Here is my Shroud of Turin name index, `J', for key persons
associated with the Shroud whose surnames begin with `J. See also main name index A-Z for more details.
John P. Jackson. (c.1946-) Physicist. Founder and Director of the Turin Shroud Center of Colorado. Believes that the Shroud is authentic, the burial shroud of Jesus. Was leader of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) team that in 1978 examined the Shroud in Turin. Former scientist at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico and Professor of physics at the U.S. Air Force Academy and the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Pioneered physics studies of the Shroud, including its 3D image, coins over the eyes, and bones of the skull and hands are xray images. Jackson found from the Shroud's fold marks that it had once been doubled in four, exposing the face area, consistent with Ian Wilson's theory that the Edessa Cloth was the Shroud. He tested all proposed image formation theories and concluded that the image formed on the Shroud by a radiation scorch. He further theorised that the image was formed as the body within the Shroud dematerialised and the cloth then collapsed vertically under gravity. Jackson proposed that a significant increase in carbon 14 may have taken place in the Shroud during the 1532 fire it was in. This proposal was the subject of a 2008 BBC documentary, "Shroud Of Turin - Material Evidence." Papers: Jackson has published over 20 papers on the Shroud. Video interview. About: Turin Shroud Center of Colorado.
PS: The `tagline' quotes below (original emphasis italics, my emphasis bold), are about each person (currently only about Dr. John Jackson), in alphabetic order of surname (in bold), and then date order (earliest uppermost). As I add more names to this page, I may have to delete some of these quotes about each person.
John P. Jackson:
"Heated Bas-Relief/Scorch Theory Another possible image-forming mechanism similar to that proposed by Nickell involves pressing a stretched cloth over a heated bas-relief. Such an idea was first proposed in 1961 and tested, with limited success, by placing a white handkerchief on top of a heated small medallion that bore a carving of a horse. [Ashe, G., "What Sort of Picture?" Sindon, 1966, pp.15-19] This theory is more intriguing than most because the Shroud image does appear to have many of the physical and chemical properties of a light scorch. [Schwalbe, L.A. & Rogers, R.N., "Physics and Chemistry of the Shroud of Turin," Analytica Chimica Acta, 135, 1982.] STURP scientists Jackson, Jumper, and Ercoline tried to duplicate the image on the Shroud by testing the scorch hypothesis more fully. To accomplish this, they heated a full-size bas-relief model of a face and stretched over it a linen cloth of a thickness similar to the Shroud. [Jumper, E.J., et al., "A Comprehensive Examination of the Various Stains and Images on the Shroud of Turin," in Lambert, J.B., ed., "Archaeological Chemistry, III," American Chemical Society: Washington DC, 1984, pp.447-476 & Jackson, J.P., et al., "Three Dimensional Characteristics of the Shroud Image," IEEE 1982 Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and Society, October 1982, pp.559-575] The ... resulting image lacks the high resolution and sharp focus found on the Shroud. While the bas-relief method seemingly yields a respectable three-dimensional image, problems are evident in the accompanying VP-8 relief of this image. Hollow spots below the eyes, next to the bridge of the nose, below the lips, in the beard, and on the forehead are all noticeable ... . Further, a slight plateau is visible on the high spots of the VP-8 relief, similar to those produced in VP-8 analysis of results from experiments with direct-contact methods." (Antonacci, M., "The Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, 2000, pp.77-78. Emphasis original)
"Even though the heated bas-relief produced better three-dimensional information than other methods, Jackson and colleagues concluded that this process could not encode many of the necessary Shroud image characteristics. For example, regardless of the temperature of the bas-relief, thermal discoloration appeared on the back side of the test cloth within several seconds after being placed on the hot bas-relief. Thus, the superficiality characteristic is violated because the image could not be encoded only on the topmost fibrils of the linen. The researchers tried to circumvent this problem by wetting the cloth, thereby extending the scorch time. When this technique was tried, new problems appeared. The image's contrast was reduced, causing more severe distortions in the three-dimensional analysis and resembling images obtained from direct-contact techniques ... In addition, because the cloth was essentially flat when the image was encoded, tests of this image-forming method failed to generate an image that contains the subtle lateral distortions that are consistent with the cloth-drape effects found on the Shroud." (Antonacci, 2000, pp.78-79).
"Hot Statue Method Just as the heated bas-relief method cannot account for all the Shroud image characteristics, neither can the hot statue technique, which involves laying cloth over a full-size three-dimensional hot statue. A hot statue would produce an isotropic radiation source, which means the heat radiates the same in all directions. This type of uniform radiation could not produce the subtle cloth-drape distortions found on the Shroud because the distance information encoded onto the cloth would not be transferred along vertical, straight-line paths; [Jackson, J.P., "A Problem of Resolution Posed By The Existence of a Three Dimensional Image on the Shroud," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, 1977, pp.223-233] instead, the heat would travel in all directions and produce a blurred image. Thus the three-dimensional shading and high resolution of the Shroud image could not be encoded simultaneously if this image-forming method were used. [Jackson, personal communication, February 1, 1988] Furthermore, the hot statue technique would scorch the image into multiple layers of the linen's threads, which means the image could not be superficial and confined to only the topmost fibrils of the cloth. [Jumper, E.J., "Considerations of Molecular Diffusion and Radiation as an Image Formation Process on the Shroud," in Stevenson, Ibid., pp.182-188] The many characteristics of the blood and serum marks also could not be reproduced with a draped hot statue. In particular, the blood marks would undergo thermal degradation as a result of their contact with a hot surface (as discussed above). Another objection to the hot statue method lies in the inevitable creation of `hot spots' or well-defined regions of enhanced image density at points where the statue touched the cloth. Such spots would necessarily result from thermal conduction, [Schwalbe, L.A. & Rogers, R.N., "Physics and Chemistry of the Shroud of Turin," Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 135, 1982, pp.3-49, p.28] yet no such regions are present on the Shroud body image. As discussed in chapter 3, the entire image contains the same density of coloration." (Antonacci, 2000, pp.78-79).
"All of the evidence points to a very unique occurrence that caused the images on the Shroud, something that could never have been created by the technology of the medieval ages (or even by the technology of today). Only through simulation have today's scientists been able to come close to the Shroud's three-dimensionality, vertical directionality, and finely resolved and highly focused image; their simulation achieved by a mechanism in which light was attenuated in a liquid, then traveled in a vertical, straight-line direction from the plaster reference face while it was being focused in a camera. [Jackson, J.P. & Jumper, E.J. & Ercoline, W R., 1984, "Correlation of Image Intensity on the Turin Shroud with the 3-D Structure of a Human Body Shape," Applied Optics, Vol. 23, No. 14, July, pp.2244-2270]." (Antonacci, M., 2000, "The Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.213).
"Dr. Giles Carter, Professor Emeritus, Eastern Michigan University, has conducted years of experiments with X rays. He has noted that cloth samples placed in an X ray beam and exposed to low-energy, long-wave X rays for different periods of time will produce superficial, straw-yellow discoloration like that found on the Shroud body images. [Carter, G.E., "Formation of the Image on the Shroud of Turin by X Rays: A New Hypothesis," in Lambert, J.B., ed., "Archaeological Chemistry, III," American Chemical Society: Washington DC, 1984, pp.425-446] He also noted that these same types of X rays are easily absorbed in air. Because of this absorption or attenuating quality Carter stated that X rays given off by the body would also convey three-dimensional information onto the cloth. [Carter, Ibid. p.435]. Dr. Carter first suggested in 1984 that the finger bones are visible on the photographic negative images of the man in the Shroud. In addition, he noted that the bones extending into the hand, over the wrist, could also be visible, helping to explain why the man's fingers appeared so long. Since then, other scientists and physicians have confirmed the identification of these finger and hand bones. [Accetta, A.D., "Experiments with Radiation as an Image Formation Mechanism," Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond VA, June 18-20, 1999] Carter stated that these `images may be due at least in part to x-rays emanating from the bones in the body.' [Carter, Ibid. p431] Scientists and physicians have identified other possible internal skeletal features on the man in the Shroud. Dr. Jackson has noted that part of the skull at the forehead may be visible on the man. Surgeon Alan Whanger, utilizing his modified Polarized Image Overlay Technique with the Shroud's negative and positive images, has also identified features from the skull, as have Dr. Carter and Dr. August Accetta. [Whanger, M. & A., "The Shroud of Turin," Providence House Publishers, Franklin TN, 1998, pp.116-117; Carter, Ibid. p.433; Accetta, Ibid]" (Antonacci, 2000, p.213).
"Dr. Accetta, a physician, has also conducted experiments concerning radiation-imaging of skeletal and other bodily features. Dr. Jackson and Dr. Accetta have further identified faint images of the curved and inverted thumb under the man's left palm. [Accetta, A.D., "Experiments with Radiation as an Image Formation Mechanism," Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond VA, June 18-20, 1999; Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain All Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Richard Nieman: St. Louis MO, 1991, pp.325-344, pp. 333-335] Carter, Whanger, and Accetta have stated that images of the man's teeth could be partially visible, especially on the right side of the man's mouth. [Carter, G.E., "Formation of the Image on the Shroud of Turin by X Rays: A New Hypothesis," in Lambert, J.B., ed., "Archaeological Chemistry, III," American Chemical Society: Washington DC, 1984, pp.433-434; Whanger, M. & A., "The Shroud of Turin," Providence House Publishers, Franklin TN, 1998, pp.117-118; Dr. A. Accetta, Personal communication, August 9, 1999]. Dr. Carter also first stated that, `Part of the backbone may be visible on the dorsal image ...' of the man in the Shroud. [Carter, Ibid., p.433] This identification has also been confirmed by Dr. Whanger. [Whanger, Ibid., p.118] Recently I enlisted the services of Dr. Joseph Gerard and Dr. Cheri Ellis, who, in their profession as chiropractic physicians, make and view more X-ray images of the spinal column than almost any other profession. After studying quality photographic negatives of the dorsal area, they were able to specifically identify numerous vertebrae in the neck and backbone (and even a few pedicles of the vertebrae with disc spaces prevalent). All these skeletal features lie near the surfaces of the frontal or dorsal sides of the man in the Shroud. All are encoded correctly, and none were visible for hundreds of years-until the development of modern technology. The existence of just some of these features shows not only that the radiation came from the body, but that it resembled or had qualities analogous to X rays." (Antonacci, 2000, pp.213-214).
"While Lynn and Lorre were conducting image analysis experiments, Jackson, his Air Force Academy colleague Eric J. Jumper, and Sandia image analyst William Mottern were exploring the Shroud in 3-D. Early on, a French biologist named Paul Vignon had noted that the intensity of the image appeared to vary inversely with what one would assume to be the distance between the body and the cloth, the nose, for example, being more intense than the hair. Jackson decided to test that hypothesis mathematically with the aid of highly sensitive image recording equipment. To begin with, they created a full-scale model of the Shroud by tracing the image from a photographic projection onto a piece of cloth. Then, using an Air Force volunteer who matched the height and general build of the Man of the Shroud as a model, they draped their shroud over him and, from a set of photographs, measured the cloth-body distance from the ridge line of the cloth model. (The ridge line indicates the body's highest points of contact with the Shroud.) Scanning the image with a microdensitometer to record variations in intensity, they proceeded to measure image intensity along the ridge line and correlate that with cloth-body distance. `It is apparent that a definite correlation exists,' Jackson says, explaining that this means that the image on the Shroud contains three-dimensional information about the body it covered. Evidence to support the 3-D hypothesis came when Mottern, using Interpretation System's VP-8 Image Analyzer, which converts shades of light and dark to vertical relief, produced a three-dimensional recreation of the Shroud image. The researchers pointed out the significance of this finding in their 1977 paper for the Albuquerque conference. ` ... [O]rdinary photographic images cannot usually be converted to true three-dimensional reliefs,' they said. `The photographic process does not cause the objects filmed to become exposed in inverse relationship to distance from, the camera; hence, three-dimensional information is not usually recorded onto film. Only when the degree of illumination received from an object depends, in some way, upon its distance (for example, in a stellar photograph), would three-dimensional analysis and reconstruction be possible (by the VP-8 Image Analyzer).' To illustrate their point, they produced a three-dimensional relief of a photograph of Pope Pius XI; the nose appears distorted and looks pushed into the face, the arms seem to be pushed into the chest, and the `entire relief appeared flat and unnatural.' By contrast, in a three-dimensional relief of the face of the Shroud, features appear correctly defined." (Culliton, B.J. , 1978, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July, pp.235-239, pp.237-238).
"Jackson and his colleagues believe that the three-dimensional quality image on the Shroud suggests strongly that the image-forming process did not depend on direct contact with the body and that, whatever it was, it acted uniformly on both sides of the body. This too, mitigates against any hypothesis that the image was painted, as, Jackson believes, does another feature of the image that was first revealed by his experiments. There appear to be button-like objects placed over the eyes of the Man of the Shroud which, on preliminary analysis, seem to be coins. (Ancient burial customs include the placing of coins or potsherds over the eyes of the deceased.) To Jackson's mind, the coins cover the eyes, if that's what they turn out to be, could contribute to evidence of the authenticity of the Shroud, especially if it is possible, with new photographs of the eye region, to identify markings on the objects." (Culliton, 1978, p.238).
"Jackson and his colleagues conclude: `if the identification of these images as solid objects over the eyes is correct, then another significant aspect of the image forming process comes to light: whatever process formed the image had to have acted the same way not only over the body and hair, but also over presumably organically inert fragments sited atop the eyes. This conclusion, we believe, is of significance, for it places great restrictions on the possible image formation process. In short, three-dimensionality implies that the image forming process acted uniformly through space over the body, front and back, and even seemed to act independently of the type of surface, organic and inorganic, from which the image was generated.' [Jackson, J.P., et. al., "The Three Dimensional Image On Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, 1977, p.91]'" (Culliton, 1978, p.238).
"Speculation How, then, might the image have been formed? There is no uniform view among the scientific team; indeed, many are unwilling to even speculate. But Jackson, Jumper, and Rogers say the best guess is that the image was caused by a scorch which would account for several properties of the Shroud. For example, scorch marks fluoresce; so does the shroud. They would not be affected by heat as in the fire of 1532. They make sense with respect to the sepia color of the image. However, as Jackson notes, one problem with the scorch hypothesis is the clarity of the image of the Man Shroud-the incredible detail. Various attempts have been made to produce the image by scorching cloth with a variety of instruments from a mercury lamp to a laser beam (Rogers recently spent days searching the Los Alamos-Albuquerque area for yards of pure linen for some experiments) but so far no one has managed to create a clear image, though they can reproduce the general color of the image on the Shroud. In any event, the real drawback of the scorch hypothesis lies in postulating the source of the heat which would have had to have acted uniformly on both sides of the body to account for the fact that the front and back images seem to be equally intense. Jumper wrote that radiation occurring in a `very short molecular -burst' ` of `around 3 sec' could be the mechanism of image formation. Rogers talks of `flash photolysis,' a short, intense burst of light. But neither has any plausible notion of what the source of the radiant energy might have been." (Culliton, 1978, pp.238-239).
"Living fungi and bacteria have been discovered growing inside the fibers of the Shroud, representing potential carbon contaminants for the carbon-14 studies [Gove, H., et al., 1997, "A problematic source of organic contaminants of linen," in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research-Section B, Vol. 123, No. 1, March 1997, pp.504-507]. To what extent the carbon-14 content of the cloth was altered by the intense heat of a 1532 fire, which caused the burn marks and the water stains on the Shroud, is not known. Research has shown that significant increase in carbon 14 may take place under the unusual circumstances that might have been present during the fire [Jackson, J.P. & Propp, K., 1998, "On the evidence that the radiocarbon date of the Shroud was significantly affected by the 1532 fire," in Actes du Symposium Scientifique International du CIELT, Nouvelle Imprimerie Laballery: Clamecy, France, pp.61-82 ]." (Danin, A., Whanger, A.D., Baruch, U. & Whanger, M., 1999, "Flora of the Shroud of Turin," Missouri Botanical Garden Press: St. Louis MO, p.6).
"STURP research initiated in 1978 confirmed the presence of blood on the Shroud but found no pigments, stains, or dyes, confirming that it is not a painting. These Shroud images occur only on the top surface fibrils on the crowns of the linen fibers. These images suggest cellular oxidations yielding conjugated carbonyl groups as chromophores [Jackson, J.P., et al., 1984, "Correlation of image intensity on the Shroud of Turin with the 3-D structure of a human body shape," Applied Optics, 23(14), pp.2244-2270]. The physics of the images is well known: it is extremely superficial with their density being directly proportional to the distance from the body to the cloth (Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982). Three-dimensional information is thus encoded into the images. Because there are images on the Shroud in places where the cloth was not in actual contact with the imaged object (not further than about 4 cm from the body), it has been increasingly hypothesized that some type of ionizing radiation would be necessary to produce such images. However, no single mechanism for the ionization could be postulated (Jackson et al., 1984). Recently, two physicists independently speculated that corona or electrostatic discharge might have produced the images. Mills (1979) discussed iconography. Scheuermann (1983, 1984) recorded his speculations and numerous experiments producing coronal discharge images from various kinds of objects." (Danin, 1999, p.8).
"Heller and Adler (1981) would recognize several kinds of color on the Shroud, explaining their chemistry. Colored areas appearing as bloodstains actually do contain components of human blood (Bollone et al., 1983a, 1983b). These bloody stains are not superficial, soaking the linen to its entire thickness. Yellow-colored fibrils comprising the Shroud images are evident only as the top surface fibrils on the linen fiber crowns. Non-imaging linen fibrils appear off-white in color. Color and contrast in a given area on the Shroud are produced from the actual number and patterning of yellow and white fibrils [Jackson, J.P., 1991, "An unconventional hypothesis to explain all image characteristics found on the Shroud image," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology, and the Shroud," Amarillo TX, pp.325-344). Miller's color micrographs (at 64x and 32x levels of magnification respectively) of these different linen fibrils composing the Shroud are presented by Weaver (1980: 742) and also by Lavoie (1998: 53-57) and Iannone (1998). Differences also exist between image and non-image fibrils in their fluorescence on the linen (Adler, pers. comm.). Image or yellowish fibrils are not fluorescent, appearing black in fluorescence photos, whereas nonimage off-white linen fibrils do fluoresce and appear green (Miller & Pellicori, 1981). Modern or new cellulose fibers appear light blue under fluorescence, with linen often being blue-white in appearance due to starch used in linen processing. Fruit pectins illuminate green-yellowish in color under fluorescence." (Danin, 1999, p.9).
"While the Syrian account refers to Thaddeus as one of the seventy-two disciples of the Lord (cf. Luke 10:1), he soon came to be associated with Jude Thaddeus, the apostle who was a cousin of Jesus (cf. Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3). One of the earliest Byzantine icons to depict Thaddeus holding the Image of Edessa, as the cloth was referred to there, was painted in 550 A.D. and is located at St. Catherine Monastery on Mount Sinai. In the Western tradition, St. Jude is often represented holding an image of the face of Jesus over his heart. It has been suggested by the British historian Ian Wilson that the Image of Edessa was actually the Shroud folded in such a way that only the face was visible. Early replicas of the Image were portrayed as an elongated trellis frame with a circle in the middle that depicted the face. A sixth-century text called The Acts of Thaddeus refers to such an image as a tetradiplon, a Greek word which literally means `doubled in four' or, put another way, folded in eight layers. [Wilson, I., "The Shroud of Turin," Image Books: New York, 1979; p.120] Interestingly, this Greek word is not used for any other object. Dr. John Jackson, an Air Force physicist who was part of the 1978 Shroud of Turin Research Project, `found that doubling the cloth in four did indeed expose the face area. Furthermore, Jackson found an eight-fold pattern of folds... .' [Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "Verdict on the Shroud," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, 1981, p.24]" (Guerrera, V., 2000, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.2).
"THE year 1978 marked the 400th anniversary of the Shroud's transfer from Chambery to Turin. To celebrate this occasion, the newly-appointed Archbishop of Turin, Anastasio Ballestrero, through the diplomatic efforts of Fr. Peter Rinaldi, a Salesian priest stationed in New York, had the Shroud exposed for public veneration from August 27-October 8. Following this exposition, over forty scientists from Italy and America were given five days to carry out non-destructive tests on the Shroud. The thirty-plus members of the American group known as the `Shroud of Turin Research Project,' or STURP, were headed by Dr. John Jackson and Dr. Eric Jumper, two United States Air Force captains and physicists. The team brought with them seventy-two crates of equipment. The group was composed of specialists from different disciplines: Donald Lynn headed a group from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena, including Jean Lorre, and Donald Devan from the Oceanographic Services, Inc., of Santa Barbara. Bill Mottern, from the Sandia Laboratories, led the team of specialists who carried out a series of radiography exams of the Shroud with the following group from Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratories: Robert Dinegar, Donald and Joan Janney, Larry Schwalbe, Diane Soran, Ron London, Roger Morris, and Ray Rogers who took various sticky tape samples of dust particles from the surface of the Shroud. Joseph Accetta from Lockheed Corporation coordinated the group that inspected the Shroud with infrared rays. Roger and Marion Gilbert from the Oriel Corporation of Connecticut examined the light spectrum emitted by fluorescence beneath ultraviolet lighting." (Guerrera, 2000, pp.60-61).
"Epilogue So where does all this huge amount of science leave us? The Shroud of Turin is now the most intensively studied artifact in the history of the world. Somewhere between 100,000 and 150,000 scientific man-hours have been spent on it, with the best analytical tools available. The physical and chemical data fit hand in glove. It is certainly true that if a similar number of data had been found in the funerary linen attributed to Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, or Socrates, there would be no doubt in anyone's mind that it was, indeed, the shroud of that historical person. But because of the unique position that Jesus holds, such evidence is not enough. I have discussed with most of the team, during the interviews preceding my writing of this book, how they felt about the Shroud. Three of them, John Jackson, Robert Bucklin, and Barrie Schwortz, believe that it is probably the authentic, burial shroud of Jesus of Nazareth. The rest of us have to say that we do not know. There is no such thing as a scientific test for Jesus, and there probably never will be." (Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.219).
"Around 1976 the idea of conducting scientific tests on the Shroud caught the attention of Dr. John P. Jackson, a thirty-year-old physicist and Air Force officer who worked at the Weapons Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Along with his colleague at the Weapons Lab, Dr. Eric Jumper, an engineer and thermodynamicist who was of the same age, he constructed a full-sized, carefully marked replica of the Shroud so that they could perform experiments in hopes of learning how the curious image was formed. Studying existing photographs of the Shroud, he theorized that if the cloth actually covered a human body, the linen would have had direct contact with certain parts of the body, such as the forehead, nose, and chin, while other areas, like the eye sockets and ears, would have not been touched by the cloth. In collaboration with Bill Mottern, an industrial radiographer at the Sandia Scientific Laboratories of Albuquerque, Jackson and Jumper made use of two devices, the microdensitometer and the VP-8 analyzer, which had recently been used to construct a three-dimensional model of the surface of the planet Mars from photographs transmitted by a satellite. The researchers believed that if the density of the image were measured, and if the image was, in fact, produced by covering a real body, the parts of the body in close contact with the Shroud should appear more dense and those further away should appear more faint. ...They analyzed the photographs of the Shroud and fed the resulting numbers into the VP-8 image analyzer, which converted the numbers to vertical relief. In other words, the parts of the body that were close to the cloth should have shown darker than the ones that were farther from the fabric, and so, if the Shroud had actually covered a real body, the machine would be able to map its contours. This would not have been the case if the image were painted on. When Jackson, Jumper, and Mottern ran their tests, they found that the process resulted in a perfect three-dimensional model. It could even be turned sideways so that the face could be seen in profile. [Scavone, D., "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: Farmington Hills MI, 1989, p.39] When subjected to the microdensitometer and the VP-8 image analyzer, the images created by Nickell did not show the perfect three-dimensionality that the Shroud did, [Scavone, Ibid. p. 40] and produced the same sort of distorted reliefs that paintings, drawings, and ordinary photographs generate when subjected to the same process. [Borkan, M., "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Winter 1995, p.22.]" (Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, pp.78-79).
"Density shading and color properties The density shading properties of the image have been a subject of scientific interest for over 80 years. During this time, the apparent negative image characteristics, revealed in the 1898 Pia photographs, have received the most attention. However, as early as 1902, Vignon imagined the cloth draped over the human figure and noted that the image densities appeared to vary inversely with the anticipated cloth-body separations. To our knowledge, this observation was not examined in any great detail until much later. Beginning in 1974, Jackson and coworkers took a more analytic approach to the problem. In their experiments, a human volunteer was draped with a full-scale model of the Shroud, and cloth-body distances were measured along the profile from side-view photographs. The results were then compared with microdensitometer readings along a corresponding line from the 1931 Enrie photographs of the Shroud. Jackson et al. found that a relatively simple functional form could adequately relate the two sets of data and then used this function to map film densities from the entire two-dimensional photograph into a three-dimensional surface with a modified VP-8 image analyzer system. The result of the exercise was that the three-dimensional relief generated in this simple way strongly resembled that of a human figure with surprisingly little distortion. They further illustrated with the same video technique that comparable results were not ordinarily obtained from paintings, drawings, or normal photographs. In almost all cases, obvious and gross distortions were apparent although satisfactory relief surfaces were ultimately generated from photographs of phosphorescent objects taken through light-attenuating media. The results of this study led Jackson et al. to conclude that there is `three-dimensional information' encoded in the image." (Schwalbe, L.A. & Rogers, R.N. , 1982, "Physics and Chemistry of the Shroud of Turin: Summary of the 1978 Investigation," Reprinted from Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 135, No. 1, pp.3-49, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co: Amsterdam, 1982, pp.6-7).
"Following Ashe [Ashe, G., Sindon, 1966, pp.15-19] and in direct response to the article by Culliton [Culliton, B.J., Science, 201, 1978, pp.235-239], there has been increased speculation about the so-called `hot-statue' hypotheses [Drakoff, R., Science, 201, 1978, p.774; Graham, B., Science, 201, 1978, p.774]. Generally these arguments are based on the known 14th-century existence of full-sized statues in either stone or metal. They postulate that one of these statues was heated and then pressed or tented with the cloth. Hot-statue hypotheses have the image scorched by radiant energy and the contour information recorded on the cloth as different scorch densities in different locations depending upon the respective distances from the cloth to the heated statue surface. Jackson has done both theoretical and experimental work to address three-dimensional hot-statue hypotheses [Jackson, J P., in Stevenson, K., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on the Shroud of Turin," 1977, p.223] . He found that a simple isotropic radiation source could not yield the observed Shroud-image shading and resolution ... although it could be obtained if emission (or cloth absorption) anisotropies were assumed or if significant attenuation were present in the intervening medium. However, in these cases the resulting directionality of the radiation normal to the surface of the hot statue would introduce an unacceptable distortion of the image on the cloth. Moreover, at cloth-contact points one would expect to see `hot spots' or well-defined regions of enhanced image density that result from thermal conduction. No evidence for `hot spots' in the Shroud image has been found." (Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982, pp.27-28).
"If our conjecture is true that these images are of coins, then we may have a truly unique method of dating the image. Computer enhancement of high quality closeup photographs of the eye region followed by a statistical correlation with known coinage of a given era and locality may be able to: (1) identify the objects as coins and (2) date and locate the probable time and place the image and not just the cloth was formed. Indeed, we have some computer enhancements which, though lacking sufficient resolution for positive identification, indicate a possible structure on the surface of the objects. In addition, Ian Wilson has suggested several Judean Bronze Lepton coins which are about the correct size as the buttonlike images. In particular, a Lepton of Pontius Pilate coined in A.D. 30-31 seems to agree especially well. On the other hand, a silver Denarius of Tiberius, coined in A.D. 14-37 was entirely too large. According to Wilson, a Lepton would probably be a likely candidate for Joseph of Arimathaea, an orthodox Jew, to use since it was acceptable as a Temple offering. It should be noted in passing that the fact that objects are found on the eyes indicates that the head of Jesus must have been in a nearly horizontal position, for otherwise they would have fallen off the eyelids. It is interesting to note further that these objects might have been mistaken for open eyes at one time; for example, Ian Wilson points out that the image on the Mandylion cloth (possibly the Shroud) was thought to be a face with the eyes open. If the identification of these images as solid objects over the eyes is correct, then another significant aspect of the image forming process comes to light: whatever process formed the image had to have acted the same way not only over the body and hair, but also over presumably organically inert fragments situated atop the eyes. This conclusion, we believe, is of significance, for it places great restrictions on the possible image formation processes. In short, three dimensionality implies that the image forming process, acted uniformly through space over the body, front and back, and even seemed to act independently of the type of surface, organic and inorganic, from which the image was generated. In addition, this identification of the `objects' seems to strengthen the authenticity of the Shroud. For what artist or forger in the Fourteenth Century would have thought to place objects on the eyes of Jesus?" (Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J. Mottern, B. & Stevenson, K.E., ed. , 1977, "The Three Dimensional Image On Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, 1977, pp.90-91).
"Physical inspection of the Shroud indicates that Wilson's `doubled-in-four' theory is likely. John Jackson, an Air Force physicist who was one of the organizers of the Shroud of Turin Research Project, reconstructed the pattern of the folds. Using Shroud photographs and a life-size mock-up of the cloth, he found that doubling the cloth in four did indeed expose the face area. Furthermore, Jackson found an eight-fold pattern of folds, visible in a new series of photographs of the Shroud, , which is exactly consistent with Wilson's doubling in four. Jackson pointed out that these folds are rather inconspicuous , when the Shroud is viewed. They may have escaped notice before because the human eye has trouble sorting out the faint, blurry body-image from other more prominent features of the cloth. Some of these other images are quite prominent and disconcerting, such as the fire damage and water marks. For many, viewing the image on the Shroud is similar to deciphering Rorschach diagrams or those business cards which cleverly disguise the face of Jesus in patterns of black and white. Among the images the eye rejects are the signs of the doubled-in-four folds. However, this configuration appears in photographs." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.24).
"Enter the scorch theory. This hypothesis was first advanced in 1966 by Geoffrey Ashe, a British author who produced an image resembling that of the Shroud by exposing a piece of linen to radiant heat. [Ashe, G., "What Sort of Picture?" Sindon, 1966, pp. 15-19 ] To the naked eye, the experimental scorch of a piece of linen seemed to resemble the color of the image on the Shroud. The Shroud image is sepia-colored; sepia is the color of linen when it undergoes the first stages of burning. John Jackson, the Air Force physicist, realized that a ready-made test of the scorch hypothesis lay close at hand. The Shroud had been burned and scorched in the fire in 1532. If the color of the image areas of the Shroud resembled the color of the scorched areas, that would be an indication that the image might be a scorch. This, in fact, is what Jackson found when he analyzed a color photograph of the Shroud with a microdensitometer, an instrument that measures the densities of an image on a photographic film or plate. The instrument could detect no differences between the color of the Shroud image and the color of scorched areas. This suggested that the image on the Shroud could well be some kind of a scorch. Jackson pointed out that he used a photograph, not the Shroud itself, and that the photograph had not been taken for scientific purposes. Thus his findings had to be tentative until more exact scientific studies could be conducted. [Jackson, J.P., "Color Analysis of the Turin Shroud: A Preliminary Study," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference on the Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, 1977, pp. 190-195] Nevertheless, the scorch hypothesis became the most likely theory of how the image on the Shroud was formed. At the scientific conference in 1977, Ray Rogers summed up the arguments for a scorch. He noted Jackson's finding that the color of the image area resembled the color of the heat damaged area. He pointed out that the image seemed to exist only on one side of the cloth. He cited another factor: the image density seemed to be related to the distance between the body and the cloth-the famous three-dimensional quality of the image. All this, Rogers said, suggests `rapid heating as the cause of the image.' He said that if future testing did not identify any pigment on the cloth, and if no one found an organic stain that could have stained the cloth naturally, then the scorch theory was the only hypothesis left." (Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, pp.70-71).
"Eric Jumper, another Air Force physicist, thought that if the Shroud had been scorched, it would have to have been a very short burst of high energy radiation. He and John Jackson ran some experiments in which they scorched pieces of linen with lasers. Within a short time, an image appeared on the reverse side of the cloth almost as dark as the one on the front. Jumper thought that this ruled out any plausible forgery using a scorch. A forger could have heated a bronze statue or a flat plate and thrown a piece of linen over it, but the image this process produced would also be present on the back of the cloth. By contrast, their experiments showed that the radiation process would have to be very quick and very intense in order to scorch only the topmost layer of the linen fibers. [Jumper, E., "Considerations of Molecular Diffusion and Radiation as an Image Formation Process on the Shroud," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference on the Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, 1977, p.187]" (Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, pp.71-72).
"John Jackson pointed out another problem with various theories of image formation. Employing sophisticated mathematical analysis, he showed that no reasonable physical mechanism could produce an image which was both three-dimensional and highly detailed. To achieve clarity, three-dimensionality had to be sacrificed. To produce an image that contained three dimensional data, the image would not have been as detailed as the Shroud image is. Jackson thought his findings made it unlikely that the Shroud image was formed by some natural process involving diffusion of chemicals. He also said that a simple scorch caused by exposing the cloth to thermal radiation could not have produced a clear three-dimensional image either. However, Jackson said a scorch was still a possible explanation for the image because it could have been caused in some way other than by thermal radiation. [Jackson, J., "Problem of Resolution Posed by the Existence of a Three-Dimensional Image on the Shroud," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference on the Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, 1977, pp. 223-33]" (Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.72).
"Unfortunately, Mueller, Nickell, and others who have jumped onto the McCrone bandwagon seem blissfully unaware that for purely technical reasons the painting theory, regardless of the methodology, is a dead issue. Amazingly enough they continue to flog away at the now rotting carcass of this long dead horse. Nickell, for example, touts a dusting/rubbing method which obviously would leave a heavy distribution of chemicals between the fibers of the cloth and on its reverse side. Body paintings and rubbings invariably contain pigment layers and distortion in three-dimensional projection, all of which are absent on the Shroud. In addition, STURP member John Jackson, using the Nickell technique, found severe difficulties in its lack of distance information. Although not strictly an action-at-a-distance hypothesis, another bas-relief based mechanism has been proposed by Nickell and involves contouring cloth to the bas-relief and `dusting' the deformed cloth surface so as to produce an image.... We conformed, as Nickell indicates, wet linen to the bas-relief so as to make all image features (eyes, lips, etc.) impressed into the cloth. We then `dabbed' the cloth with fine tempera powder ... the shaded image seemed to contain more curvature than distance information of the face, in addition, we noted large quantities of powder falling through the cloth weave structure and accumulating on the reverse side. Accordingly we conclude that this mechanism is unacceptable.' Keep in mind that this method was investigated despite the fact that it failed to match the known chemical characteristics of the Shroud. Nor was the technique known in medieval times: `Clearly, to be testable and viable, the hypothesis must derive from or at least not conflict with the known elements of 14th-century art. This it manifestly fails to do.... there is no rubbing from the entire medieval period that is even remotely comparable to the Shroud, nor is there any negative painting. Nickell's wet-mold-dry-daub technique was not known in medieval times according to art historian Husband and even that technique fails to reproduce the contour precision and three-dimensional effect, the lack of saturation points, and the resolution of the Shroud image. [Meacham, W., "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June 1983, pp. 283-311, p.308]" (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, pp.30-31. Emphasis original).
"But as Dr. Jackson demonstrated, the Shroud image is three-dimensionally `consistent with a body shape covered with a naturally draping cloth and which can be derived from a single, global mapping function relating image shading with distance between these two surfaces.' [Jackson, J.P. & Ercoline, W.R., "The Three-Dimensional Characteristics of the Shroud Image," IEEE 1982 Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and Society, October 1982, p.573] In short, though none of the Shroud opponents would willingly concede this point, the three-dimensional effect is the Waterloo for all artistic theories. That same effect has been scientifically demonstrated and subjected to the best peer review. And it still stands. Also, this same characteristic proves to be the acid test for all the image formation theories Dr. Jackson tried regardless of how well they met or failed to meet the other known Shroud image characteristics. A catalog of ruled-out theories includes the following: direct contact, diffusion, lab-induced radiation from a body shape, engraving, powdered bas-reliefs, electrostatic imaging, phosphorescent statues, hot statues or hot bas-reliefs." (Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.32-33).
"The last theory, hot bas-relief, has been advanced as the solution to the Shroud question by a relative newcomer to sindonology, Father Robert A. Wild, S.J. In his Biblical Archaeology Review article, Father Wild incorrectly asserted that statue-scorching is rejected only because of the problem of burn through and that such a technique would be three-dimensional like the Shroud: `Those who reject the "scorching" theory argue that a statue, when heated enough to scorch a piece of cloth will burn holes in the fabric where raised portions like the nose touch it. If the scorching theory is correct, we would have to reply that modern experimenters-and there have not been many-have simply not yet mastered a technique that was available to some medieval craftsman.' [Wild, R.A., "The Shroud of Turin: Probably the Work of a 14th-Century Artist or Forger," Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol. 10, No. 2, March/April 1984, p.46] Not only do these remarks show little understanding of the issues involved an confirming any Shroud hypothesis, but they do a great disservice to the many sindonologists who have attempted various scorching mechanisms since 1978. ... Nevertheless, statue-scorching is one scorch theory that cannot be accepted. It fails in regard to three-dimensionality, fluorescence, and a host of other difficulties. One researcher summarized the problems this way: `Jackson has done both theoretical and experimental work to address three-dimensional hot-statue hypotheses. He found that a simple isotropic radiation source could not yield the observed Shroud-image shading and resolution ... (even allowing attenuation) the resulting directionality of the radiation would introduce an unacceptable distortion of the image... ." [Schwalbe, L.A. & Rogers, R.N., "Physics and Chemistry of the Shroud of Turin: A Summary of the 1978 Investigation," Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co: Amsterdam, 1982, p.28] The conclusion, at least in so far as known forms of scorching are concerned, brings the entire "scorch" theory into question." (Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.33-34. Emphasis original).
"Even before STURP's first journey to Turin in 1977 to propose testing the cloth to a panel of appointed authorities and sindonologists, plans were included for dating the cloth. Dr. Jackson went so far as to contact Dr. Libby who is credited with the development of modern carbon dating. Dr. Walter McCrone, who joined STURP in Turin, proposed a dating procedure at a cost of approximately $50 thousand. ... After STURP arrived in Turin in October 1978, I [Stevenson] was practically accosted by Dr. Harry Gove of the University of Rochester who interrupted my press conference to question what made me an `expert' on carbon-14 dating. I had at no point claimed such expertise. The issues surrounding C-14, as well as the media's constant claim that the church was refusing the test because it had something to hide, had necessitated a statement of STURP's official stance on C-14. As team spokesman, I had been quoted delineating the caveats for such testing. Gove didn't agree with the caveats at all. When the dust settled, he became one of the representatives of several labs to propose a formal dating plan for the Shroud. As we shall see later in this chapter, however, perhaps even Gove would agree the STURP caveats were well-advised after all." (Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.46-47).
"The Shroud image suggests quite strongly the presence of many skeletal details e.g. carpal and metacarpal bones, some 22 teeth, eye sockets, left femur, left and possibly right thumbs flexed under the palms of the hands, as well as soft tissue and soft tissue injuries; all presumably originating from some form of radiation emitted from the body enshrouded. [Whanger, A. & Whanger, M., "Polarized Image Overlay," Applied Optics, Vol. 24, No. 6, 1985, pp.766-772] No scientific human model has been satisfactorily utilized to offer elucidation of the origin of this quality an image. Many have postulated image formation theories ... Later researchers such as Giles Carter and Thaddeus Trenn have studied radiation biology in a theoretical framework and have achieved promising results in terms of image superficiality and clarity. [Carter, G.R., "Formation of Images on the Shroud by X-rays: A New Hypothesis," in "Archaeological Chemistry," ACS Advances in Chemistry No. 205, 1984, pp.425-446] The human radiation model seems to offer the greatest application to the Shroud image thus far." (Accetta, A.D., Lyons, K. & Jackson, J.P., "Nuclear Medicine and its Relevance to the Shroud Of Turin," in Walsh, B.J., ed., "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, 2000, p.3).
"The human radiation model we used generated a number of characteristics which parallel the image on the Turin Shroud. It must be noted that these researchers in no way are claiming that they reproduced any of the exact characteristics of the Shroud image. Rather, those characteristics which are similar can potentially help to explain better those seen on the Shroud as well as point to the probable general origin of its image. ... First, we demonstrated that a human model can be used to generate images resulting from emitted radiation, that resemble the image on the Shroud. ... Second, we demonstrated that this radiation when captured by a vertical collimator can yield the verticality parallel seen on the Turin image. Third, we demonstrated that the nature of the emitted radiation is such that it produces an image void of a sharp outline such as that on the Turin Shroud. ..." (Accetta, Lyons & Jackson, in Walsh, 2000, p.4).
"Early in 1976, while still at Albuquerque, Jackson, following another line of enquiry, was advised to consult Bill Mottern, image-enhancement specialist at the Sandia Laboratories. The meeting, which took place on February 19, was one Jackson will never forget. Mottern had not even heard of the Shroud before, but as Jackson talked about it, he asked whether a specific laboratory machine might be of help. This was an Interpretation Systems VP-8 Image Analyzer, a device which plots shades of image brightness as adjustable levels of vertical relief. Jackson handed over an ordinary three-by-five-inch transparency of the Shroud, obtained from the Holy Shroud Guild, and Mottern set this up in the machine and casually flipped the switches. The next moment he and Jackson gaped astonishedly at the result. On the television screen to which the image analyzer was linked was the Shroud figure, seen for the first time ever from the side, in perfect three-dimensional relief. Using a facility built into the machine, Mottern rotated the image to view the other side. The effect was the same. Details such as the hypothetical `pigtail' ... now showed up clearly with a depth that confirmed the feature as thick, tightly compressed hair gathered at the back of the neck in the fashion of the early Jews. A separate photograph of the face also showed up with the same high-relief effect. For Jackson it was an unforgettable experience, emotionally as much of a surprise as Pia's 1898 discovery of the Shroud negative, and scientifically one of enormous satisfaction, being instant verification of all the careful work with the officer model. To one who is not a scientist the significance may not seem obvious until one understands the unusualness of such a perfect result. An ordinary photograph, being two-dimensional, simply does not contain sufficient information relating to distance and proportions to be immediately translatable into a meaningful three-dimensional image, however good the equipment used. Jumper and Jackson verified this for themselves using positive and negative photographs of Pope Plus XI. These showed up with immediate distortions, the nose flattened, the mouth contorted, the eves far too deeply set. As he subsequently observed: `Only when the degree of illumination received from an object depends in some way upon its distance (as for example in a stellar photograph) would three-dimensional analysis and reconstruction be possible. Otherwise no less than two photographs separated by a known distance are required to build a true relief image. [Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J. & Stevenson, K.E., eds., "The Three Dimension Image on Jesus' Burial Cloth," Albuquerque conference, March 23, 1977]" (Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, pp.198-199).
"The evening of the meeting with Mottern, Jackson could scarcely contain his excitement. He phoned Jumper, described the discovery, and then spoke of an additional observation from the three-dimensional pictures. There was something strange about the eyes, he said. Each had a curious unnatural bulge to it viewed in three-dimensional form-as if something had been laid on it. ... Jackson ... began searching his library, hunting out references to ancient Jewish burial practices. In an article in the 1898 Jewish Quarterly Review he found the information he was looking for. It was a custom, the article said, among Jews and certain other nationalities to lay coins or pieces of potsherd over the eyes when laying out a corpse for burial, the intention being to keep the deceased from seeing the way by which he was carried to his last home. A small coin laid over each eye, Jackson realized, would match the configuration of the `bulges' exactly. ... Jackson and Jumper were particularly eager that computer enhancement might reveal more information on the apparent coins over the eyes, such as an identifiable image or inscription. In this hope they remained disappointed. It was possible to make out shadows, slightly irregular in shape, in the area of the `bulges' that could be the outline of small coins. It was even possible to say that in size and uneven roundness they were consistent with the lepton, the `widow's mite' of the New Testament. That was all. Any further information on the coins intrinsic in the Shroud was certainly not available via the three-by-five-inch negatives that the scientists had to work with." (Wilson, 1978, pp.199-201)
"Nevertheless the impression is inescapable that, rather than a substance, some kind of force seems to have been responsible for the image. This is suggested by the information in the 1973 commission's report that the image affected only the topmost surface of the fibers, and whatever created it had neither seeped nor penetrated the fibers and was insoluble and resistant to acids. Whatever formed the image was powerful enough to project it onto the linen from a distance of up to four centimeters (according to Jumper and Jackson), yet gentle enough not to cause distortion in areas where there would have been direct contact. This factor is particularly obvious on the dorsal image, where the cloth would have received the full weight of the body." (Wilson, 1978, pp.209-210).
"The concept of a force is implicit from the manner in which the image seems to have been created with a marked upward/downward directionality, without any diffusion, and leaving no imprint of the sides of the body or the top of the head. Also the image-forming process seems to have shown no discrimination between registering the body surface, the hair, the blood, and even inanimate objects-i.e., the two coins discovered by Jackson and Jumper. All would seem to have been imprinted on the cloth with the same even intensity, and with only the most minor color variation in the case of the blood." (Wilson, 1978, p.210).
"It is a different situation in respect of the fold marks. Even if the folding arrangement minimized stress, nonetheless one would expect pronounced crease lines after what would have been more than one thousand years in the same position, although the extent to which, with moistening, old linen creases can be smoothed out is quite surprising. In fact, the Shroud's surface, when seen in an appropriate raking light, is literally crisscrossed with creases and fold marks of all kinds, inspiring Dr. John Jackson, in collaboration with photographer Vernon Miller, to make a special study of these as part of the STURP testing program in Turin in 1978. Regrettably, because of the limited time available, it was not possible for Miller to make a truly definitive set of raking-light photographs, but those he took with mere hand-held apparatus nonetheless showed up an intricate tracery of ancient and modern creasing from which John Jackson has been able to make some important deductions. In a published paper, `Foldmarks as a Historical Record of the Turin Shroud,' Jackson claims the pinpointing of at least four of the old Image of Edessa fold marks, with another two reasonably certain and the remainder there by implication. Particularly noteworthy is one fold mark studied by Jackson, that at location C (see photo), which can be traced clearly in the X-ray and ultraviolet photographs, those taken in raking light, and even in the conventional photographs from as early as 1898. Since it occurs precisely one-eighth length from the Shroud's natural halfway fold line, in itself it strongly suggests that the Shroud was genuinely once `doubled in four.' Undeniably, more definitive photographic documentation is required, but certainly there can no longer be claimed to be any absence of fold marks consistent with the Image of Edessa/ Shroud identification hypothesis." (Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, , p.120).
"Attempts to simulate some aspects of such a process have been made by Drs. Jackson and Jumper and colleagues in a comprehensive review of the comparative plausibility of every conceivable variety of image-forming process. But although images were produced, as in so many other experiments, these fell far short of the photographic realism of the Shroud. As Jackson and Jumper felt obliged to conclude: `We have examined a variety of image formation processes in a generic sense and found that ... no single hypothesis seems to simultaneously explain them all ...' [Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J. & Ercoline, W.R., "Correlation of image intensity on the Turin Shroud with the 3-D structure of a human body shape," Applied Optics, Vol. 23, No. 14, 15 July 1984, pp.2244-2269, 2269]" (Wilson, 1986, p.126).
"Nonetheless a quite new and in its own way remarkably revelatory achievement has been made in the course of other studies by Jackson, this time working with Bill Ercoline. As has long been recognized, during whatever image forming process occurred the Shroud must have been draped, as opposed to being flat, over the body it wrapped. This should have caused lateral distortions in the image large enough to exceed natural variations in human anatomy. Ercoline and Jackson determined these, then plotted the actual distortions that would occur with the natural drape of a cloth over a body laid out in the manner indicated on the Shroud. They found good correlation. [Jackson, J.P. & Ercoline, W.R., "The Three-Dimensional Characteristics of the Shroud Image," IEEE 1982 Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and Society, October 1982, p.573] The effect of this research is to demand that if the Shroud is the work of an artist, he took account of the effects of cloth drape among his many other intricate calculations. Super artist, or supernormal event, consistently these have proved the only two alternatives in the midst of all the many facets of Shroud research." (Wilson, 1986, p.126).
"Nor does the evidence stop here. For if the Edessa cloth was indeed one and the same as our Shroud, then we ought to find some evidence on the latter, in the form of old crease-marks, that it was 'doubled in four' for some lengthy period. In fact, when the American STURP team did their exhaustive examination and photography of the Shroud in 1978, one of the lesser-known parts of their programme was raking light photography specifically to show up such creases. The photographs revealed the cloth's surface to be criss-crossed with literally hundreds of old marks of this kind, but a truly significant set of ridge and valley fold marks showed up almost exactly where the `doubled in four' reconstruction dictated that it should ... [Jackson, J.P., "Fold marks as a Historical Record of the Turin Shroud," Shroud Spectrum, Issue 11, 1984, pp.6-29]. Furthermore, from the slightly uneven way that these creases fall and the fact that there is an evenly spaced bunch of four at one particular location, STURP's Dr John Jackson has even very convincingly reconstructed how the doubling in four followed a particular order that included part of the Shroud being folded around a square-shaped block of wood that would have run its full width. As Jackson further deduced, if the Shroud were kept in a casket slightly wider than its full width and there were a mechanical device for pulling it upwards from the fold line level with the front shoulders, then the Shroud body would appear to raise itself jack-in-the-box style from its casket in exactly the manner Robert de Clari reported of what he saw at the church of St Mary at Blachernae ... ." (Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.156).
"PRIOR TO RELEASING OUR FINDINGS ON the Pantocrator icon and the Justinian II solidus, we had read about the work of Father Filas on the identification of coins over the eyes of the Man of the Shroud. The possibility of the presence of coins over the eyes was first raised when three scientists, John P Jackson, Eric J. Jumper, and R. W (Bill) Mottern, the instigators of the 1978 Shroud of Turin Research Project, put a photograph of the Shroud face in a VP-8 Image Analyzer (a specialized computer device which converts the density of an image into height) and saw, to their astonishment, an accurate three-dimensional representation rather than the irregular and distorted image resulting from all ordinary photographs and paintings. Two button-like objects, one over each eye, were visible; it was suggested they might be coins which had been used to keep the eyes of the dead closed, a practice common to many peoples for many centuries [Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J. Mottern, B. & Stevenson, K.E., ed., "The Three Dimensional Image On Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, 1977, pp.90-91]. British historian Ian Wilson mentioned several coins from the time of Pontius Pilate which would correspond to the size of the `buttons,' about fifteen millimeters or five-eighths of an inch in diameter. In 1979, more out of curiosity than anything else, Filas re-photographed an enlargement of a photograph which had been made from a second-generation 1931 Enrie print of the face. To his surprise, he noticed something he had not seen before-a sort of design directly over the right eye. He took this photograph to Michael Marx, a numismatist (coin expert) who had earlier volunteered his professional expertise. Marx became excited as he scanned the photograph with a magnifier, for he could identify four curving capital letters, UCAI. There also was something that looked like a shepherd's crook. Filas next obtained a copy of Madden's History of Jewish Coinage, and of Money in the Old and New Testament and a catalog of all Pontius Pilate coins in the British Museum. He found only one coin which had as its main motif a `shepherd's crook,' actually an astrologer's staff or lituus: this was a lepton (small coin) or `widow's mite' of Pontius Pilate, and it was the correct size. Then, also in 1979, numismatist Bill Yarbrough obtained several Pontius Pilate lepta and gave one to each of several Shroud researchers, including Filas, as a souvenir. Filas became convinced that there are indeed images of coins over the eyes. He identified the one over the right eye definitely as a lituus lepton of Pontius Pilate; and on very minimal evidence (three very short curving lines that seemed to spread away from each other from a common source) suggested that the one over the left eye was likely also a Pontius Pilate lepton but of a different design, that of a sheaf of barley, which is found on a Pontius Pilate lepton known as the Joulia (Julia) lepton, which was struck only during a six-month period in A.D. 29 in honor of Julia the mother of Tiberius Caesar. " (Whanger, M. & Whanger, A.D., 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN, pp.23-24).
"Artifacts Artifacts visible in the Shroud image areas are the next consideration. These include `coins' over the eyes, a possible phylactery upon the forehead (which logically should have a corresponding `prayer box' on the arm), and other `clothes:' such as a modesty cloth or `bands' at the head, hands, and feet. In 1978 Eric Jumper, John Jackson, and I coauthored an article which appeared in The Numismatist and postulated the theory that 3-D objects visible on the eyes might in fact be coins. Working with Ian Wilson, we suggested the lepton of Pontius Pilate because the size, shape, and markings seemed uncannily accurate. [Jumper, E., Stevenson, K.E., Jr. & Jackson, J.P., "Images of Coins on a Burial Cloth?" The Numismatist, American Numismatic Association, July 1978, pp.1349-1357, 1356]" (Stevenson, K.E. , 1999, "Image of the Risen Christ: Remarkable New Evidence About the Shroud," Frontier Research Publications: Toronto ON, p.130).