Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Flower & plant images #31: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!

FLOWER & PLANT IMAGES #31
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is the thirteenth and final installment of part #31, "Other marks and images: Flower & plant images," of my series, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!" For more information about this series, see the "Main index #1" and "Other marks and images #26." See also, "The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (4): Plant images." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Main index #1] [Previous: Dirt #30] [Next: Coins over the eyes #32]


    Other marks and images #26
    1. Flower & plant images #31

Introduction There are images of flowers and plants on the Shroud[2].

[Above (enlarge): Image of a Chrysanthemum coronarium flower (circled in red) on the Shroud[3]. This is one of the clearest flower image on the Shroud[4]. Even Ian Wilson who had previously dismissed the flower images on the Shroud as seeing "faces in the clouds"[5], had to admit that "Faint flower-like shapes are quite definitely there on the cloth itself" and "in the case of the chrysanthemum, a flower-like shape was undeniably there"[6]!]

Oswald Scheuermann In 1983 German physics teacher Oswald Scheuermann (1933-2019) noticed flower images on photographs of the Shroud[7]. In that same year Scheuermann wrote of his discovery to Dr. Alan D. Whanger (1930-2017), a Duke University Professor of Psychiatry[8], with whom he had been corresponding about experiments with high-voltage corona discharges[9] to produce

[Above: One of Scheuermann's corona discharge images of a Chrysanthemum coronarium flower (left), a Chrysanthemum coronarium flower image visible on the Shroud (centre) and a drawing of a Chrysanthemum coronarium flower in Flora Palaestina (right)[10]]

Shroud-like images[11]. Scheuermann used a Van de Graaf generator which produced high-voltage, high-frequency electricity[12]. This form of electricity flows over the surfaces of all objects in its field, discharging from irregular surfaces and high points in the form of streamers or corona[13]. Scheuermann produced corona images from plant parts, including leaves, stems, thorns, as well as flowers in various stages of wilting, fruits, and bouquets[14]. Scheuermann also produced corona discharge images on linen[15].

Corona discharge also explains why the Shroudman's hair and beard

[Above (enlarge)[16]: In this photographic negative of the Shroudman's head, his hair hangs stiffly out from the side of his head, when he was lying on his back in the tomb, and his hair and beard are dark, when they should appear white as the bloodflows do. As pointed out by Shroud sceptic Joe Nickell, this is "the opposite of what would be expected of a Palestinian Jew in his thirties"[17], and his "hair hangs as for a standing, rather than reclining figure"[18].]

are not dark, when if he was a Jew they would have been. Corona discharge also explains why the man's hair stands out from his head,

[Above (enlarge): "The classic is holding your hands on the [Van de Graaf generator] metal sphere as it charges, the results really can be hair-raising!"[19]. Note that not only did the corona discharge from a Van de Graaf generator cause the man above's hair to stand out from his head, it also caused part of his brown hair to appear white!]

when it would normally have fallen vertically down to the surface upon which the man's body lay. As Prof. Giulio Fanti responded:

"Even if the body image is not a true negative of the reproduced body, it globally appears as such, in a first approximation. For example the hair that in the Pia's plate are almost white, then typical of an old man, they were not probably of that color. This result was achieved on the Relic because all the anatomic elements enveloped in the Cloth interacted with the linen fabric in a similar way independently from their own color. The most probable effect that caused that image, as it was previously discussed, was the corona discharge ... in this context it must be evidenced that the point effect (that yields in correspondence of little curvature radii) which causes a local increase of the electrical discharges intensity, well explains why the hair, geometrically constituted by many cylinders having very little radii, imprinted their image better than many other body parts"[20].
So once again (see "X-rays #22"), what was thought to be evidence against the Shroud's authenticity has become among the best evidence for it!

Alan D. Whanger As previously mentioned, in 1983 Oswald Scheuermann had written to Dr. Alan D. Whanger (1930-2017) [Right [21]] that there were flower images on photographs of the Shroud but at the time Whanger and his wife Mary could not see any[22]. Whanger's Shroud research involved working with high-quality, large size copies of Giuseppe Enrie's 1931 monochrome photographs of the Shroud[23]. Then in 1985, out of the corner of his eye, Whanger noticed a flower image above and to the left of the Shroud man's head[24]. Whanger acquired the six-volume set of the definitive study on the botany of Israel, Zohary's "Flora Palaestina" (1966)][25]. From "Flora Palaestina" Whanger identified the first flower he had seen as that of Chrysanthemum coronarium[26], which grows throughout Israel,

[Above (enlarge): Flowers of Glebionis coronarium, formerly Chrysanthemum coronarium[27].]

including the Judean Mountains, the region that includes Jerusalem.

[Left (enlarge)[28]: Distribution map of Chrysanthemum coronarium, with approximate location of Jerusalem marked by a red dot.]

Whanger spent the next four years painstakingly comparing the faint images on Shroud photographs with life-size drawings in the botany books[29], and using his Polarized Image Overlay technique to check his findings[30]. By 1989, he had tentatively identified images on the Shroud of 28 species of plants that grow in Israel[31]. Of these, 23 are flowers, three are small bushes, and two are thorns[32]. All 28 grow in Israel[33] (see Geographic indicators below).

Avinoam Danin Although Whanger showed his findings to other Shroud researchers, he did not publish them until they could be confirmed by Avinoam Danin (1939–2015) [Below right (enlarge)[34]], Professor of Botany at Hebrew University in Jerusalem and a world authority on the flora of Israel[35]. In 1995 the Whangers visited Danin's home in Jerusalem and showed him some of their photographs of the Shroud and Danin confirmed that they contained images of plants from around Jerusalem[36]! In 1997 Danin visited the Whangers in their Durham, North Carolina home, and made a careful and detailed examination of the Whanger's Shroud photographs[37]. Danin not only confirmed almost all of Whanger's identifications, but he also discovered a number of additional flower images that were not found by Whanger[38].

Geographic indicators Of the 28 species of plants that the Whangers had identified images of on the Shroud, 27 grow within the close vicinity of Jerusalem[39], where four geographical areas containing different specific climates and flora can be found[40]. The 28th plant grows at the south end of the Dead Sea[41]. All 28 would have been available in Jerusalem markets in a fresh state[42], and most would have been growing along the roadside and/or in nearby fields[43]. While three of these plants grow in France and nine grow in Italy, half are found only in the Middle East or other similar areas and never in Europe[44]. One of these plants, Zygophyllum dumosum [Left (enlarge)[45]], grows only in Israel, Jordan, or the Sinai, with its northernmost boundary between Jerusalem and Jericho[46]. Two other plants, the images of which Danin identified on the Shroud are, Gundelia tourne-fortii[47] and Cistus creticus[48]. G. tournefortii's dist-ribution is Middle Eastern, extending from western Turkey through Israel, Syria and northern Iraq, Iran and the southernmost fringes of the former Soviet Union[49]. Cistus creticus grows across the

[Above: Distribution map showing the only place on earth where three of the plant species whose images are found on the Shroud: Gundelia tournefortii, Zygophyllum dumosum and Cistus creticus, are all found growing together[50], the area around Jerusalem (green circle)[51]!]

Mediterranean zone in western Israel with a desert boundary to the east of Jerusalem[52]. Danin concluded that there is only one place in the world where these three species of plants can be found growing together - between Hebron and Jerusalem[53], a distance of only ~28 kilometres (~18 miles)!

Temporal indicators Furthermore, the blooming time of Chrysanthemum coronarium is from March to May[54]; that of Zygophyllum dumosum is between December and April[55]; Cistus creticus blooms from March to June[56], and Gundelia tournefortii from March to May[57]. The blooming time common to these four plant species, images of which are imprinted on the Shroud, is between March and April[58]. Moreover, of the Whangers' images of 28 species of plants they identified on the Shroud, 27 bloom in March and Apri[59]! And Jesus was crucified on 7 April 30 or 3 April 33[60]!

Pollen There is also a strong correlation between the flower images and pollen grains found on the Shroud[61]. For example, Danin and Whanger, along with Uri Baruch, an expert in the pollen of Israel, have also identified numerous images and pollen of three thorny plants[62]. One of these plants left over ninety pollen grains and is found only in and around Israel[63]. Of the 28 plants identified by Whanger, Max Frei (1913-83) had previously identified the pollens of 25 of them: 21 correct to the species level, 3 to the genus level, and one to the family level[64]. Frei had identified pollen on his tape 6B/d as that of Cistus creticus[65].

[Right (enlarge)[66]: Max Frei's tape grid reference map showing location (red arrow) of his tape 6B/d. The spear wound in the man's apparent left side, and the shadowy details themselves, show that Frei's map was based on a positive photograph of the Shroud (see Shroud Scope).]

Whanger had discovered images of a cluster of Cistus creticus plants on the Shroud at the location of Frei's tape 6B/d, so he informed archaeologist Paul C. Maloney (1936-2018) who Whanger knew was examining microscope slides of those tapes, that he ought to find the pollens of Cistus creticus on that particular slide[67]. Maloney replied that he had been going over that very slide with a pollen expert [Anthony Orville Dahl (1910-2003)] a few days before, and the pollen expert had noted that there were a number of pollens of Cistus creticus on the slide[68]. This discovery of Maloney, predicted by Whanger, proves beyond reasonable doubt that Frei's identification of Shroud pollen was non-fraudulent (as alleged by anti-authenticists[69]) and largely correct:

"Carefully examining one of the Frei slides, researcher Paul Maloney discovered a cluster of many pollens from the same plant. These pollens were identified by palynologist Dr. A. Orville Dahl as Cistus creticus [native to Israel and the Mediterranean[70]] ... Years earlier, Frei had identified pollens from this same plant on his sticky tape slides. At the time he took the sticky tape samples, he was unaware of the images of flowers on the Shroud, but it so happened that the tape Maloney was observing had been taken over the center of the same Cistus creticus flower that Alan had already identified. Thus Frei, Maloney with Dahl, and Alan, all working separately and at different times and using different methods, found the presence of Cistus creticus on the Shroud"[71]!
This was in the centre of a flower image that Danin had also identified

[Left (enlarge)[72]: "Location of plant parts on the cloth," identified by Danin. The spear wound in the man's apparent right side, and the sharper details, show that this is a mirror-reversed negative photograph of the Shroud (see Shroud Scope). Danin's key states, "2. Cistus creticus flowers." Allowing for Frei's pollen map (above) being based on a positive photograph of the Shroud and Danin's plant parts map (left) being based on a negative, it can be seen that Frei's location 6B/d and Danin's "(2)" are the same location on the Shroud.]

as Cistus creticus[73]! So to "Frei, Maloney with Dahl, and Alan, all working separately and at different times and using different methods, found the presence of Cistus creticus on the Shroud" at the same location can be added Prof. Avinoam Danin! This is even more proof beyond reasonable doubt that Frei's identification of Shroud pollen was non-fraudulent and largely correct!

Problem for the forgery theory. (See previous three: #28, #29 and #30). A medieval forger: 1) would not have known about flowers and plants that are native to Israel and the Middle East; 2) even if he did, he would not have taken the time and effort to imprint flowers and plants that are barely visible onto his forged Shroud; and 3) and he could not have used a Van de Graaf generator which was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929 to imprint his flower and plant images on the Shroud!

Resurrection of Jesus! Clearly dead bodies don't generate high voltage electrostatic electricity to imprint their image and the images of flowers laid on them onto their burial shrouds. But the resurrected (or resurrecting) body of Jesus could have. Whanger wrote:

"There is no way to prove that the Resurrection is what created the images that are found on the Shroud of Turin. But the circumstantial evidence for that is very strong indeed ... Our studies of the images of the wilted flowers indicate that their images were made probably between twenty-four and thirty-six hours after being picked ... As to the place of origin of the images, in addition to all that is mentioned above, the flower images that are on the Shroud are, in the words of Danin, `the flowers of Jerusalem.' Of the twenty-eight species of flowers thus far identified, twenty-seven grow within five areas measuring three by three miles immediately around Jerusalem and between Jerusalem and Jericho. There is no other place anywhere in the world where this concentration of species is found. One of these species is endemic to Israel, Jordan, and Sinai. For Danin, the presence of images of this one species is sufficient to establish Jerusalem as the place of origin of the Shroud images"[73].
I disagree with Whanger's "There is no way to prove ..." This is a Fallacy of Equivocation on the word "prove." If Whanger means there is no experimental proof that the flower images on the Shroud were imprinted on it by radiation emitted by Jesus' resurrecting body, then that goes without saying because the resurrection of Jesus was a unique event that cannot be repeated in a laboratory. But Whanger has himself claimed that:
"In a court of law, fourteen points of congruence (PC) are sufficient to determine the same source for simple images such as fingerprints; for more complicated images such as a face, forty-five to sixty PC are enough to declare the faces to be the same"[74].
and,
"Polarized image overlays revealed seventy-four points of congruence (PC) between the image on the right eye of the Shroud and Filas's lituus lepton, and seventy-three PC between the left eye image and the Joulia lepton! Remember, in a court of law it takes only fourteen PC to establish [the] same source of fingerprints"[75].
What does Whanger mean above by "sufficient to determine" and "to establish" in the context of "a court of law," if not "proof" beyond reasonable doubt?

There is currently a major criminal trial proceeding in Perth, Western Australia, regarding the "Claremont serial killings." A former telephone company technician, Bradley Robert Edwards, has been charged with the abduction, rape and murder of three young women, of whom the bodies of only two have been recovered. The circumstantial evidence for Edwards having killed the three women includes (from news articles): 1) Edwards has confessed to the rape of other young women; 2) his DNA recovered from one of his confessed rapes matches that found under the fingernails of one of the dead women; 3) fibres from his distinctive telephone company uniform and car were found on the victims' clothes; and 4) a distinctive pocketknife issued by the same telephone company Edwards had worked for was found near one of the victims and Edwards had lost his company pocketknife at that time and it had been replaced. Presumably Edwards will be found guilty and imprisoned for life, based on this strong, multi-faceted circumstantial evidence.

Yet the circumstantial evidence is even stronger for the Shroud of Turin being Jesus' burial shroud, recorded in the Gospels (Mt 27:59; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53). And included in that evidence, is evidence amounting to proof beyond reasonable doubt that the image on the Shroud is that of Jesus as His body had been (or was being) resurrected, i.e. as described by Ian Wilson put it, a `snapshot' of the Resurrection":

"Even from the limited available information, a hypothetical glimpse of the power operating at the moment of creation of the Shroud's image may be ventured. In the darkness of the Jerusalem tomb the dead body of Jesus lay, unwashed, covered in blood, on a stone slab. Suddenly, there is a burst of mysterious power from it. In that instant ... its image ... becomes indelibly fused onto the cloth, preserving for posterity a literal `snapshot' of the Resurrection"[76]!
Here are posts in this series (which I will add to over time in the background) which present the evidence that the the image on the Shroud is indeed, a `snapshot' of Jesus' resurrection: "No style #16", "Non-directional #17," "Superficial #18," "Negative #19," "Three-dimensional #20," ...

To be continued in the next part #32 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Danin, A. & Baruch, U., 1998, "Floristic Indicators for the Origin of the Shroud of Turin," Paper presented at the Third International Congress on the Shroud of Turin, 6 June 1998, Turin, Italy, in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, p.205; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.28; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, pp.108; Whanger, M. & Whanger, A.D., 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN, pp.74, 78,80,84-85; Whanger, A. & Whanger, M., 1999, "The Real Date of the Shroud: The Visual Evidence," in Walsh, B., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.76-77; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.112; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, pp.84,86; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.150; Milne, L., 2005, "A Grain of Truth: How Pollen Brought a Murderer to Justice," New Holland: Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia, p.94; Danin, A., 2010, "Botany of the Shroud: The Story of Floral Images on the Shroud of Turin," Danin Publishing: Jerusalem, Israel, pp.8, 10, 12; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, pp.258-259. [return]
3. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical, Sindonology.org. [return]
4. Danin, A., Whanger, A.D., Baruch, U. & Whanger, M., 1999, "Flora of the Shroud of Turin," Missouri Botanical Garden Press: St. Louis MO, p.16. [return]
5. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.92. [return]
6. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, pp.87, 92. [return]
7. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.71; Danin, et al., 1999, pp.7,9; Maloney, P.C., 1999, "A Contribution toward a History of Botanical Research on the Shroud of Turin," in Walsh, B., ed., Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia, p.251; Antonacci, 2000, p.112; Guerrera, 2001, p.149; Milne, 2005, p.93; Whanger, A.D. & Whanger, M.W., 2008, "Aspects of the Shroud in Botany and Related Art," in Fanti, G., ed., 2009, "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Proceedings of the 2008 Columbus Ohio International Conference, August 14-17, 2008, Progetto Libreria: Padua, Italy, pp.140-144, 141; Oxley, 2010, p.258. [return]
8. Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 28; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.167. [return]
9. Danin, et al., 1999, p.10; Whanger & Whanger, 2008, p.140; Danin, 2010, p.38. [return]
10. Council for Study of the Shroud of Turin, 2015, "Chrysanthemum coronarium from Flora Palaestina; drawing courtesy Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, corona image by Scheuermann," CSST Still Image Gallery, 22 July. [return]
11. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.28. [return]
12. Danin, A., et al., 1999, p.10. [return]
13. Ibid. [return]
14. Ibid; Whanger & Whanger, 2008, p.141. [return]
15. Ibid. [return]
16. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, Shroud Scope: Enrie Negative Vertical, Sindonology.org. [return]
17. Nickell, J., 2007, "Relics of the Christ," The University Press of Kentucky: Lexington KY, p.140. [return]
18. Nickell, J., 2005, "Voice of Reason: The Truth Behind the Shroud of Turin," Livescience, 18 March. [return]
19. "Experiments - Van de Graaff Generator," Physikanten & Co.," 2019. [return]
20. Fanti, G. & Basso, R., 2008, "Turin Shroud: Optical Research in the Past Present and Future," Nova Science Publishers: Hauppauge, NY, p.14. [return]
21. "In Memory of Alan Duane Whanger," Cremation Society of the Carolinas, October 21, 2017. [return]
22. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.71; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
23. Iannone, 1998, p.28; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.72. [return]
24. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.71; Maloney, 1999, p.251; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
25. Iannone, 1998, p.28; Antonacci, 2000, p.112; Whanger & Whanger, 2008, p.141; Danin, 2010, p.8. [return]
26. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.74; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.86. [return]
27. "Glebionis coronarium (L.) N.N. Tzvel," Flora of Israel Online by Prof. Avinoam Danin, 2013-2019. [return]
28. Ibid. [return]
29. Antonacci, 2000, p.112; Danin, 2010, p.8. [return]
30. Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
31. Iannone, 1998, p.28; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.78; Danin, 2010, p.9; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
32. Iannone, 1998, p.28; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.78; Guerrera, 2001, p.149; Danin, 2010, p.9; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
33. Iannone, 1998, p.28; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.78; Danin, 2010, p.9; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
34. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.85. [return]
35. Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
36. Danin, 2010, p.8. [return]
37. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.80; Danin & Baruch, 1998, p.203. [return]
38. Antonacci, 2000, p.112; Danin, 2010, p.12. [return]
39. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.80; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
40. Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
41. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.80; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
42. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.78; Iannone, 1998, p.28; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
43. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.78; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
44. Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
45. Danin, 2010, p.17. [return]
46. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.80; Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
47. Danin, 2010, p.54. [return]
48. Danin, 2010, p.54. [return]
49. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.88. [return]
50. Danin, 2010, p.52. [return]
51. Danin, et al., 1999, pp.21-22. [return]
52. Danin, 2010, p.17. [return]
53. Antonacci, 2000, p.112; Danin, 2010, p.8. [return]
54. Danin, et al., 1999, p.22. [return]
55. Danin, et al., 1999, p.22. [return]
56. Danin, et al., 1999, p.22. [return]
57. Danin, et al., 1999, p.22. [return]
58. Danin, et al., 1999, p.22; Antonacci, 2000, p.112; Danin, 2010, p.8. [return]
59. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.78. [return]
60. Finegan, J., 1964, "Handbook of Biblical Chronology: Principles of Time Reckoning in the Ancient World and Problems of Chronology in the Bible," Princeton University Press: Princeton NJ, pp.296, 300; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.263; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.78; Whanger & Whanger, 1999, pp.76-77; Baima-Bollone, P., "Images of Extraneous Objects on the Shroud," in Scannerini, S. & Savarino, P., eds, 2000, "The Turin Shroud: Past, Present and Future," International scientific symposium, Turin, 2-5 March 2000," Effatà: Cantalupa, pp.131, 133; Doig, K.F., 2015, "Doig's Biblical Chronology: Part IV, The Crucifixion of Jesus." [return]
61. Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
62. Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
63. Antonacci, 2000, p.112. [return]
64. Antonacci, 2000, p.112; Whanger & Whanger, 2008, p.142. [return]
65. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.86. [return]
66. Baima Bollone, P. & Gagli, A., 1984, "Demonstration of Blood, Aloes and Myrrh on the Holy Shroud with Immunofluorescence Techniques," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 13, December, pp.2-8, 2. [return]
67. Whanger, A.D. & Whanger, M., 1991, "Evidence of early origin and nature of the Shroud of Turin by image analysis and optical comparison," Shroud News, No 65, June, pp.8-18, 14. [return]
68. Whanger & Whanger, 1991, p.14. [return]
69. Nickell, J., 1994, "Pollens on the 'shroud': a study in deception," Skeptical Inquirer, June 22; Schafersman, S.D., 1998, "Unraveling the Shroud of Turin," Approfondimento Sindone, Vol. 2. [return]
70. Danin, et al., 1999, p.16; Danin, 2010, p.54. [return]
71. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, pp.78-79; Whanger, A., 1996, "Pollens on the Shroud: A Study in Deception," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 97, September, pp.11-18, 17. [return]
72. Danin, A., 2003, "Contribution of the Plants in Determining the Authenticity of the Shroud," Flora of Israel Online. [return]
73. Danin, et al., 1999, p.16; Danin, A., 1999, "Botanical Evidence Indicates `Shroud Of Turin' Originated In Jerusalem Area Before 8th Century," XVI International Botanical Congress, St. Louis, MO, Science Daily, August 3; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.86. [return]
74. Whanger & Whanger, 1991, pp.19-20. [return]
75. Whanger & Whanger, 1991, p.26. [return]
76. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.251; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p..234. [return]

Posted: 17 December 2019. Updated: 31 December 2019.

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