[103]. This will be covered in a future "10. The Sudarium of Oviedo."

Problems for the forgery theory:
• Christian art has consistently depicted Jesus as having been nailed through His palms, even though, as we saw above, medical experiments have shown that nails through the palms could not support the weight of a man's body[104]. But it would be unlikely that a medieval forger would have known this and even if he had, he would have conformed to prevailing Christian tradition and depicted the nail wounds in Jesus' palms[105].

• Crucifixion was outlawed by the Roman Emperor Constantine in 337[106] and was not practiced since then in the Western world[107]. Yet a medieval forger of the Shroud would have to know a lot about crucifixion to produce such an anatomically and historically accurate representation[108].

• A medieval or earlier forger would have been most unlikely to have gone to the trouble of depicting the man on the Shroud's nose as swollen, displaced and bleeding, let alone added ground particles and dust to his nasal area, consistent with his having fallen on his face while carrying his crossbeam (see above), given that the Gospels do not explicitly mention those[109].

• A medieval or earlier forger is unlikely to have been able to depict the convincing medical detail of the lance wound in the side of the man on the Shroud, given that none of the many depictions of that lance wound in Jesus' side in mediaeval or earlier art do so[110].

• The Gospels do not tell us in which side (right or left) Jesus was pierced by a Roman soldier's lance, so a medieval forger would most likely assume it was the left side, as he would be unlikely to realise that the last beat of a heart empties its left ventricle of blood while the right auricle fills with blood after death[111].

• That the Sudarium of Oviedo has blood and lung fluid stains around its nasal area, indicating that both it and the Shroud once covered the same crucifixion victim's body (see above), yet the Sudarium has been in Spain since the 6th century, means that either there were two forgers, separated by centuries and thousands of kilometres/miles, yet the two forgeries matched their blood and fluid stains exactly, or a single forger would have had to forge both the Shroud and the Sudarium in or before the 6th century[112]!

Conclusion. There is an amazing correspondence between the details that are observed on the Shroud, and the description of Jesus's crucifixion as narrated in gospels, given that each crucifixion was `personalized' according to the victim executed, the crime committed[113] and the whims of the executioners[114]. The Shroud supplements the Gospels as a photograph supplements a verbal description[115]:

"The Gospels say only that Christ carried His cross. The Shroud depicts Him bent under the transverse beam lying across the shoulders, with His outstretched arms bound to the instrument of His death. And there are the excoriations on the shoulder-blades, the oozing and the aggravated wounds of the scourging. He was crucified, is all the Evangelists say of the awful climax of the drama. The Shroud re-enacts the scene. It raises the arms of Christ to the angle at which they were extended on the cross. It shows the point where the hands were pierced, and how the fingers and thumbs responded to the pressure on the median nerve. It crosses the feet and shows how they were pierced with a single nail through the insteps, how the wounds bled at the beginning of the crucifixion, how they bled again when the nail was extracted. It reconstructs the position in which the body was left by death, because the body grew rigid on the cross and remained so while impressing its image on the Shroud. There is also the final outrage committed upon that sacred Body. The Shroud evokes the vision of the soldier plunging his spear into the right side between the fifth and the sixth rib. It shows us the very wound into which Thomas was invited to thrust his hand, and it almost analyses the issue of blood and water which was such a marvel to John"[116].
"In summary, the man of the Shroud was crucified the way Jesus was. The comparison of the New Testament and the Shroud image lines up at every point"[117].

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Ricci, G., 1978, "The Way of the Cross in the Light of the Holy Shroud," Center for the Study of the Passion of Christ and the Holy Shroud: Milwaukee WI, Second edition, Reprinted, 1982, p.61. [return]
3. Murphy, C., 1981, "Shreds of evidence: Science confronts the miraculous - the Shroud of Turin," Harper's, Vol. 263, November, pp.42-68, 57; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 25; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.33; Bennett, J., 2001, "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, p.85. [return]
4. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.52; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.44; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, p.86; Bennett, 2001, p.125. [return]
5. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.87. [return]
6. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, pp.42-43; Wilson, I. & Miller, V., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.44; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.55; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.38. [return]
7. Robinson, J.A.T., 1978, "The Shroud and the New Testament," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.78. [return]
8. Torrance, J.B., "Cross, Crucifixion," in Douglas, J.D., et al., eds., 1982, "New Bible Dictionary," [1962], Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester UK, Second edition, Reprinted, 1988, pp.253. [return]
9. Wuenschel, 1954, pp.42-43. [return]
10. Wuenschel, 1954, p.42. [return]
11. Borkan, 1995, p.25. [return]
12. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.45. [return]
13. Bennett, J., 2001, "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, p.125. [return]
14. Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.43; Guerrera, 2001, p.39. [return]
15. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Vertical (rotated 180°)," auto corrected [return]
16. Wilson, 1979, pp.38-39; Bucklin, R., 1997, "An Autopsy on the Man of the Shroud," Third International Scientific Symposium on the Shroud of Turin, Nice, France, 12 May; Antonacci, 2000, p.32. [return]
17. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.44; Bucklin, 1997; Antonacci, 2000, p.120. [return]
18. Wuenschel, 1954, p.43. [return]
19. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.44. [return]
20. Ricci, G., 1977, "Historical, Medical and Physical Study of the Holy Shroud," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, p.69. [return]
21. Ibid. [return]
22. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002: Vertical. (auto corrected)," [return]
23. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.64; Bucklin, R., 1970, "The Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ," Medicine, Science and the Law, January; Wilson, 1979, p.30; Borkan, 1995, p.42; Antonacci, 2000, p.189. [return]
24. Wilson, 1979, p.39; Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, pp.283-311, 285; Iannone, 1998, p.56; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
25. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45; Cruz, 1984, p.51. [return]
26. Zugibe, F.T., 2005, "The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry," M. Evans & Co.: New York NY, p.19; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.122. [return]
27. Guscin, M., 1998, "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, p.28. [return]
28. Antonacci, 2000, p.33; Oxley, 2010, p.165. [return]
29. Guscin, 1998, p.28; Antonacci, 2000, p.32. [return]
30. Ibid. [return]
31. Bucklin, R., 1982, "The Shroud of Turin: Viewpoint of a Forensic Pathologist," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 5, December, pp.3-10, 8; Guscin, 1998, p.28; Antonacci, 2000, pp.32-33, 100. [return]
32. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, p.86; Iannone, 1998, p.56. [return]
33. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.44. [return]
34. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45. [return]
35. Ibid. [return]
36. Wuenschel, 1954, p.43. [return]
37. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," [return]
38. Bucklin, 1970. [return]
39. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.165. [return]
40. Carter, G.F., 1982, "Formation of the Image on the Shroud of Turin by x-Rays: A New Hypothesis," in Lambert, J.B., ed., 1984, "Archaeological Chemistry III: ACS Advances in Chemistry, No. 205," American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., pp.431-433; Borkan, 1995, p.42; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.29; Ruffin, 1999, pp.150-151; Antonacci, 2000, p.213; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, pp.37-38; Oxley, 2010, p.241. [return]
41. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," [return]
42. Wuenschel, 1954, p.44; Barbet, 1953, p.109; . [return]
43. Wuenschel, 1954, p.44; Barbet, 1953, p.117; Borkan, 1995, p.24. [return]
44. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical (auto corrected)," [return]
45. Barbet, P., 1952, "The Five Wounds of Christ," Apraxine, M., transl., Clonmore & Reynolds: Dublin, p.32; Barbet, P., 1953, "A Doctor at Calvary," [1950], Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, Reprinted, 1963, p.121. [return]
46. Barbet, 1952, p.35; Barbet, 1953, p.125. [return]
47. Barbet, 1952, p.32; Barbet, 1953, p.121. [return]
48. Barbet, 1952, p.37; Barbet, 1953, p.128; Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.46; Wilson, 1979, p.42; Morgan, 1980, p.103; Antonacci, 2000, p.213; Wilson, 2010, p.48; de Wesselow, 2012, p.145. [return]
49. Wuenschel, 1954, pp.43-44; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.76. [return]
50. Wuenschel, 1954, p.43; McNair, P., "The Shroud and History: fantasy, fake or fact?," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.23; Petrosill & Marinelli, 1996, p.229; Ruffin, 1999, p.43; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.57. [return]
51. Wuenschel, 1954, p.43. [return]
52. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.62. [return]
53. Wuenschel, 1954, p.43; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45; Borkan, 1995, p.24. [return]
54. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.90. [return]
55. Iannone, 1998, p.57. [return]
56. Wuenschel, 1954, pp.52-53; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45; Iannone, 1998, p.57; Ruffin, 1999, p.43; Wilson, 2010, p.47. [return]
57. Wuenschel, 1954, p.43; Iannone, 1998, p.57. [return]
58. Bulst, 1957, p.48; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.86-87; Guerrera, 2001, p.39. [return]
59. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45. [return]
60. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45. [return]
61. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.112-113. [return]
62. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.113. [return]
63. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.113. [return]
64. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.113. [return]
65. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45. [return]
66. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45. [return]
67. Wuenschel, 1954, p.43. [return]
68. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45. [return]
69. McNair, 1978, p.24. [return]
70. Antonacci, 2000, p.120. [return]
71. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," (auto corrected)," [return]
72. Wilson, 1979, p.42. [return]
73. McNair, 1978, p.24. [return]
74. Robinson, 1978, p.78. [return]
75. Ibid. [return]
76. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.90-91. [return]
77. Wilson, 1979, p.43. [return]
78. Robinson, 1978, p.78. [return]
79. Wilson, 1979, p.43. [return]
80. Wilson, 1986, pp.24,26. [return]
81. Wilson, 1979, p.24. [return]
82. Wilson, 1979, p.43. [return]
83. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," [return]
84. Antonacci, 2000, p.33. [return]
85. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.63 [return]
86. Wilson, 1979, p.48. [return]
87. Wilson, 1986, p.34. [return]
88. Ibid. [return]
89. Wilson, 1986, p.26. [return]
90. Wilson, 1979, p.44. [return]
91. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.37. [return]
92. Wuenschel, 1954, p.46. [return]
93. Wilson, 1979, p.44. [return]
94. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," (flipped vertically & auto corrected)," [return]
95. Ruffin, 1999, p.44. [return]
96. Wuenschel, 1954, p.45. [return]
97. Wilson, 1979, p.49. [return]
98. Wilson, 1996, pp.132,133. [return]
99. Robinson, 1978, p.78. [return]
100. Wilson, 1996, pp.132,133. [return]
101. Bucklin, 1997. [return]
102. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.78. [return]
103. Guscin, 1998, p.31. [return]
104. Robinson, 1978, p.77. [return]
105. Ibid. [return]
106. Crucifixion:Ancient Rome," Wikipedia, 18 June 2022. [return]
107. Iannone, 1998, p.69. [return]
108. Culliton, B.J., 1978, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July, pp.235-239, p.238. [return]
109. Iannone, 1998, p.44. [return]
110. Wilson, 1998, p.38. [return]
111. Oxley, 2010, p.167. [return]
112, Bennett, 2001, p.89. [return]
113. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.229. [return]
114. Bulst, 1957, p.49. [return]
115. Wuenschel, 1954, p.55. [return]
116. Wuenschel, 1954, pp.55-56. [return]
117. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.45. [return]

Posted 5 June 2022. Updated 31 May 2023.

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