Tuesday, April 7, 2015

"E": Turin Shroud Dictionary

Turin Shroud Dictionary
© Stephen E. Jones[1]


This is page "E" of my Turin Shroud Dictionary. For more information about this dictionary see the "Main index A-Z" and page "A."

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[Above (enlarge): Sepia print of the Shroud face by Giuseppe Enrie in 1931[2] (see below).]

Edessa is the ancient name of a city, now called Sanliurfa, in what today is southeastern Turkey. The fourth century Christian historian Eusebius (c.260–340) recorded in his Ecclesiastic History, that Edessan King Abgar V (c.4 BC–AD 50) [see "Abgar V"] wrote to Jesus asking Him to come and heal him, and Jesus replied in a dictated letter that after His Ascension He would send one of His disciples to heal Abgar and give eternal life to him and his. Accordingly, as preserved in the fourth century Syriac text, Doctrine of Addai, one of the seventy-two disciples (Lk 10:1-17), Thaddeus (Syriac Addai), did visit Abgar, healed him and started Christianity in Edessa. However, there is no mention of the Shroud or a cloth in that account until the tenth century, and the story of the Edessa Cloth (see next) is probably a reading back into Edessan history the rediscovery of the Shroud (doubled in four as the Mandylion), at Antioch after its great earthquake in 525, according to the theory of historian Jack Markwardt. Also according to Markwardt's theory, the Shroud as the Mandylion was then taken to Edessa, where it was later employed successfully as a last resort in repelling the Persian seige of Edessa in 544. After which the Shroud/Mandylion took the place of Jesus' letter to Abgar as Edessa's palladium and the story of its rediscovery at Antioch in 525 was retrospectively inserted into Edessan history.

Edessa Cloth (see "Mandylion"
Edessa image (see "Image of Edessa").
eighth century.
eleventh century.

Emmanuel Philibert (1528–80) was a Duke of Savoy. He became Duke and the owner of the Shroud in 1553 upon the death of his father, Duke Charles III (1486–1553). Emmanuel Philibert was born in Chambéry, France in 1528, but when he was 7 the French invaded the Duchy of Savoy in a phase of the Italian Wars between Francis I (1494–1547) King of France and the Hapsburg Emperor Charles V (1500–1558). The Savoys abandoned Chambéry in late 1535 ahead of the advancing French army, taking the Shroud with them into northern Italy. Emmanuel Philibert served in Charles V's army in the war against France, distinguishing himself by leading a force which captured the northern French town of Hesdin in 1553. A month later, he became Duke of Savoy on the death of his father, but he continued fighting, leading a force which defeated the French at the crucial Battle of St. Quentin in 1557, which ended the Italian Wars. Having won the victory which ended the war, Duke Emmanuel Philibert earned a place at the table where the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1558) was signed. The terms of the treaty included that the Duchy of Savoy would be independent and most of Savoy's lands would be returned to the Duke. Moreover, as part of the peace terms, Duke Emmanuel Philibert married in 1559 Marguerite de Valois (1523-74), a daughter of the late King Francis I and a sister of King Henry II 1519–59) of France. Between 1561-63 the Duke moved his capital from Chambéry across the Alps to Turin making Savoy an Italian state. In 1562, Emmanuel Philibert and Marguerite's only child, the future Duke Charles Emmanuel I (1562–1630), was born in Turin. Duchess Marguerite died in Turin in 1574. In 1578, on the pretext of saving the saintly Cardinal Charles Borromeo (1538–84), the Archbishop of Milan, from having to walk from Milan to Chambéry to fulfill a vow to venerate the Shroud, Emmanuel Philibert had the Shroud brought to Turin, from where it never returned. Duke Emmanuel Philibert died in Turin 1580, having spent his remaining years re-acquiring former Savoy lands that had not been returned and adding others, as well as fortifying Turin and its surrounds.

Enrie, Giuseppe. Giuseppe Enrie (1886-1961) was an Italian professional photographer. He was commissioned by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati (1876-1965), the Archbishop of Turin, to take a series of photographs of the Shroud in conjunction with a public exposition of the Shroud in May 1931. The exposition marked the wedding of Prince Umberto II of Savoy (1904-83) and Princess Maria José of Belgium (1906–2001). Enrie's photographs confirmed those taken in 1898 by Secondo Pia (1855–1941) that the man's image on the Shroud was a photographic negative. Enrie's photographs are much clearer than Pia's, due to advances in photography since Pia's time, and Enrie was permitted to photograph the Shroud direct, not through a protective glass barrier. Because of the sharper detail they revealed, Enrie's photographs becamee the basis of much modern scientific study of the Shroud, including medical and anatomical, three-dimensionality, coin(s) over the eyes, flower and plant images, and computer enhancement, until STURP's 1978 investigation. In fact, Enrie's photographs reveal details of the Shroud image, such as the letters "UCAI" on the Pontius Pilate lepton coin over the man's right eye, that later photographs reveal less clearly. This is because Enrie photographed the optimum distance from the Shroud, onto large glass plates, his emulsion was high-contrast, and he smoothed wrinkles in the cloth by using tacks.

Evagrius scholasticus.
expositions and exhibitions.

1. This page, and each page in my Turin Shroud Dictionary, is copyright. However, permission is granted to quote from one entry at a time within a page (e.g. "Edessa," not the whole page "E"), provided that a link and/or reference is included back to the page in this dictionary it came from. [return]
2. Vignon, P., 1939, "Le Saint Suaire de Turin: Devant La Science, L'archéologie, L'histoire, L'iconographie, La Logique," Masson et Cie. Éditeurs: Paris, Second edition, plate I. [return]

Created: 7 April, 2015. Updated: 25 April, 2015.

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