Saturday, June 18, 2016

Problems of the Turin Shroud forgery theory: Index S-Z

This is my alphabetical index, "S-Z" to where mentions of "forger," "forgery," etc, occur in Shroud literature on my system. This index had been split into "A-F," "G-M" and "N-Z" when each page grew too long. Now "N-Z" has been split into "N-R" and "S-Z" (this post). See "A-F" for more information. Links to "New/updated" topics are listed in chronological order (most recent last to help readers find what they hadn't yet read), will be cleared and re-started each month.

New/updated: thumbs.

© Stephen E. Jones

[Above (enlarge): Three-dimensional `relief map' of an Enrie 1931 photograph of the Shroud face displayed on a VP-8 Image Analyzer[BE81p22], showing that unlike normal photographs the Shroud image has three-dimensional information encoded within it.].

science Scientific testing could readily establish if Shroud were a forgery, e.g., a painting [HA81p36]. The Shroud has been studied and tested to a greater degree than any art object or archaeological artifact[MR86p16]. Yet science does not know "how the ghostly image of a serene, bearded man [on the Shroud] was made"[BP05]. Nor does science know "the nature of the image and how it was fixed on the cloth"[BP08p349].

scourged Forger would have had to encode intricate details, some invisible, on each of the 100-120 scourge marks[AM00p77]. If he had got just one of these scourge marks wrong, it would have betrayed his work as a forgery[AM00p77]. Some of the scourge marks are visible only under ultraviolet light, so a forger would have to `paint' them invisible to his naked eye, so they could only be seen with ultraviolet equipment to be invented ~650 years later[CT96p40].

Shroud The body of Jesus enfolded in a simple linen cloth passing lengthwise over the head and covering the whole body back and front is not what any medieval forger would have thought of[RJ77p25].

skeptics Skeptics who deny the authenticity of the Shroud are often atheists who deny the possibility of the supernatural and find it easier to dismiss the Shroud as a forgery, even when it flies in the face of the evidence[MJ11p272]. An authentic Shroud scares them as they know it would put their atheism on shaky ground[MJ11p272]. Although sceptics claim the Shroud is a mediaeval forgery, none has been able to produce a workable hypothesis that stands up to scientific scrutiny as to how the image was created by a mediaeval forger[OM10p254].

style Every artist is identifiable by his style, but the Shroud image has no style as a photograph doesn't[CT99p291-2].

Sudarium of Oviedo There is an evident correspondence between patches of blood on the face of the Shroud and those on the Sudarium of Oviedo[RG81p138]. There is also a remarkable agreement between much of the anatomical data on both[RG81p138]. Some of the drops and clots of blood on the face of the Shroud and the Sudarium are identical in shape and position[RG81p138]. But the Sudarium came from the East about four centuries before the Shroud appeared in the West, so they could not have been compared by a medieval forger[RG81p138].

three-dimensional In 1977 it was discovered that the Shroud man's image is three-dimensional[JJ77p74-9]. An artist or forger living in the 14th century would not have been able to encode three dimensional information into the Shroud image by adjusting the intensity levels of his work to everywhere correspond to actual cloth-body separations[JJ77p85]. How could [and why would] a medieval forger have encoded three-dimensional information into the Shroud image, when that was only recently [at least 6 centuries later] discovered by scientists[IJ98p44]? Skeptic Joe Nickell claimed to have replicated the Shroud by brushing a dry powder over a bas-relief, but it was found that his image was not three-dimensional[SH81p108].

thumbs. The Shroud man's thumbs are not visible[WI79p41]. Dr Pierre Barbet found that when he drove a nail through the wrists of freshly amputated arms, the grazed median nerve caused each thumb to contract into the palm of the hand[WI79p41]. "Could a forger have imagined this?" he asked himself[WI79p41]. [see "hands"].

unknown Forger's knowledge of human anatomy rivals that of Leonardo and Michelangelo-why have we never heard of him[CN88p31]?

Vignon, Paul Paul Vignon (1865-1943), was a French artist and biologist[BR78pp35-6]. He was confident that he would demonstrate how a forger had created the Shroud[BR78p36]. But after studying the Shroud photographs taken in 1898 by Secondo Pia (1855–1941) and interviewing Pia in Turin, Vignon accepted that Pia's photographs were genuine and that Shroud image was a photographic negative (see "negative")[BR78p36]. Vignon then realised that a forger could not have painted the image in negative as he would not have been able to see what he was doing to include so much fine detail[BR78p36]. From further study of Pia's photographs, Vignon asserted that no forger could have produced such a complex network of injuries[BR78p40]. Vignon also realised that no forger in the fourteenth century would have depicted Jesus nude[BR78p40]. Moreover, there were no signs of decomposition on the Shroud image, meaning that the body had been in the Shroud only a few days[BR78p40]. This and other details of the Shroud image matched the Bible story of Jesus' suffering, crucifixion, death and resurrection![BR78p40-1]. Based on Vignon's researches, his supervisor at the Sorbonne, Prof. Yves Delage (1854–1920), an agnostic, presented a paper in 1902 to the French Academy of Sciences, in which Delage concluded, "The man of the Shroud is the Christ!"[BR78p41].

wounds Medieval forger would have drawn wounds carefully, showing them in circular form, that they should be easily recognized in their traditional positions, as all artists have always accentuated Jesus' wounds[VP02p33]. But on the right foot the principal blood clot is shown under the heel itself, covering the place where the nail had entered[VP02p33]. The extreme naturalness and exactness of the wounds on the Shroud are beyond human skill[VP02p43].

To be continued in the background.

AM00. Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY.
BP05. Ball, P., 2005, "To know a veil," Nature news, 28 January.
BP08. Ball, P., 2008, "Material witness: Shrouded in mystery," Nature Materials, Vol. 7, No. 5, May, p.349.
BR78. Brent, P. & Rolfe, D., 1978, "The Silent Witness: The Mysteries of the Turin Shroud Revealed," Futura Publications: London, pp.36-37.
BE81. Brooks, E.H., II., Miller, V.D. & Schwortz, B.M., 1981, "The Turin Shroud: Contemporary Insights to an Ancient Paradox," ["The Silver Book"], Worldwide Exhibition: Chicago IL.
CT99. Cahill, T., 1999, "Desire of the Everlasting Hills: The World before and after Jesus," Nan A. Talese/Doubleday: New York NY.
CT96. Case, T.W., 1996, "The Shroud of Turin and the C-14 Dating Fiasco," White Horse Press: Cincinnati OH.
CN88. Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY.
HA81. Heller, J.H. & Adler, A.D., 1981, "A Chemical Investigation of the Shroud of Turin," in Adler & Crispino, 2002, pp.34-57.
IJ98. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY.
JJ77. Jackson, J., et al., "The Three Dimensional Image on Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, pp.74-94.
MR86. Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY.
MJ11. Marino, J.G., 2011, "Wrapped up in the Shroud: Chronicle of a Passion," Cradle Press: St. Louis MO.
OM10. Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK.
RG81. Ricci, G., 1981, "The Holy Shroud," Center for the Study of the Passion of Christ and the Holy Shroud: Milwaukee WI.
RJ77. Robinson, J.A.T., " The Shroud of Turin and the Grave-Clothes of the Gospels," in Stevenson, 1977, pp.23-30.
SH81. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI.
VP02. Vignon, P., 1902, "The Shroud of Christ," University Books: New York NY, Reprinted, 1970.
WI79. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition.

Posted: 20 January 2016. Updated: 24 January 2017.

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