Saturday, March 3, 2018

Obituary (3): Dr. Alan Duane Whanger (17 July 1930 - 21 October 2017)

© Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is part #3 of my obituary of Dr. Alan D. Whanger. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. Previous parts in this series were part #1 and part #2.

[Coins over the eyes] [Corona disharge]

Coins over the eyes [top]

[Above (enlarge): A lepton (Greek) aka prutah (Hebrew) coin struck under the Roman governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate (r. AD 26-36), who sentenced Jesus to death by crucifixion (Mt 27:24-31; Mk 15:15-20; Lk 23:25-26; Jn 19:12-16) in AD 30[2]. This lepton has the "UCAI" ("TIBEPIOUCAICAPOC" - "Of Tiberius Caesar") variant of the usual "UKAI" ("TIBEPIOUKAI- CAPOC") which was given to Fr. Francis L. Filas (1915-85) in 1979 by numismatist William Yarbrough[3]. Tiberius Caesar was Roman Emperor from AD 14-37, and therefore over the time of Jesus' ministry and death (Lk 3:1). But this lepton's lituus (astrologer's staff) is in the shape of a reversed question mark, which pro-authenticist numismatist Mario Moroni correctly pointed out cannot be the version of lepton imprinted on the Shroud (see 10May13a). And also that the "C" in "UCAI" was part of the lituus - see 10May13b. So both Filas and Whanger were correct about the coin over the Shroud man's right eye being a Pontius Pilate lepton (and therefore further proving beyond reasonable doubt that the man was Jesus!), but they misinterpreted which Pontius Pilate lepton it was - see my "The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (5): Coins over eyes" and below.]

In January 1982 the Whangers had arranged a press conference through the Duke University News Service[4]. where Alan was a professor of psychiatry[5]. Its purpose was to disseminate the Whangers' Points of Congruence findings [albeit flawed - see part #2] on the St Catherine's Monastery Pantocrator icon [see part #1a] and a Justinian II gold solidus coin [see part #1b] [6]. After the press conference the Whangers were asked about Fr. Francis L. Filas' claim that there were identifiable coins over the eyes of the Man on the Shroud[7]. Their response included: "We don't know ... But now we have a method for minute and detailed comparison and we'll go look"[8].

The Whangers then summarised (with my additions) the evidence that there are indeed images of Pontius Pilate lepton coins over the Shroud man's eyes:

■ In 1977 the leaders of what became The Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson, Eric Jumper and R.W. (Bill) Mottern (1924-2015), using a VP-8 Image Analyzer which converts shades of grey into height [see 05Feb17] discovered that the Shroud man's image was three-dimensional[9]. Moreover on the VP-8 Image Analyzer's `relief map' of the Shroud, they discovered there were two

[Above (enlarge): Extract of a close-up of the original 1977 VP-8 Image Analyzer three-dimensional output of the Shroud face, showing the "button-like objects" over each eye[10]. As can be seen, the "button" over the man's right (left facing) eye is in the correct place, but that over the left (right facing) eye, has been displaced to the edge of the eye-socket[11]. This is yet another problem of the forgery theory, which I will cover in my, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!" series, namely "3. Other marks and images ... G. Coins over the eyes #32." That is, a medieval forger: 1) would be unlikely to even know the dimensions of a Pontius Pilate lepton; 2) would be unlikely, if not unable, to depict leptons as three-dimensional objects; and even if he did, 3) would have depicted them both over the centre of the eyes, not show one displaced to the edge of the eye socket. But a a displaced lepton could well have happened in a real transport of Jesus' body from the cross to the tomb and the laying of His body in the tomb. Since rigor mortis would by then have ensured Jesus' eyes were closed, those burying Jesus would not have bothered to re-position a displaced coin over one of His eyes, especially considering the extreme shortness of time they had left (see 30Sep15).]

"button-like objects, one over each eye" which "might be coins ... used to keep the eyes of the dead closed"[12]. Jackson, et al. noted that this "agrees with ancient Jewish burial custom where objects (potsherd fragments or coins) were ... sometimes placed over the eyes" of the dead[13]. They also saw with their then limited "computer enhancements ... a possible structure on the surface of the objects"[14].

■ Historian Ian Wilson mentioned several Judean Bronze lepton coins from the time of Pontius Pilate which would correspond to the size of

[Above (enlarge): Perfect fit of Pontius Pilate lepton coins superimposed over the Shroud man's eyes[15]!]

these "buttons"[16], which were about fifteen millimeters or five-eighths of an inch in diameter[17]. Wilson also pointed out that a lepton was acceptable as a Temple offering (Mk 12:41-44; Lk 21:1-4), and therefore would likely be used by orthodox Jews Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus who buried Jesus (Mt 27:57; Mk 15:43; Lk 23:50; Jn 19:38)[18]. So even if no inscription nor designs unique to Pontius Pilate leptons were found on these "buttons" over the Shroud man's eyes (but there were - see below), from their size and shape, the best explanation is that they were Pontius Pilate leptons!

■ In August 1979 Fr. Francis Filas Filas was looking at a high-quality enlargement of a 1931 Enrie negative photograph of the Shroud face, when he

[Right (enlarge): Fr. Francis L. Filas (1915-85)[19].]

noticed for the first time some sort of a design over the right eye[20]. Filas was a Jesuit priest and Professor of Theology at Loyola University in Chicago[21] and a founding member and Vice President of the Holy Shroud Guild[22]. Filas was aware of Jackson, et al's 1977 discovery of three-dimensional images of "buttons" over the eyes of the man on the Shroud (see above) and that Wilson had confirmed that they were the same size and shape as Pontius Pilate leptons (see above)[23], since Filas had been present and had even delivered a paper at that same 1977 Shroud conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico[24].

■ Filas showed the photograph to Michael Marx, a Chicago numismatist specialising in ancient Greek coins, who had previously volunteered his professional expertise[25]. Marx under his magnifier identified four curving capital letters, "UCAI" and a design that looked like a shepherd's crook (a lituus or astrologer's staff - see above)[26]. A prominent lituus in the shape of a question mark was unique to coins minted in Judea in the reign of Pontius Pilate[27] and only between AD 29-32[28]! So even if no inscription had been found on these images of coins over the eyes of the man on the Shroud (but there were - again see above), that they were uniquely the size and shape of Pontius Pilate leptons (see above) and that they have a prominent lituus unique to Pontius Pilate, is already proof beyond reasonable doubt, that they are Pontius Pilate leptons, and therefore the man on the Shroud is Jesus!

■ Marx suggested that Filas obtain Frederic W. Madden's History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament (1864)[29], in-addition to consulting the catalog of all Pontius Pilate coins in the British Museum[30]. But here is where Marx and Filas, and eventually Whanger, went wrong. I don't know about the then catalog of Pontius Pilate coins in the British Museum, but I have Madden's book in front of me, and it only shows Pontius Pilate leptons (page 149 and supplements s.10-11) with litui in the shape of a reversed question mark (see above). But as Italian numismatist Mario Moroni correctly pointed out (and reader scan verify this for themselves - as I

[Above (enlarge): Numismatist Mario Moroni's correct interpretation (right) of the lituus as a question mark shape in an Enrie negative sepia negative photograph[31] of the Shroud (left)[32].]

did [see 10May13c]) - that since the image of the lituus in the lepton over the right eye of the man on the Shroud in an Enrie negative photograph, is the shape of a question mark (not a reversed question mark), then the lituus on the actual lepton coin that is imprinted on the Shroud must have also had the shape of a question mark. And as Moroni pointed out, there was a Pontius Pilate lepton with a lituus

[Left (enlarge): A Pontius Pilate dilepton coin with its lituus in the shape of a question mark[33], as it is on the Shroud. See other photos of Pontius Pilate dilepton lituus coins at 10May13d.]

in the shape of a question mark: a dilepton lituus, which was struck in AD 29[34]!

■ On reading Madden, Filas tentatively identified the coin over the Shroud man's left eye as a Julia lepton[35], which was issued only in [Above (enlarge): Julia (ΙΟΥΛΙΑ) lepton with three barley sheaves on one side (reverse) and a simpulum (Roman sacrificial vessel) and Greek letters "Tiberius Caesar" on the other (obverse): Edgar L. Owen, Ltd. The "LΙϚ" ("LIS") on the obverse indicates the coin was issued in the 16th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, which was AD 29[36]. ]

AD 29 upon the death in that year of Livia Drusilla (58 BC–AD 29), also known as Julia Augusta, who was Tiberius' mother and the wife of the former Roman Emperor Augustus (63 BC–AD 14)[37]. The basis of Filas' identification was "three very short curving lines that seemed to spread away from each other from a common source," which are the stalks of three sheaves of barley on the Julia lepton (see above)[38]. Filas' identification of this coin over the left eye as a Julia lepton was later confirmed by numismatist Arden R. Brame Jr[39] and computer enhancement by Prof. Nello Balossino[40]

■ In May, 1981 Filas requested that Log/E Interpretations Systems digitize photographs of both eye areas of the Shroud[41]. Their Standard Earthview equipment was similar to a VP-8 Image Analyzer[42]. Its enhancement for the right eye area showed clearly the letters "UCAI" (according to Filas), the curving staff (lituus) and the coin outline[43]. While this coin boundary and within it a lituus as well as an inscription, over the right eye of the Shroud man, is sufficient to add to the already proof beyond reasonable doubt that it is the image of a Pontius Pilate lepton coin, and therefore the Man on the Shroud is Jesus, but again, Filas (and Whanger) had misinterpreted what type of Pontius Pilate lepton coin it was (see above) and so the letters "UCAI" are an illusion and hence a distraction.

■ In August 1981, Filas had Gamma Laboratories of Chicago enlarge a photograph of his Pilate lepton to twenty-five times life-size, and to his great surprise he noticed for the first time the letter "C" where "K" should have been[44]. But instead of drawing the conclusion that he had all along misinterpreted the letter "C" (as Moroni pointed out, albeit in 1991[45]), especially since Mel Wacks, Editor of The Augur, the journal of the Biblical Numismatic Society, had been pointing out since 1980 that Filas' letters "C" and "A" were in the wrong position relative to the lituus on the Pontius Pilate lepton[46]), Filas (and Whanger) assumed that Filas `just happened' to have "in his possession a coin with the never-before-seen misspelling"[47]!

■ Then in November, 1981, at the coin sales department of Marshall Field's in Chicago, Filas found another Pontius Pilate lepton with "the aberrant C misspelling"[48]. Later, Filas located two more Pontius Pilate leptons "with the C misspelling"[49]. Whanger called these finds "astonishing"[50] but Wacks, a Jewish expert on Biblical coins, having studied highly magnified photographs of Filas' first coin, pointed out that "the actual inscription is quite normal for the coin and bears no similarity to Filas's findings"[51], which presumably also applies to these later so-called "aberrant C misspelling[s]"! Tellingly, numismatist William Yarbrough, who gave Filas the Pontius Pilate lepton which had the claimed "UCAI" variant (see above), agreed with Wacks on this and in an article in World Coin News of March 1982, Yarbrough stated that "a number of good numismatists disagree with Filas's opinion"[52].

■ It was soon after this that the Whangers held their January 1982 Duke News Service press conference (see above) where they were asked about Filas' claims of coins over the eyes of the man on the Shroud[53]. Alan contacted Filas, who sent the Whangers photographs of his coins: his original lituus lepton and a Julia lepton, as well as the Log/E Interpretations Systems computer enhancements[54]. According to Mary Whanger:

"Polarized image overlays revealed seventy-four points of congruence (PC) between the image on the right eye of the Shroud and Filas's lituus lepton, and seventy-three PC between the left eye image and the Joulia lepton! Remember, in a court of law it takes only fourteen PC to establish same source of fingerprints. These coins are much smaller than a fingerprint. For the right eye, there is a clipped edge on one side of the Filas coin that matches a clipped edge on the Shroud image. The letters, which are about one and one-half millimeters high, match remarkably: about half of the letter U, which actually is the Greek letter upsilon and shows the tail looking like a Y; all of the letter C; two-thirds of the letter A; the lower half of the letter I; as well as parts of other letters. On the coin there is a circular die defect at the base of the letter A; the same die defect can be clearly seen on the Shroud"[55]
This sounds impressive until it is remembered that (as we saw in part #2): 1) The Whangers' PC claims are entirely subjective and are merely what Alan and Mary Whanger agreed was so[Flaw #1]. 2) Their court of law analogy is fallacious since fingerprint points of congruence are so objective they can be, and are, computerised[Flaw #2]. 3) Their assumption is that more is better, but is "seventy-four" and "seventy-three" points of congruence really any better than Jackson, et al.'s and Filas' observations? Especially considering that the more claimed PCs, the smaller each is, and the more is the likelihood that some (if not most) are illusory[Flaw #3]. 4. Then there is the lack of realism [Flaw #4] in that the Whangers found "seventy-four points of congruence" using the wrong coin [see above]! If the Whangers truly believed that there really were 74 and 73 points of congruence between Pontius Pilate lituus and Julia leptons and the images of "buttons" over the right and left eyes, respectively, of the man on the Shroud, then they would have published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal comparative photographs of the coins and the Shroud eyes for each of them. But as far as I am aware they never did for any of their claimed PCs.

■ In 1983 Filas arranged with Robert M. Haralick, then Director of the Spatial Data Analysis Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute, to

[Right: "Robert M. Haralick is Distinguished Professor in Computer Science at Graduate Center of the City University of New York"[56].]

do a full-scale, three-dimensional computer image analysis of Filas' Enrie 1931 photographs of the Shroud[57]. Filas also gave Haralick a Pontius Pilate lepton[58] and a 1978 STURP colour photograph of the Shroud taken by Vernon D. Miller (1932-2009)[59]. Haralick spent about 6 months doing a variety of digital enhancements to the photographs[60], publishing his findings in 1983 in a 66-page monograph, "Analysis of Digital images of the Shroud of Turin"[61]. Haralick's report included:

"A number of digital enhancements were performed on imagery digitized from the 1931 Enrie photographs of the Shroud and a 1978 S.T.U.R.P. photograph taken by Vernon Miller. The enhancements provide supporting evidence that the right eye area of the Shroud image contains remnants of patterns similar to those of a known Pontius Pilate coin dating from 29 A.D. "[p.2]

" ... Thus, in the enlargement of the right eye image we find supporting evidence for a bright oval area: a shepherd's staff pattern as the main feature in the bright area; and bright segment patterns just to the side and top of the staff pattern, which in varying degrees match to the letters OUCAIC." [p.34]

"... This evidence cannot be said to be conclusive evidence that an image of the Pontius Pilate coin appears in the right eye of the Enrie Shroud Image ... however, the evidence is definitely supporting evidence because there is some degree of match between what one would expect to find if the Shroud did indeed contain a faint image of the Pilate coin and what we can in fact observe in the original and in the digitally produced images." [p.34][62]
■ It has been objected that placing a coin in the mouth of the dead was a pagan custom, to pay the mythical ferryman Charon to carry the soul of the recently died across the river Styx to Hades[63], and Jews would not have done that[64]. But coins have been found in first century Jewish skulls[65], which can only have originally been placed over the eyes, since coins placed in the mouth don't stay in the skull but coins placed over the eyes do[66]. The leptons of Pontius Pilate were actually Jewish coins (the prutah)[67] and (as we saw previously) were acceptable as temple offerings (Mk 12:42, Lk 21:2), so there is no reason why they could not have been used by first century Jews for the practical purpose of closing the eyes of their dead[68].

Corona discharge [top]

[Above (enlarge: Pontius Pilate lituus lepton (left) and its image imprinted on linen (right) by Oswald Scheuermann (1933-) using corona discharge[69].]

In 1982 Alan Whanger showed an overlay of the Filas coin and the computer enhancement of the right eye area to STURP member the late Dr. Alan Adler (1931-2000), then a Professor of Chemistry at Western Connecticut State University[70]. Prof. Adler realised that he was seeing a clue to the Shroud man's image formation[71], in that the image over the Shroud's right eye was only of the high points and rough spots of the coin, which is a characteristic of corona discharge[72]. In corona discharge, ionizing electrical energy first spreads over the surface of any object in the electrical field, whether it be flesh, hair, cloth, metal, etc[73]. The electrical energy is then discharged as ionized streamers from irregular or elevated areas of the object rather than from smooth surfaces[74]. Through Fr Adam J. Otterbein (1915-98), Alan then contacted Oswald Scheuermann (1933-), a high school physics teacher in Germany who had experimented with corona discharges on photographic film[75], using a Van de Graaf generator which produced high-voltage, high-frequency electricity[76]. Whanger sent a lituus lepton to Scheuermann and he promptly returned a piece of linen bearing a corona discharge image of the lepton (see above), which was remarkably similar to the image over the right eye of the Shroud[77]. In 1983, Scheuermann first noted the presence of flower images on the Shroud[78] and as a test he produced corona discharge

[Above (enlarge): "Corona discharge photographs made by O. Scheuermann on photographic paper. Left. Stems and a fruit of Berberis sp. Right. A leaf of Rosa sp"[79].]

images from diverse plant material, including leaves, stems, thorns, as well as flowers and fruits (see above)[80]. Although Scheuermann reported this in a 1983 letter to Alan Whanger[81], it was not until two years later, in 1985, that Whanger noticed out of the corner of his eye the image of a large chrysanthemum-like flower near the head of the man on the Shroud[82]. See a future "Flower and Plant Images" part of this obituary of Dr. Alan Whanger. See also my 2013 "... 2.6. The other marks (4): Plant images." Finally, in all of Scheuermann's samples the corona discharge images penetrate the cloth, something the Shroud images do not do[83]. Also some of Scheuermann's cloth fibres were scorched, unlike Shroud image fibres which are not scorched[84]. Moreover, for corona discharge to be the explanation of the Shroud's total body image would require an estimated amount of energy of 50 watt-seconds/square centimeter for a power source of at least 1,100 kilowatts for 1/10 second[85]. Since dead bodies don't generate that amount of energy[86] (to put it mildly!), Scheuermann proposed that the Shroud man was Jesus and the image on the Shroud was caused by His resurrection:

"Either there was a chain of coordinated processes of cause and effect due to laws that are still unknown or an inexplicable phenomenon of a supernatural kind left traces of a natural kind ... Consequently, it is high time now to completely record the primary aspect and add the phenomenon `resurrection' to the fact `corpse.' ... `Resurrection,' even if inexplicable, must not be excluded as a point of reference or an action principle ... It has to be admitted that we know hardly anything as to how that resurrection is to have taken place; but that does not exclude that it could have left palpable traces ... not only an empty tomb and all the attendant circumstances, but also a very informative image"[87].
To be continued in the next part #4 of my obituary of Dr. Alan D. Whanger.

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Doig, K.F., 2015, "New Testament Chronology: Part IV, The Crucifixion of Jesus" & "The 30 CE Crucifixion," 22 April. [return]
3. Filas, F.L., 1981, "`Missing Link' Coin of Pontius Pilate Proves Authenticity, Place of Origin, and Approximate Dating of the Shroud Of Turin," News Release, Loyola University of Chicago, September 1, p.5. [return]
4. Whanger, M. & Whanger, A.D., 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN, p.22. [return]
5. "In Memory of Alan Duane Whanger," Cremation Society of the Carolinas, October 21, 2017 & "About CSST," Council for Study of the Shroud of Turin, 2015. [return]
6. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.22. [return]
7. Ibid. [return]
8. Ibid. [return]
9. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.23. [return]
10. Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J., Mottern, R.W. & Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "The Three Dimensional Image On Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, pp.74-94, 88. [return]
11. Moroni, M., 1997, "Those Contentious 'Coins over the Eyes'...," Letters to the Editor, BSTS Newsletter, No. 46, November/December; Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.51. [return]
12. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.23; Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.89-91 & Jumper, E., Stevenson, K. & Jackson, J., 1978, "Images of Coins on a Burial Cloth?," The Numismatist, July, Vol. 91, No. 7, pp.1349-1357, 1354-1355; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.114. [return]
13. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.90; Jumper,et al., 1978, p.1355. [return]
14. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.90. [return]
15. Jumper,et al., 1978, p.1355. [return]
16. Jackson, Jumper, Mottern & Stevenson, 1977, p.90. [return]
17. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.23. [return]
18. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.90. [return]
19. Wilson, I., 1985b, "Obituary - Fr. Francis L. Filas, S.J.," BSTS Newsletter, No. 10, April, pp.4-5, 4. [return]
20. Filas, F.L., 1980, "The Dating of the Shroud of Turin from Coins of Pontius Pilate," Cogan Productions: Youngtown AZ, p.3; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.23. [return]
21. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.124; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.89; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.36; Baima-Bollone, P., "Images of Extraneous Objects on the Shroud," in Scannerini, S. & Savarino, P., eds, "The Turin Shroud: Past, Present and Future," International scientific symposium, Turin, 2-5 March 2000," Effatà: Cantalupa, 2000, p.130. [return]
22. Whanger, A.D. & Whanger, M.W., 2008, "Revisiting the Eye Images: What are They?," in Fanti, G., ed., 2009, "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Proceedings of the 2008 Columbus Ohio International Conference, August 14-17, 2008, Progetto Libreria: Padua, Italy, pp.134-139, 134. [return]
23. Filas, 1980, p.3. [return]
24. Filas, F.J., 1977, "Ideal Attitudes Concerning Research on the Shroud of Turin," in Stevenson, 1977, pp.13-15. [return].
25. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, pp.23-24; Filas, 1980, p.3; Iannone, 1998, p.36; Whanger & Whanger, 2008, p.135. [return]
26. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.24; Filas, 1980, p.4; Iannone, 1998, p.36; Whanger & Whanger, 2008, p.135. [return]
27. Filas, 1980, p.4; Moroni, M., "Pontius Pilate's Coin on the Right Eye of the Man in the Holy Shroud, in the Light of the New Archaeological Findings," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, p.277; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.104; Whanger & Whanger, 2008, p.135. [return]
28. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.223; Tribbe, 2006, p.114; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.176. [return]
29. Madden, F.W., Fairholt, F. W. & Reidenbach, R., ed., 1967, "History of Jewish Coinage, and of Money in the Old and New Testament," [1864], Pegasus Publishing Co: San Diego CA, Revised. [return]
30. Filas, 1980, p.3. [return]
31. Vignon, P., 1939, "Le Saint Suaire de Turin: Devant La Science, L'archéologie, L'histoire, L'iconographie, La Logique," Masson et Cie. Éditeurs: Paris, Second edition, plate 1. [return]
32. Moroni, 1991, p.286 (modified). [return]
33. "Jesus of Nazareth. By Donato Calabrese," (translated by Google), 16 April 2011. [return]
34. Moroni, 1991, p.292. [return]
35. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.24. [return]
36. Madden, F.W. et al., 1967, s.10; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.28; Whanger, A. & Whanger, M., 1999, "The Real Date of the Shroud: The Visual Evidence," in Walsh, B., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.69-77, 75; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.98. [return]
37. Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 28; Iannone, 1998, pp.38, 44; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.24; Tribbe, 2006, p.117; Oxley, 2010, p.177; "Livia," Wikipedia, 25 February 2018. [return]
38. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.24. [return]
39. Wilson, I., 1985a, "Some Recent Publications," BSTS Newsletter, No. 9 , January, pp.18-20, 19. [return]
40. Iannone, 1998, p.38; Oxley, 2010, p.177. [return]
41. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.25; Tribbe, 2006, p.117. [return]
42. Antonacci, 2000, p.105. [return]
43. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.25; Antonacci, 2000, p.105. [return]
44. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.25. [return]
45. Moroni, 1991, p.284. [return]
46. Morgan, R.H., 1982, "More About the Filas Coin Theory," Shroud News, September, pp.3-7, 3; Tribbe, 2006, p.117. [return]
47. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.25. [return]
48. Ibid. [return]
49. Ibid. [return]
50. Ibid. [return]
51. Morgan, 1982, p.3. [return]
52. Morgan, 1982, p.7. [return]
53. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.25. [return]
54. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.26. [return]
55. Ibid. [return]
57. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.30. [return]
58 Oxley, 2010, p.176. [return]
59. Iannone, 1998, p.39. [return]
60. Whanger & Whanger, 2008, p.136. [return]
61. Ibid. [return]
62. Iannone, 1998, pp.39-40 [return]
63. Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, pp.283-311, 290; Meacham, W., 1987, "On the Archaeological Evidence for a Coin-on-Eye Jewish Burial Custom in the First Century A.D.," Shroud News, No. 39, February, pp.7-12, 11; Borkan, 1995, p.49 n.129; de Figueiredo, L., 1997, "From Louis de Figueiredo of São Paulo, Brazil," Letters to the Editor, BSTS Newsletter, No. 46, November/December;Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.30; "Charon (mythology)," Wikipedia, 10 March 2018. [return]
64. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.30; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.100. [return]
65. Meacham, 1983, p.290; Meacham, 1987, p.11; Borkan, 1995, p.49 n.129; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.30; Antonacci, 2000, p.106. [return]
66. Meacham, 1983, p.290; Borkan, 1995, p.49 n.129; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, pp.30-31; Antonacci, 2000, pp.106-107. [return]
67. Guerrera, 2001, p.100. [return]
68. Meacham, 1987, p.11; Borkan, 1995, p.49 n.129. [return]
69. "Image produced on linen by corona discharge from lepton by Scheuermann," Council for Study of the Shroud of Turin, 3 December 2017 [return]
70. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.28. [return]
71. Ibid. [return]
72. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.28; Guerrera, 2001, p.149; Whanger, A.D., 1998, "Radiation in the Formation of the Shroud Image - The Evidence," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.184-189, 187. [return]
73. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, p.41; Danin, A., Whanger, A.D., Baruch, U. & Whanger, M., 1999, "Flora of the Shroud of Turin," Missouri Botanical Garden Press: St. Louis MO, p.10; Guerrera, 2001, p.149. [return]
74. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.41; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.28; Danin, A., et al., 1999, p.10; Guerrera, 2001, p.149. [return]
75. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.28; Guerrera, 2001, p.149; Whanger & Whanger, 2008, p.136. [return]
76. Danin, A., et al., 1999, p.10. [return]
77. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.28. [return]
78. Iannone, 1998, p.25; Danin, A., et al., 1999, p.9; Guerrera, 2001, p.149; Milne, L., 2005, "A Grain of Truth: How Pollen Brought a Murderer to Justice," New Holland: Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia, p.93; Oxley, 2010, p.258. [return]
79. Danin, A., 2010, "Botany of the Shroud: The Story of Floral Images on the Shroud of Turin," Danin Publishing: Jerusalem, Israel, p.39. [return]
80. Danin, A., et al., 1999, p.10. [return]
81. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.70. [return]
82. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.70; Iannone, 1998, pp.25, 28; Maloney, P.C., 1999, "A Contribution toward a History of Botanical Research on the Shroud of Turin," in Walsh, 2000, pp.241-266, 251; Milne, 2005, p.93; Oxley, 2010, p.258. [return]
83. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.41; Zugibe, F.T., 2005, "The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry," M. Evans & Co.: New York NY, p.272. [return]
84. Zugibe, 2005, p.272. [return]
85. Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.41. [return]
86. Fanti, G. & Malfi, P., 2015, "The Shroud of Turin: First Century after Christ!," Pan Stanford: Singapore, pp.28-29. [return]
87. Scheuermann, O., 1986, in Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.41. [return]

Posted: 3 March 2018. Updated: 24 March 2018.

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