This is part #3 of my series, "My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker." Previous posts in this new series were, part #1 and part #2. As we saw in those previous posts:
• Therefore the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud as "AD 1260-1390" was wrong.
• There is evidence (not yet proof) that each of the three laboratories' AMS control console computers was hacked, to replace the Shroud's first (or early because of contamination) century date, with dates which, when calibrated, clustered around 1325; and
• that the hacker allegedly was Arizona laboratory physicist Timothy W. Linick
[Right: Karl Koch. "He was involved with the KGB scandal that involved hackers being bought by drugs in exchange for breaking into key NATO and corporate installations ... Koch, of Hanover, West Germany, died Friday, June 3  [but see 17May15]".
within days (or even on the same day) of Linick's "suicide in mysterious circumstances".
[Above (click to enlarge): Extract of "Timeline of computer security hacker history". As can be seen, 1988, the year the Shroud was claimed to have been radiocarbon dated as "medieval ... AD 1260-1390" was also a peak year for early computer hacking against poorly secured, online computer systems.]
• Computer and physical security was poor at universities in the 1980s Clifford Stoll was a astronomer turned computer Systems Manager (who earned
his Ph.D at Arizona University) and was in 1986 redeployed to manage a large computer network at Berkeley University's Lawrence National Laboratory. In his "The Cuckoo's Egg" (1989), Stoll explained from personal experience (which includes Arizona University) how lax was the computer security at universities in the 1980s:
"Our laboratory's computers connect to thousands of other systems over a dozen networks. Any of our scientists can log into our computer, and then connect to a distant computer. Once connected, they can log into the distant computer by entering an account name and password. In principle, the only thing protecting the networked computer is the password, since account names are easy to figure out. (How do you find account names? Just use a phone book-most people use their names on computers)" (my emphasis).
"Every few months, I'd hear a rumour about someone else's system being invaded; usually this was at universities, and it was often blamed on students ... Sure, it's easy to muck around computers at universities where no security was needed. After all, colleges seldom even lock the doors to their buildings" (my emphasis).German hacker ring. The hacker whom Stoll detected, Markus Hess, was actually a German, in Germany,
dialing in via a pre-Internet network to the USA, from where he could hop from one university and military network to another, due to their then lax security in the 1980s. Hess hacked into about "400 U.S. military computers":
"Hess's initial activities started at the University of Bremen in Germany ... via ... the Tymnet International Gateway. Tymnet was a `gateway' service that a user called into that routed him to any one of a number of computer systems that also used the service. Tymnet ... provided local telephone numbers, where directly accessing the computer would have been a long distance call. ... Once he accessed Tymnet, Hess branched out to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California and to the Tymnet Switching System. It was through this switching system that he accessed the LBL [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory] computers. Hess was able to attack 400 U.S. military computers by using LBL to `piggyback' to ARPANET and MILNET. ARPANET was a civilian wide area network created by the Department of Defense which would later become what is now known as the Internet. MILNET was its military counterpart".Hess had for several years been selling information gained through his hacking to the KGB":
"The hacker's name was Markus Hess, and he had been engaged for some years in selling the results of his hacking to the Soviet KGB" (my emphasis)".Hess was an associate of Karl Koch, who was also "involved in selling hacked information ... to the KGB":
"Koch was loosely affiliated with the Chaos Computer Club. He worked with the hackers known as DOB (Dirk-Otto Brezinski), Pengo (Hans Heinrich Hübner), and Urmel (Markus Hess), and was involved in selling hacked information from United States military computers to the KGB. Clifford Stoll's book The Cuckoo's Egg gives a first-person account of the hunt and eventual identification of Hess. Pengo and Koch subsequently came forward and confessed to the authorities under the espionage amnesty, which protected them from being prosecuted".Note that "Pengo [Hans Heinrich Hübner] and Koch subsequently came forward and confessed to the
authorities" (in mid-1988).
Karl Koch's `suicide' But (again) "Koch was found burned to death" in a simulated suicide while neither Hübner nor any of the other KGB hackers who also confessed were harmed. It is a reasonable inference that "Koch was killed in order to keep him from confessing more to the authorities" but then "Why Koch would be targeted, and not Pengo [Hübner] and Urmel [Hess], is unknown" (my emphasis):
"Koch was found burned to death with gasoline in a forest near Celle, Germany. The death was officially claimed to be a suicide. However, some believe there is little evidence supporting suicide and many believe that Koch was killed in order to keep him from confessing more to the authorities. Why Koch would be targeted, and not Pengo and Urmel, is unknown"My theory is that Koch (and Linick) was murdered by the KGB to prevent him talking to the authorities about his role in hacking into the AMS control console computers in the radiocarbon laboratories at Zurich and Oxford universities, to install Linick's program which Linick had used at Arizona laboratory to ensure that the 1st century Shroud of Turin returned a 13th/14th century date. Only that explains why: 1) Koch `suicided' and none of the other hackers did; and 2) Linick `suicided' only a few days after Koch (and it could have been on the same day).
Continued in part #4.
1. This post is copyright. No one may copy from this post or any of my posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog without them first asking and receiving my written permission. Except that I grant permission, without having to ask me, for anyone to copy the title and one paragraph only (including one associated graphic) of any of my posts, provided that if they repost it on the Internet a link to my post from which it came is included. See my post of May 8, 2014. [return]
2.Stoll, C., 1989, "The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage," Amazon.com. [return]
3. Jull, A.J.T. & Suess, H.E. , 1989, "Timothy W. Linick," Radiocarbon, Vol 31, No 2. [return]
4. "Karl Koch (hacker)," Wikipedia, 30 March 2014. [return]
5. "WikiFreaks, Pt. 4 `The Nerds Who Played With Fire'," The Psychedelic Dungeon, 15 September 2010. [return]
6. Galeazzi, G., 2013, "Never solved the enigma that still divides the Church," Vatican Insider, 1 April . [return]
7. "Timeline of computer security hacker history: 1980s," Wikipedia, 16 February 2014. [return]
8. "Clifford Stoll and The Cuckoo's Egg," David Bolton Strikes Again, 6 July 2007. [return]
9. Stoll, 1989, p.ii. [return]
10. Stoll, 1989, p.8. [return]
11. Stoll, 1989, p.12. [return]
12. Jangra, A., 2013, "Famous Hacks that made Headlines," 20 August. [return]
13. "Markus Hess," Wikipedia, 18 November 2013. [return]
14. "The Cuckoo's Egg," Wikipedia, 8 February 2014. [return]
15. "Karl Koch," Wikipedia, 2014. [return]
16. Guasch, J.A., 2011, "Interview with Hans Hübner (Pengo)," February 18. (See English translation following the Spanish original). [return]
17. Clough. B. & Mungo, P., 1992, "Approaching Zero: Data Crime and the Computer," Faber & Faber: London & Boston, p.183. [return]
18. "Karl Koch," Wikipedia, 2014. [return]
Posted: 3 June 2014. Updated: 26 September 2016.