© Stephen E. Jones
6th century (501-600)
[Above (enlarge): Face of the "Christ Enthroned" mosaic [c.526] in the Sant'Apollinare Nuovo church, Ravenna, Italy (see full mosaic below) compared to the Vignon markings (see 11Feb12). According to Maher, this "early (sixth-century) ... mosaic of Christ enthroned" has "eight Vignon markings", which is proof beyond reasonable doubt that it was based on the Shroud, over 700 years before its earliest 1260 radiocarbon dating! But according to my count, it has thirteen of the fifteen Vignon markings! [See 08Oct16 & 16Feb12]. And since this is a mosaic, created in situ, not a portable painting, it is evidence that the Shroud ("four-doubled" = tetradiplon as the Mandylion), was in Ravenna in the early sixth century! See below that Ravenna was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402-476, after which it was the capital city of the Ostrogoth Kingdom until, very significantly, 540. [See "540a" below].]
525 Edessa suffered a major flood of its river, the Daisan ("the Leaper"), killing one-third of the city's population (about 30,000) and destroying buildings, including the cathedral, and much of the city's wall. The city, its wall, and a new Hagia Sophia ("Holy Wisdom") cathedral, were then rebuilt by the Byzantine Emperor Justin I (r.518 to 527), although the actual work was carried out by his nephew and future Emperor, Justinian I (r.527-565). According to the 945 `Official History of the Image of Edessa' [see future "945"] the Mandylion/Shroud, had been hidden in the city wall above Edessa's public gate, early in the reign of Abgar V's pagan grandson [Ma'nu VI (r.57–71)], then been completely forgotten, and was not rediscovered until the 544 [see "544"below] siege of Edessa by the Persian King Khosrow I (496-579), aka. Chosroes I, which was in 544.
[Right (enlarge): A 17th-century icon in the Verkhospassky Cathedral, Moscow, depicting the discovery of the Mandylion in the sixth century, which had (supposedly) been hidden in a niche above one of the city's gates
However this story of the Mandylion/Shroud having been hidden in Edessa's wall, completely forgotten, for almost 500 years, contains multiple implausibilities [see "60"]. Likewise Ian Wilson's theory, based on that `Official History' story, that the Mandylion/Shroud was discovered in, or soon after 525, during the rebuilding of Edessa's flood damaged wall, suffers from the same multiple implausibilities and it does not even have the support of the `Official History' that the Mandylion/ Shroud was discovered during the Persian siege of Edessa.
"The Christological Cycle of Mosaics in St. Apollinare Nuovo ... The mosaics of the last register of the central nave, all from the time of King Theodoric in the second decade of the VIth c., represent the most complete Christological cycle known in paleochristian art" .]the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, Italy. Faced with the threat to Rome by the Germanic Visigoths (Western Goths) under the leadership of Alaric I (c.370–410), Roman Emperor Honorius (384–423) relocated the capital of the Western Roman Empire to Ravenna in 402. The sack of Rome by the Visigoths led by Alaric did occur in 410, and Ravenna remained the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until its final collapse in 476, when the Ostrogoth (Eastern Goths) king Theoderic the Great (493-526), an Arian, executed the Roman Flavius Odoacer (433-493), the first King of Italy (476–493) at Ravenna. Theoderic thereby became King of Italy (493–526) and based his Ostrogothic Kingdom at Ravenna. Ravenna remained the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until the Ostrogoth king Vitiges (536-540) died in 540 [see "540a" below] in Constantinople under captivity to the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (c.482–565). Ravenna then became part of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire until 751 when it was conquered by the Lombard king Aistulf (r.749-756).
My theory that the Mandylion/Shroud was at Ravenna in 526 and was taken to Edessa in c.540 The Arians believed that Jesus Christ, as the Son of God, had been created in time by God the Father, and so was not eternal. In 325 Arianism was rejected as heretical by the Council of Nicaea. However, the Syrian city of Antioch, which was an important centre of early Christianity (Acts 11:19-26), to where the Shroud had likely been taken in Apostolic times, had become predominantly Arian. In 357 the Arians gained control of Antioch cathedral, which held the city's Passion relics, and so the Shroud may then have (and it is my theory that it did) come under the control of Antioch's Arian faction. Evidence of that is in 362, when the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate (r.361-363) ordered the closure of Antioch's cathedral and demanded to know the whereabouts of its relics, the Arian cathedral treasurer Theodoretus died under torture rather than reveal that secret. In 380 the Emperor Theodosius I (347–395), established Nicaean orthodoxy as the official religion of the Roman Empire, so the Arians were expelled from Antioch and custody of its cathedral was returned to the Orthodox. Emperor Theodosius also fought to expel the Arian Goths who had settled inside the Roman Empire between 376–382. It is my theory that the Antioch Arians did obtain possession of the Mandylion/Shroud in 357 and took it with them when they fled Antioch in 380. And that they sought refuge from their common enemy, Theodosius I, with their fellow Arians, the Ostrogoths. And so the Shroud came to be in the Ostrogoth Kingdom at Ravenna, as evidenced by the "Christ enthroned" mosaic above completed in situ by 526, with its 8 (and by my count 13) of the 15 Vignon markings. Then in, or before, 540 [see "540a" below], when the Ostrogoth kingdom was about to end and Ravenna was about to become part of the Byzantine Empire, the Mandylion/Shroud was taken from Ravenna to Arian-friendly Edessa. As far as I am aware, no one had previously proposed that the Mandylion/Shroud was present in Ravenna, Italy, in 526 and then was taken to Edessa in c.540 [see "540a" below]. But this seems more plausible than Wilson's theory that the Mandylion/Shroud had been hidden, and then completely forgotten, in Edessa's wall from c.60-525 [see 525 above]; and that part of Jack Markwardt's theory (in italics), that "the Shroud was taken, in apostolic times, to the Syrian city of Antioch, concealed and lost in 362, rediscovered in ca. 530, and conveyed to Edessa when Antioch was destroyed in 540." [see below]
526b Antioch was severely damaged by a major earthquake, followed by a fire, which killed 250,000. Most of Antioch's buildings and walls were destroyed. Then a major aftershock earthquake in 528 did further damage. This unrepaired damage to Antioch's walls was a major factor in Khosrow I's sacking and burning of Antioch in 540[see "540b" below].
540a In 535 Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (c.482–565) had commissioned his General Flavius Belisarius (c.505–565) to attack the Ostrogoth Kingdom in Italy, as part of Justinian's strategy to recover the territory of the Western Roman Empire that had been lost in the previous century [See "476"]. Belisarius captured Ravenna in early 540 and took the Ostrogoth king Vitiges captive to Constantinople where he died that same year. It is my theory (see above) that immediately before the 540 Byzantine capture of Ravenna, the Mandylion/Shroud was taken by Ravenna's Arians to Arian-friendly Edessa.
540b Persian king Khosrow I (501–579) (aka Chosroes I) in late 540 sacked and burned Antioch. According to Markwardt's theory the Mandylion/Shroud was taken to Edessa shortly before Antioch's destruction in 540. However, Markwardt produces no hard evidence for this, and he himself states that the Arians controlled Antioch cathedral's relic collection (which he agrees would have included the Mandylion/ Shroud) when they were expelled from Antioch in 380. Although Markwardt claims without evidence and implausibly that the Mandylion/Shroud had been concealed so well by Theodoretus the Arian cathedral treasurer, who died under torture rather than reveal its whereabouts (see above), that the Mandylion/Shroud was lost within Antioch cathedral for ~178 years from 362 to 540) But the Arians would surely have found Theodoretus' hiding place of the Mandylion/Shroud within Antioch cathedral (that is if they did not know it) in the ~18 years between 362 and 380, and would have taken the Mandylion/Shroud with them in 380, as my theory proposes. And the 526 "Christ Enthroned" mosaic in Arian Ravenna (above) is evidence that the Antioch Arians had taken the Mandylion/Shroud to Ravenna, when according to Markwardt's theory it was still lost within Antioch cathedral!
544 Persian king Khosrow I lays siege to Edessa. It is a fact of history that in 544 Persian King Khosrow I (aka Chosroes I) besieged Edessa but the city resisted the siege and the Persians were "forced to retreat from Edessa":
"Khosrow turned south towards Edessa and besieged the city. Edessa was now a much more important city than Antioch was, but the garrison which occupied the city was able to resist the siege. The Persians were forced to retreat from Edessa ..."Historian Evagrius Scholasticus (c.536-594), recorded in c.590 [see future below "590"] in his Ecclesiastical History that the Persians built a huge mound of timber higher than Edessa's wall, that was to be moved next to the wall from which his army could attack the city. The Edessans countered by tunneling under the wall with the aim of setting the mound on fire from below before it could be moved forward to the wall. Evagrius described the crucial role of "the divinely made image not made by the hands of man" (the Mandylion/Shroud) in the defense of the city:
"The mine was completed; but they [the Edessans] failed in attempting to fire the wood, because the fire, having no exit whence it could obtain a supply of air, was unable to take hold of it. In this state of utter perplexity they brought out the divinely made image not made by the hands of man, which Christ our God sent to King Abgar when he desired to see him. Accordingly, having introduced this sacred likeness into the mine and washed it over with water, they sprinkled some upon the timber ... the timber immediately caught the flame, and being in an instant reduced to cinders, communicated with that above, and the fire spread in all directions".Evagrius' "not made by the hands of man" is the Greek word acheiropoietos, lit. a = "not" + cheiro = "hands" + poietos = "made" (Mk 14:58; 2Cor 5:1; Col 2:11), which is the first known application of that word to the Mandylion/Shroud and is the first historical evidence that the Mandylion/Shroud was in Edessa by 544. Evagrius' account says that the "divinely made image not made by the hands of man," had been "sent to King Abgar" by Christ, but this is false (although Evagrius may have believed it to be true), since not only is the original Abgar V story a "pious fraud," it said nothing about an image of Jesus on a cloth[see "50"]. According to the 945 `Official History,' it was during the Persian siege of 544 that Edessa's bishop Eulalius was led in a vision to find where "the divinely created image of Christ ... lay hidden in the place above the city gates". However that is part of the Abgar V pious fraud and is self-evidently highly implausible[see "60"]. Moreover, there is no bishop Eulalius known in the actual history of Edessa. And if a bishop of Edessa had discovered "the divinely made image not made by the hands of man" hidden above Edessa's gate during the Persian siege of 544, Evagrius would surely have mentioned it. A Syriac "Edessan Chronicle," written after 540 and just before the 544 siege mentions the 525 Edessa flood in detail, but says nothing about the rediscovery of an Image, which is strong evidence against Wilson's theory that the Mandylion/Shroud was rediscovered in the aftermath of the flood of 525. So since Evagrius introduces the Image as already known to be at Edessa in 544, but with no viable explanation how it came to be there, the most likely (if not the only) explanation is that it had arrived in Edessa from elsewhere, shortly before 544, as my theory proposes. Secular historian Procopius of Caesarea (c.500–c.554) also wrote about Edessa's repulse of the 544 Persian siege, by digging a tunnel underneath the Persian siege tower, filling the tunnel with inflammable material and setting fire to it, which in turn consumed the tower[40a], but Procopius did not mention anything about an Image. However, there are a number of important events in Edessa's history which Procopius does not mention, so he may simply have not known of the role of the Image in the siege. Also, Procopius was writing secular history, and he himself was a skeptic who was not interested in recording such things.
549 Completion of a mosaic in the apse of the Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, featuring a huge jeweled cross, at the centre of which is the bearded head of Christ within a circle. The
disembodied head of Christ within a circle conforms to the way the head of Jesus would have appeared within the nimbus on the Mandylion. This is further evidence that the Mandylion/Shroud had been in Ravenna up to 540.
c. 550 Christ Pantocrator, St Catherine's monastery, Sinai. This encaustic (hot coloured wax) on wood (a technique which died out and became lost in the eight century) icon of Christ Pantocrator
[Above (enlarge): The Vignon markings on the face of the Shroud of Turin compared with that of the icon of Christ Pantocrator, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai. By my count there are at least eleven of the fifteen Vignon markings on this mid-sixth century icon which are also on the face of the Shroud[16Febr12].]
("ruler of all") at the isolated Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, and so escaped the iconoclasm (Gk. eikon = "image" + klastes = "breaker") of of the eighth through ninth centuries [see "723" and future "843"]. Dated c. 550, this icon was a gift from the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (c.482–565), who built the monastery between 548 and 565. This is the earliest surviving painted icon of Christ. It is nearly perfectly congruent to the Shroud-face, for example the high right eyebrow, the hollow right cheek, and the garment neckline. So marked are these oddities, that the late Princeton University art historian, Professor Kurt Weitzmann (1904-1993), while making no connection with the Shroud, remarked of this icon that:
"... the pupils of the eyes are not at the same level; the eyebrow over Christ's left eye is arched higher than over his right ... one side of the mustache droops at a slightly different angle from the other, while the beard is combed in the opposite direction ... Many of these subtleties remain attached to this particular type of Christ image and can be seen in later copies ..."Using his polarized image overlay technique, Dr Alan Whanger found over 200 points of congruence between this icon and the Shroud. Even creases and wrinkles on the Shroud cloth have been rendered by the artist. Flower images in the halo around the head (nimbus) of this icon are found at the same locations on the Shroud [see 06Apr13]. The artist has even rendered the xray images of the Shroud man's teeth [see 10Dec15 and future "X-rays #23"] as chapped lips! and see future ["X-rays #23"]. This means that this icon must have been copied directly from the Mandylion/Shroud in the mid-sixth century and so, once again, refutes the radiocarbon dating's 14th-century date of the Shroud.
Gospel Book written following the reconquest of the Italian peninsula by the Byzantine Empire [in 540 - See "540a" above]. Also known as Codex purpureus Rossanensis due to the reddish (purpureus in Latin) appearance of its pages, the codex is one of the oldest surviving illuminated manuscripts of the New Testament". CIELT's (Centre International d'Études sur le Linceul de Turin) Andre Van Cauwenberghe (-2009) pointed out of this sixth century manuscript that "Christ represented possesses all the noted [Vignon markings] features":
"The ... artists, apparently had a model ... showing the characteristics which we notice so positively on observing the Face of Christ on the Shroud: - A mass of hair surrounding the face - A nose, long and thin, which the artists of the era, on seeing it in dark shades, have translated naturally to white - A thin mouth surmounted by something they judged to be a moustache - A forked beard - A lock of hair. It is important to note that only Christ is portrayed in this manner. The oldest representation and the most striking, because of the quite particular character of the portrait of Christ, very similar to the Shroud, is the `Apostelcommunion', the `Communion of the Apostles' of the 6th century, originating in Constantinople (Codex Rossanensis). The twelve apostles are completely different to Christ. But the Christ represented possesses all the noted [Vignon markings] features"569 A Syriac hymn likened the marble of Edessa's new cathedral to "the image not the work of human hands.". Because it is in Syriac "not the work of human hands" is not the Greek word acheiropoietos, but as Guscin points out:
"... any reference to an image not made by human hands in the city of Edessa would immediately have brought to mind the image of Christ, and the author of the poem must have been aware of this."
c. 575 Homs vase. This sixth century Byzantine style silver vase from Homs (ancient Emesa), Syria has a medallion face of Jesus which bears a strong resemblance to the face on the Shroud in
many of the `Vignon' and other respects. These similarities include, "the narrowness of the face; the distortions carved into the right side of the face, where the Shroud face has two sizable bruises, the swollen cheek and the half-moon bruise below; and the `light-bulb' shape of the head on its outer edge".
c. 590 Historian Evagrius Scholasticus (c.536-594) recorded in his Ecclesiastical History that the 544 Persian siege of Edessa was repulsed by a "divinely wrought likeness," that is, acheiropoietos, or "not made by hands" [see "544" above.]
Continued in the next part #7 of this series.
1. This post is copyright. Permission is granted to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Extract from "File:Christus Ravenna Mosaic.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 31 October 2016. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.82E. [return]
4. Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.77. [return]
5. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.3; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, pp.125, 140-141; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.108. [return]
6. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," , Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.138; Wilson, 1998, pp.162, 266; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.136; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.3; Guscin, M., 2009, "The Image of Edessa," Brill: Leiden, Netherlands & Boston MA, p.169; Wilson, 2010, pp.132, 142, 298. [return]
7. Wilson, 1979, p.139; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.142, 298. [return]
8. Wilson, 1979, pp.280-281; Wilson, 1998, p.158. [return]
9. Polverari, S., 2014, "From the Mandylion to the Shroud," Shroud of Turin: The Controversial Intersection of Faith and Science Conference, October 9-12, 2014, St. Louis, Missouri, pp.1-9, 4. [return]
10. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.107. [return]
11. Wilson, 1979, p.254; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.18; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, p.76; Antonacci, 2000, p.136; Wilson, 2010, pp.143, 298. [return]
12. "Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo [Ravenna]," Wikipedia, 22 November 2016. [return]
13. Pfeiffer, H., 1983, "The Shroud of Turin and the Face of Christ in Paleochristian, Byzantine and Western Medieval Art: Part I," Shroud Spectrum International, Issue #9, December, pp.7-20, 17. [return]
14. Guscin, M., 1999, "Recent Historical Investigations on the Sudarium of Oviedo," in Walsh, B.J., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.122-141, 126; Markwardt, J.J., 1999, "Antioch and the Shroud," in Walsh, 2000, pp.94-108, 96-97. [return]
15. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.189. [return]
16. Markwardt, 1999, pp.94-95; Markwardt, J.J., 2008, "Ancient Edessa and the Shroud: History Concealed by the Discipline of the Secret," in Fanti, G., ed., "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Proceedings of the 2008 Columbus Ohio International Conference, August 14-17, 2008, Progetto Libreria: Padua, Italy, pp.382-407, 382; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.17. [return]
17. Oxley, 2010, p.20. [return]
18. Ibid. [return]
19. Markwardt, 1999, p.100; Oxley, 2010, p.22. [return]
20. Markwardt, 1999, p.100; Oxley, 2010, p.22. [return]
21. "Ephrem the Syrian: Life," Wikipedia, 21 October 2016. [return]
22. Markwardt, 2008, p.382. Footnotes omitted. [return]
23. "526 Antioch earthquake," Wikipedia, 26 November 2016. [return]
24. "Khosrow I: War with the Byzantine Empire, 540–562," Wikipedia, 21 November 2016. [return]
25. Markwardt, 1999, p.101; Markwardt, 2008, p.382. [return]
26. Markwardt, 1999, p.100. [return]
27. Markwardt, 1999, p.101; Markwardt, 2008, p.382. [return]
28. Markwardt, 1999, pp.99-101; Markwardt, 2008, p.382. [return]
29. "Khosrow I: War with the Byzantine Empire, 540–562," Wikipedia, 21 November 2016. [return]
30. Antonacci, 2000, p.137. [return]
31. Ibid. [return]
32. Wilson, 1979, p.137; Antonacci, 2000, p.137. [return]
33. Abbott-Smith, G., 1937, "A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament," , T. & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Third edition, Reprinted, 1956, p.72; Bauer, W., Arndt, W.F., Gingrich, F.W. & Danker, F.W., 1979, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature," University of Chicago Press: Chicago IL, Second edition, p.128; Thayer, J.H., 1901, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament," T & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Fourth edition, Reprinted, 1961, p.90; Zodhiates, S., 1992, "The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament," AMG Publishers: Chattanooga TN, Third printing, 1994, p.305. [return]
34. Wilson, 1979, p.140; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.4. [return]
35. Guerrera, 2001, p.4; Oxley, 2010, p.22. [return]
36. Wilson, 1979, p.282; Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, pp.57-58. [return]
37. Guscin, 2009, p.77. [return]
38. Wilson, 1979, p.138; Drews, 1984, p.60. [return]
39. Drews, 1984, pp.60-61. [return]
40. Drews, 1984, p.60. [return]
40a. Guscin, 2009, p.170. [return]
41. Scavone, D.C., 1991, "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.171-204, 184; Scavone, D.C., 1989a, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.81; Wilson, 1998, p.161. [return]
42. Scavone, D.C., 2002, "Joseph of Arimathea, The Holy Grail & the Edessa Icon," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 56, December. [return]
43. Wilson, 1998, p.161. [return]
44. Drews, 1984, p.60. [return]
45. Wilson, 1979, pp.141-142. [return]
46. "Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe," Ravenna Tourism and Culture, 2016. [return]
47. Wilson, 1979, pp.141-142. [return]
48. Scavone, 1991, pp.186-187. [return]
49. Wilson, 1998, p.159; Wilson, 2010, p.135. [return]
50. Wilson, 1978, p.82E. [return]
51. Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.150; Greek pantokrator, from pan = "all" + kratos = "power," "rule," hence "almighty," "ruler of all". 2Cor 6:18; Rev 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7,14; 19:6,15; 21:22. Abbott-Smith, 1937, p.336; Bauer, et al., 1979, pp.608-6098; Thayer, 1901, p.476; Zodhiates, 1992, pp.1093-1094. [return]
52. Scavone, 1991, p.186. [return]
53. Ibid; Whanger, A.D. & Whanger, M.W., "A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of Turin," in Berard, 1991, pp.303-324, 306. [return]
54. Whanger & Whanger, 1991, p.306. [return]
55. Scavone, 1991, p.186. [return]
56. Ibid. [return]
57. Weitzmann, K., 1976, "The Monastery of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai: The Icons," Princeton University Press, p.15. In Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.107; Ruffin, 1999, pp.110-111. [return]
58. Whanger & Whanger, 1991, 307. [return]
59. Scavone, 1991, p.186. [return]
60. Whanger & Whanger, 1991, pp.81,83; Guerrera, 2001, p.150. [return]
61. Whanger & Whanger, 1991, p.117. [return]
62. Scavone, D., 1989b, "The Shroud of Turin in Constantinople: The Documentary Evidence," in Sutton, R.F., Jr., 1989, "Daidalikon: Studies in Memory of Raymond V Schoder," Bolchazy Carducci Publishers: Wauconda IL, p.311-329, p.311; Scavone, 1991, p.186. [return]
63. Scavone, 1989b, p.186. [return]
64. "File:RossanoGospelsLastSupper.jpg," (cropped), Wikimedia Commons, 12 December 2014. [return]
65. "Rossano Gospels," Wikipedia, 4 November 2016. [return]
66. Van Cauwenberghe, A., 1990, "A Tentative Account of Comparative Iconography," translated by Victoria Harper, First published in La Lettre Mensuelle du CIELT, Paris, October 1990. In Shroud News, No 63, February 1991, pp.12-15, 12-13. [return]
67. Wilson, 1979, pp.280-281; Wilson, 1998, pp.158, 266; Guscin, 2009, p.169. [return]
68. Guscin, 2009, pp.169-170. [return]
70. Wilson, 1986, p.105; Ruffin, 1999, pp.110-111. [return]
71. Wilson, 1979, p.102; Wilson, 1998, p.141. [return]
72. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.153; Wilson, 1998, p.141. [return]
73. Wilson, 1979, p.102; Maher, 1986, p.77; Wilson, 1998, p.141. [return]
74. "Vase from Emesa," Louvre Museum, Paris, 1992. [return]
75. Scavone, 1991, p.189. [return]
76. Scavone, 1991, pp.189-190. [return]
Posted: 7 December 2016. Updated: 5 March 2017.