© Stephen E. Jones
calcium carbonate (see limestone)
carbon-14 dating (see radiocarbon dating)
[Right: Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (see below) depicted being crowned by Christ.]
catacombs of Rome
Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, Turin
Charny (see de Charny)
Christ (see Jesus Christ)
Clement VII, Pope
Code of Jewish Law
Constantine VII, Porphyrogenitus (905–959). Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII received the Shroud (as the Image of Edessa / Mandylion "four-doubled" - tetradiplon - with only the face one-eighth panel visible), at Constantinople's Golden Gate on 8 August 944, as dictated in his eyewitness testimony, "Narration about the Edessan image," on 16 August 944. In it Constantine described the Edessa Mandylion as a "moist secretion not made with, artists' paints," which is a precise description of the Shroud. In the 10th century icon that Constantine commissioned, which is preserved at St. Catherine's monastery Sinai, depicting King Abgar V of Edessa (4BC–AD50) receiving the Mandylion from the disciple Thaddeus (see "Abgar V"), it is Constantine VII's face on Abgar's body. Constantine instituted the date of the Image of Edessa's official arrival in Constantinople, 16 August 944, as a permanent annual feast day in the Eastern Orthodox Church calendar, and it continues to be observed down to the present, despite it losing the Mandylion over 800 years ago in the Fourth Crusade's Sack of Constantinople in 1204! A gold solidus coin of Constantine VII struck in 945, has many points of congruence with the Shroud face. In 958, a year before he died, Constantine sent a letter of encouragement to his troops, stating that he is sending them holy water consecrated by contact with relics of the Passion of Christ held in Constantinople's Pharos Chapel, including the theophoron sindonos, the "God-worn linen sheet." This, together with the other evidence above, can only be the Shroud, over 300 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud in 1988.
Coon, Carleton S.
Craig, Emily A.
crown of thorns
1. This page, and each page in my Turin Shroud Dictionary, is copyright. However, permission is granted to quote from one entry at a time within a page (e.g. "blood," not the whole page "B"), provided a link and/or reference is provided back to the page in this dictionary it came from. [return]
2. "Byzantine literature," Wikipedia, 25 January 2014. [return]
Created: 12 March, 2015. Updated: 30 March, 2015.