Wednesday, August 4, 2021

Balossino, Nello, Turin Shroud Encyclopedia

Turin Shroud Encyclopedia
Copyright © Stephen E. Jones

Balossino, Nello #13

This is "Balossino, Nello," part #13 of my Turin Shroud Encyclopedia. For more information about this series, see part #1 and part #2. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Index #1] [Previous: Baima Ballone, Pierluigi #12] [Next: Barbet, Pierre #14]

Nello Balossino is is an Associate Professor in Computer Science at the

[Above (original). "Prof. Nello Balossino explains his work that allows the blind to `see' the Shroud"[2].]

University of Turin[3]. He is Deputy Director of the International Center of Sindonology in Turin[4]. For many years he has been studying the image of the Shroud, and in particular the three-dimensional representation that allows one to appreciate the physiognomy of the face and the sufferings of the Shroud man[5].

In May 1978, Giovanni Tamburelli (1923-90), a professor in the Computer Science Department of the University of Turin, attended a Shroud conference, where he saw three-dimensional images of the Shroud that had been produced by a VP8 Image Analyzer [Right (enlarge)[6]] from a Shroud photograph, by STURP's John Jackson and Eric Jumper[7].

Tamburelli immediately set up a research team, under the auspices of CSELT (Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomun-icazioni)[8], to use computer processing to confirm that the Shroud image is three-dimensional[9] [Left (enlarge)[10]], and by filters such as the Fourier Transform, to uncover details of the Shroud face which are not apparent to the naked eye[11].

Starting with a photograph of the Shroud face taken in 1931 by Giuseppe Enrie (1886-1961), the analogue image was converted into numerical form with a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels and 256 levels of grey[12]. Then, after computer processing, the three-dimensional properties of the image of the Shroud face [Right (enlarge)[13]] were fully confirmed[14].

Balossino was a key member of Tamburelli's Shroud research team[15] and when Tamburelli died in 1990, Balossino continued with Shroud computer processing studies in Turin University's Department of Information Technology[16].

By applying computerised filters, Tamburelli and Balossino removed the overlying marks of torture on the above three-dimensional image of the Shroudman's face and obtained an underlying three-dimensional image [Left (enlarge)[17]] of his "natural face"[18]. But they overlooked that under the Shroudman's lips are xray images of his teeth [see 20Apr17]. So their obviously distorted mouth area is not what what the face of the man on the Shroud would have looked like!

Tamburelli and Balossino also confirmed that Jackson and Jumper were correct in their 1976 discovery that the two "buttonlike" objects over the Shroudman's eyes, revealed by the VP8 Image Analyzer (see above), were Pontius Pilate (r. c. 26–36 AD) lepton coins [18Apr20a]; and that Fr Francis Filas (1915-85) was correct in discovering a Roman lituus, part of the "Tiberius Caesar" (r. 14–37 AD inscription of a Pontius Pilate lepton coin over the right eye [18Apr20b] (see below).

[Above (enlarge): Three-dimensional computer enhancement of an Enrie 1931 negative photograph of the right eye on the Shroud face (left)[19]; and numismatist Mario Moroni's slide (right[20]) from his presentation to the 1991 St. Louis Shroud Symposium.]

As Balossino explained

"As we can see, an astrologer's staff [lituus] can be glimpsed, shaped like a question mark, and round the upper left edge structures associable with the letter Y, separated from the letter C, followed by the letters A and I" (part of TIBEPIOY CAICAPOC - "Tiberius Caesar" in Greek)[21].]

For me, seeing is believing! In 2013 I enlarged the area over the right eye of a previous scan of the Enrie 1931 sepia photograph of the Shroud face on plate 1 of Paul Vignon's 1939 book, "The Holy Shroud of Turin

[Above (enlarge): Sepia print of the Shroud face by Giuseppe Enrie in 1931[22]. The left eye is below the reversed `3' bloodstain, as can be seen by this Shroud Scope photo which shows the large bloodstain from the spear in the man's right side [see 02Dec13].]

in the Light of Science, Archaeology, History, Iconography and Logic" (English translation). See 10May13 and 21Dec14 where I saw the letter "A" - it was actually the lower part of a "K" (see below), but at the time I wrongly thought, following Filas and Whanger, that the lituus was the shape of a reversed question mark, when Moroni showed it is actually is the shape of a question mark (see below again). Nevertheless, it is

[Above (enlarge): Comparison of right eye of Enrie's sepia negative photograph of the Shroud face (left)[see 18Apr20], showing what appears to be the letter "Α" (red arrow) but its slightly open vertices means it is actually the lower part of a "Κ" (Greek kappa (Κ); the front curve of a lituus (orange arrow); the handle of the lituus (yellow arrow) and the mark of the pliers that held the hot coin while it was being struck (blue arrow); with Moroni's diagram of the lituus as a question mark shape on a photographic negative of the Shroud (right). The tiny, 1/32 of an inch (8.3 millimetres) high letter "Α" (actually "Κ") above can be clearly seen (the image has not been enhanced or manipulated by me, only enlarged).]

clearly a tiny, sharp, letter "Α" (actually the lower part of the letter "Κ" as I later realised), and I could no longer doubt that there actually is an image over the right eye of the man on the Shroud, of a lepton coin struck by order of Pontius Pilate (r. c. 26–36 AD), the Roman governor who ordered that Jesus be crucified in AD 30 (see below)!

But Filas and Allan D. Whanger (1930-2017) assumed that the lituus in the image of a lepton coin over the right eye of the Shroudman, which is the shape of a question mark, was made by a coin with a reverse question mark. But that was an elementary error [see 10May13a, 03Mar18 & 18Apr20] as Balossino pointed out (continuing from the above quote):
"Since three-dimensional enhancement of the photographic negative throws a shape like a back-to-front astrologer's staff in relief, we can deduce that the coin must have shown a question mark. For by placing a coin with a question mark symbol on the face, an astrologer's staff is formed by transference on the cloth, and this would once again appear as a question mark on the photographic negative. It follows from this that we must postulate the existence of a coin with the astrologer's staff in mirror-reversal of the one postulated by Father Filas"[23].

Numismatist Mario Moroni has found examples of a rare dilepton coin with a lituus shaped like a question mark, which were struck by Pontius Pilate in AD 29-30 [see 18Apr20c and below]. And Jesus was crucified in AD 30[24] by the order of Pontius Pilate (Mt 27:24-26; Mk 15:15; Lk 23:24-25 & Jn 19:13-16)!

[Above (enlarge): Pontius Pilate AD 29-30 dilepton with rare reversed lituus shaped like a question mark[25].]

Balossino and Prof. Pierluigi Baima Ballone confirmed that Filas was also correct in discovering over the Shroudman's left eye, an image of a Roman simpulum or sacrificial vessel, and three barley sheaves[26], which were features only of a Pontius Pilate Julia lepton coin, which [Above (enlarge)[27]: Julia (ΙΟΥΛΙΑ) lepton with three barley sheaves on one side (reverse) and a simpulum (Roman sacrificial vessel) and Greek letters "Tiberius Caesar" on the other (obverse). The "LΙϚ" ("LIS") on the obverse indicates the coin was issued in the 16th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, which was AD 29-30[28].]

was only struck in AD 29-30, on the death in that year of Livia Drusilla (58 BC–AD 29), also known as Julia Augusta, who was the mother of Roman Emperor Tiberius (r. AD 14-37) and the wife of former Emperor Augustus (r. 27 BC-AD 14)[29] [see 21Jul09, 10May13b, 03Mar18 & 18Apr20]. Filas's identification of both a Pontius Pilate lituus dilepton over the Shroudman's right eye and a Julia lepton over his left eye was confirmed in 1984 by numismatist Arden Howell Brame, Jr., II (1943-2004)[30].

Madden, in his "History of Jewish Coinage, and of Money in the Old and New Testament" (1864), wrote of the lepton simpulum (or Julia lepton):

"Though Eckhel and Cavendoni have cited [earlier] coins ... similar to the coins with date L. IS (no. 13), it is rather curious that none have yet been discovered; a fact which somewhat confirms the idea of De Saulcy (Num. Jud. p. 145), that Pilate adopted on his accession a new type, and that consequently coins do not exist of the type of the simpulum or lituus previous to A.D. 26"[31]

[Above (enlarge)[32]: Composite item in Madden's "History of Jewish Coinage, and of Money in the Old and New Testament" (1864), pages 147 & 148, re the lepton simpulum (or Julia (ΙΟΥΛΙΑ = Joulia) lepton, struck only in AD 29-30 by Pontius Pilate.]

However, while Balossino and Baima Bollone were unable to to find an image of a coin over the Shroudman's left eye, they did find over the left eyebrow an image of "a cup" resembling a Roman simpulum and the three letters "LIS" consistent with a "lepton simpulum" or Julia lepton, struck only in AD 29-30]:

"The presence of a coin on the left eyelid was considered at the same time as the one on the right. From observation of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional images however, no shape appears that could relate to the imprint of a coin. Observation of the arch of the eyebrows however shows, in the three-dimensional image, a curious protuberance, which suggests it may be due to a foreign body. Enhancement of the two-dimensional image of this area allowed the present author and Prof. Baima Bollone to demonstrate the presence of signs identifiable with a lepton simpulum [Julia lepton]. In particular, from observation of the two-dimensional image (figure 17 [see below]) shapes were glimpsed of a structure calling to mind a cup, and three letters which can be read as LIS. Numismatic experts know that these three letters mean `sixteenth year', where L stands for year, I for 10 and S for 6. So we are talking of year XVI of the Emperor Tiberius, which corresponds to the year 29 of the Christian era. This is the date when the coin was minted, a lepton simpulum (figure 18 [see below]) of which there are numerous examples showing the device of a ritual cup, i.e. a simpulum. This coin circulated in Jewish markets and was given in small change. As well as the simpulum in the centre, the coin bore the inscription ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΥ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΟϹ with the final initials LIS giving the date"[33].
[Above (enlarge)[34]: Figure 17. Extract of Balossino's computer-processed image of a cup, i.e. a Roman simpulum, over the Shroudman's left eyebrow.]

[Above (enlarge)[35]: Figure 18. Lepton simpulum (Julia lepton) coin struck by Pontius Pilate only in AD 29-30.]

Moroni responded to a criticism by a leading Shroud sceptic, Prof. Antonio Lombatti, that the computer-processed images by Tamburelli, Balossino and Baima-Bollone of coins over the Shroudman's eyes are "mostly due to a photographic enlargement and to computer processing, often arbitrary operations which eliminate stains and shades"[36], by pointing out that some of the symbols and lettering on the coins over both eyes, "are readily visible to the naked eye, and can be photographed with a conventional camera":

"I do not understand why some consider the imprints of the lituus, or auger's wand, on the first coin, and the simpulum, or libational ladle, on the other, to have been electronically manipulated by professors Tamburelli, Balossino and Baima-Bollone, when the imprints of these symbols and some of the lettering are readily visible to the naked eye, and can be photographed with a conventional camera"[37].
To prove his point, in 1998 photographs by Moroni were published showing on a positive photo of the Shroud, as would be seen by looking at it, in which Moroni drew the locations of the coins over the right eye and left eyebrow where some details of them can be seen (next).

[Above (enlarge): Location on a positive photograph of the Shroud, of images of two Pontius Pilate lepton coins: a lituus lepton (AD 29-30) over the right eye [left], and a Julia lepton (AD 29-30) over the left eyebrow[right] [38].]

Moroni also published close-up photos of the above coin images, in which the simpulum on the Julia lepton coin over the left eyebrow can be made out (next).

[Above (enlarge)[39]: Enlargement of the coin image over the left eyebrow of the Shroudman, showing a simpulum which is the major feature only of a Julia lepton, struck only in AD 29-30.]

Although I cannot see on Shroud Scope (Durante 2002, Face Only Vertical) over the right eye the image of a lituus and at least one letter "Κ," that I can see on the Enrie 1931 sepia negative in Vignon (1939) [see above], surprisingly I can see on Shroud Scope, at the location drawn by Moroni (above), over the left eyebrow, the image of a Roman simpulum (see below), with handle and horizontal bars which are

[Above (enlarge)[40]: Image of a Roman simpulum over the left eyebrow of the Shroud man, on a positive photo of the Shroud (Shroud Scope, Durante 2002: Face Only Vertical), which means it would be visible looking at the Shroud with the unaided eye. A simpulum was a feature only of a Julia lepton, which was struck by order of Pontius Pilate only in AD 29-30 (see Madden above). And again Jesus was crucified in AD 30 (see above)!]

evidently depictions of a Roman simpulum's circular rim and hand grips [Right (enlarge)[41].] . And I can dimly see the outline of the coin, but I can't see any letters.

I was originally sceptical of Balossino et al.'s claim that there was an image of a coin over the Shroudman's left eyebrow. Not only did it seem to contradict Jackson and Jumper's VP-8 Image Analyzer claim that "over each eye appeared objects resembling small buttons"[42] which were most likely Pontius Pilate lepton coins[43]. But it also seemed to contradict Filas and Whanger's claim that over the left eye was the image of a coin with barley sheaves, which was a feature of the Julia lepton[44], because the barley sheaves (or corn ears - see Madden above) and the simpulum are on opposite sides of a Julia lepton coin (see above). While it would be possible, that there were two Julia lepton coins, one over the left eye with its reverse, barley sheaves or corn ears, side uppermost, and the other over the left eyebrow with its obverse, simpulum, side uppermost, it would be unlikely. Especially since Balossino's team would have found it if it was there. It is significant that Jackson and Jumper's original VP-8 Image Analyzer photograph

[Above (enlarge): Extract close-up of the original 1977 VP-8 Image Analyzer three-dimensional output of the Shroud face, supposedly showing the "button-like objects" over each eye[45]. But as can be seen, while there is a "button-like object" over the right eye (red arrow), where Balossino et al. found evidence of an AD 29-30 Pontius Pilate dilepton coin (above), there is no "button-like object" over the left eye. But there is a "button-like object" in the region of the left eyebrow (yellow arrow)! In fact, because the VP-8 Image Analyzer only displays degrees of darkness as vertical relief [46], the ridge under which the left "button-like object" is, would be the man's dark eyebrow hair, not his bony eyebrow ridge. So the left-most "button-like object" in Jackson and Jumper's VP-8 Image Analyzer photo is actually over the left eyebrow ridge, where Balossino et al. found evidence of an AD 29-30 Pontius Pilate Julia lepton coin with their computer processing technique (above). Moreover, the ascending series of three protuberances to the left of and above the "button-like object" over the left eyebrow, would be the reversed `3' bloodstain and the single dark protuberance to the right of the object over the left eyebrow would be another large bloodstain (see both above). So the "button-like object" the left eyebrow is exactly where Moroni drew the location of the Julia lepton image (see above)! This is as good as it gets! It's hard to believe that no one has noticed this before, but I can't remember reading it.]

which they included in their original presentation of the coins over the eyes evidence to the 1977 STURP conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as can be seen above, while there is a "button-like object" over the right eye (red arrow), there is no "button-like object" over the left eye, but there is one in the region of the left eyebrow (yellow arrow)! So I assume that both Jackson and Jumper, and Filas and Whanger, were wrong about there being an image of a leptom coin over the left eye, and Balossino, et al. are correct about there being an image of a Julia lepton coin over the left eyebrow!

Why would there be a coin over the left eyebrow, rather than the left eye? Balossino suggested that due to the Shroudman's facial swelling, when it subsided in the tomb, the coin placed over the left eyelid settled over the left eyebrow[47]. And/or, my suggestion is that, because the coins would have been placed over the man's closed eyelids, and then the Shroud would have been drawn over the front of the man's head and body, the coin over the left eyelid was displaced slightly.

The discovery, in the late 20th century of two, different AD 29-30 lepton coins over the eyes of the Shroudman, completely excludes medieval forgery of the Shroud[50]. A 14th century artist/forger would be most unlikely to have owned, or had access to, 1st century lepton coins[51]. And even if he did, he would not have been able to imprint their tiny Greek letters 1/32 of an inch (0.8 of a millimetre) high on a linen cloth, let alone in photographic negative[52]! Moreover, even if he could, a medieval artist/forger would not have included such tiny details of a coin that could not be seen for at least another six centuries when photographic and computer imaging techniques would first be able to detect theme[53].

Objections answered:

• `Recent photographs of the Shroud don't show coins over the man's eyes'[54]. This is only partly true-see above the Roman simpulum over the left eyebrow of the Shroudman, in a Durante 2002 Shroud Scope photograph. But it is true that the images of coins over the Shroudman's eyes are clearest in Enrie's 1931 photographs, which were on large glass plates, 15 3/4 in. by 19 5/8 in. (40 by 50 cm.), 11 3/4 in. by 15 3/4 in. (30 by 40 cm.), 9 1/2 in. by 11 3/4 in. (24 by 30 cm.) and 7 in. by 9 1/4 in. (18 by 24 cm.)[56]. The photographic film (or its digital equivalent) in modern cameras is much smaller, and therefore captures less fine detail[57]. Enrie glass plates were coated with a film of high-resolution orthochromatic photographic emulsion to enhance contrast[58]. Enrie's photographs required a long exposure time, compared to modern fast photographic film (or its digital equivalent)[59]. Also, Enrie stretched the cloth taught with metal tacks, but STURP's and other modern photographers held the cloth with magnets, which allowed tiny folds which could have distorted the coin imgages over one or both eyes[60].

• `Jews would not place coins over the eyes of their dead becuse it was a pagan custom to pay Charon, the ferryman of Hades to carry their souls across the river Styx'[61]. But placing coins over the eyes of the dead was common in antiquity among pagan cultures which did not have a mythology about paying a ferryman with them[62]. And coins have been found inside skulls of 1st century Jewish burials that could only have come from the coins having been placed over the Jewish deceased's eyes[63]. And since the lepton, the `widow's mite' (Mk 12:42 & Lk 21:2 KJV), was the lowest value Jewish coin[64], it is self-evident that that Jews were not placing coins over the eyes of their dead to pay for their transport in the afterlife! It was a Jewish custom to close the eyes of their deceased and placing coins over the eyelids was a practical way of keeping the eyelids shut[65]. Moreover, since leptons were acceptable as temple offerings by Jews (as the `widow's mite' example above shows), there is no reason why Jewish religious leaders, as Joseph of Arimathea (Mk 15:43 & Lk 23:50) and Nicodemus (Jn 3:1,10) were, would not have, in their burial of Jesus (Mt 27:57-60; Mk 15:43-46; Lk 23:50-53; Jn 19:38-40), placed a lepton over each of His eyelids to keep them closed[66].

• `Seeing coins over the Shroudman's eyes is pareidolia' - seeing things that aren't there[67]. This was a favourite of the "theological liberal" Dan Porter, on his since closed Shroud of Turin Blog, who dismissed the evidence for the coins over the eyes of the man on the Shroud as "pure pareidolia":

"... But this is so only if you believe that the images of coins are there. I've spent years considering this question; I don't believe they're there. What people see, I think, is pure pareidolia"[10May13c].
But as I pointed out to Porter at the time, pareidolia is (my emphasis):
"...a psychological phenomenon involving a vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) being perceived as significant ... Common examples include seeing images of animals or faces in clouds ..."[68]

"... the imagined perception of a pattern or meaning where it does not actually exist, as in considering the moon to have human features"[69].

In this Porter is simply ignoring the evidence ... for example, that Jackson, et al. found on their VP-8 Image Analyzer three-dimensional `relief map' of the Shroud, images of two, round, flat objects over the eyes, which were the same size and shape of Pontius Pilate leptons. They did not "imagine" them-the images really are there [I assume that Jackson, et al. wrongly thought the coin over the left eyebrow, was over the left eye]. And this was confirmed by others using different three-dimensional computer processing. Even if the details on the face of those two objects could not be seen, it would still be a reasonable conclusion that they are Pontius Pilate leptons ... Porter blithely dismisses all the evidence above that there are Pontius Pilate coins over the eyes of the man on the Shroud with the `magic' word "pareidolia"! But in so doing he goes far beyond what the word "pareidolia" means"[10May13d].

• `I can't see the coins over the Shroudman's eyes, so those who claim they can see them must be wrong' While I cannot find a quote which actually states that (hence the quote is within single quotation marks), it is inherent in Shroud sceptics' alternative explanation of the coins over the eyes evidence. For example, in the quote of Porter above: "I don't believe they're ["images of coins"] there. What people see, I think, is pure pareidolia," Porter is accusing those of us who can see (to varying degrees) the images of coins over the man's eyes, of being duped like a person who sees "faces in the clouds" and believes they really are there! Leading Shroud sceptic, Joe Nickell, quotes approvingly a fellow Shroud sceptic, Marvin M. Mueller, that those who see images of coins over the Shroudman's eyes, are like those who `see what they want to see' in a Rorschach inkblot test:

"A shroud critic, Dr. Marvin M. Mueller of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, has made a study of Filas' [coins over they eyes] claims, has himself examined the photographs under magnification, and concludes: `The magnified weave patterns in the image areas function somewhat as a Rorschach test-one sees what one wants to see'"[70].
But surely only a tiny minority (if even that), of those who see faces in

[Above (enlarge)[71]: An example of a face in the clouds. But no one would believe that it really was a face. So unless Porter could show that anyone who sees a face in the clouds, believes that it is a real face, his "pure pareidolia" (above) explanation of why those (like me) who see coins over the Shroudman's eyes, and believe they are real images imprinted from real coins that were over the real Shroudman's (Jesus') eyes, fails!]

the clouds, or images in a Rorschach inkblot test, believe they really

[Above (enlarge)[72]: Extract from the first of the ten cards in the Rorschach test. These are supposed to be "humans" but I see two monkeys or meerkats dressed in clothes. But no one, unless they had a serious mental problem, would believe they really were humans, or monkeys, etc. So again, unless Mueller and Nickell could show that those who see humans, or animals, etc, in a Rorschach inkblot test, unless they had a serious mental problem, believe that they are real humans, or animals, etc, their "Rorschach test" (above) explanation of why those (like me) who see coins over the Shroudman's eyes, and believe they are real images imprinted from real coins that were over the real Shroudman's (Jesus') eyes, fails!]

are there. Do Shroud sceptics like Porter, Nickel and Mueller, seriously believe that senior scientists like Balossino and Baima-Bollone are being fooled by the equivalent of faces in the clouds and Rorschach inkblot tests? In this Shroud sceptics are being willfully blind, refusing to see the images of coins over the eyes of the man on the Shroud, which really are there, because they could not then remain Shroud sceptics and might have to become Christians! Of them the wise saying is apt, "There are none so blind as those who will not see"!

• `Balossino et al's claim to have discovered coins over the man's eyes by computer-processing is the result of "arbitrary operations," according to Shroud sceptic Antonio Lombatti' (see above)[73]. But this is disproved by the fact that Tamburelli, et al. didn't confirm Filas and Whanger's claim that there was an image of the reverse side of a Julia lepton coin over the left eyelid of the Shroudman, but instead they found an image of the obverse side of a Julia lepton coin over his left eyebrow. For an example of Lombatti's dishonesty and/or self-delusion regarding the Shroud, see my 15Jun12.

That there are images of two different lepton coins, each struck in AD 29-30 by order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governor of Judea from c. 26 to 36 AD, who in AD 30 ordered that Jesus be crucified (see above), is proof beyond reasonable doubt that Jesus is the Man on the Shroud[74]! It is most likely that two dfferent lepton coin minted in AD 29-30 in Judea, were in circulation in the same area and time in which they were both minted[75]. And both coins would have been freshly minted, because Tiberius began his reign on 17 September 14, so 7 April 30, the day of Jesus' death, was still in Tiberius' 16th year (see above)! Also Julia, Tiberius' mother, died on 28 September AD 29, so it is inaccurate to say that the Julia lepton was minted only in AD 29 - it would have been minted from 28 September 29 to 13 September 30, from Julia's death to the end of Tiberius' 16th year, so its accurate minting date was AD 29-30[76].

The 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud claimed that the flax from which its linen was made was harvested between 1260 and 1390[77]. But in addition to its other improbabilities, this would require the medieval forger to obtain two different Pontius Pilate lepton coins, both minted in AD 29-30, AD 30 being the year of Jesus' crucifixion (see above), which was only discovered in the 17th-18th century by Isaac Newton (1642-1727)[78], and somehow imprint their images over Jesus' eyes, except the left one was over His eyebrow!

Prof. Baima Ballone concluded:

"... the indisputable presence of two coins of Pontius Pilate of 29/30 A.D. on photographic images registered by Enrie of the face of the corpse which was wrapped by the Shroud proves a strict connection with the period of death of Jesus. No mediaeval forger could know these coins, as they were only identified by numismatic studies of the last century"[79].
"No more must we rely on tests or calculations; we now have an 'intrinsic' proof, clearly stamped, as it were, upon the Shroud itself. No medieval forger could have accomplished this. ... In my opinion, this latest research is just about 100% proof that the Shroud of Turin truly held the body of the crucified and buried Christ"[80]!
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "Shroud Exposition Opens In Turin,", 2000. [return]
3. "Nello Balossino," Editrice Effata, Italy, 2021. Translated by Google. [return]
4. Ibid. [return]
5. Ibid. [return]
6. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pl.8a. [return]
7. Balossino, N., 1998, "The image on the Shroud: Results of Photography and Information Technology," Neame, A., transl., St Pauls: Ireland, pp.19-20; "A three-dimensional image," Santa Sindone, 2015. [return]
8. Balossino, 1998, p.20; Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.51; Balossino, N., "Computer Processing of the Body Image," in Scannerini, S. & Savarino, P., eds, 2000, "The Turin Shroud: Past, Present and Future," International scientific symposium, Turin, 2-5 March 2000," Effatà: Cantalupa, p.117; "A three-dimensional image," Santa Sindone, 2015. [return]
9. Balossino, 1998, pp.19-20. [return]
10. Moretto, 1999, p.51. [return]
11. Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.125. [return]
12. Balossino, 2000, p.117. [return]
13. Moretto, 1999, p.51. [return]
14. Ibid. [return]
15. Moretto, 1999, p.51. [return]
16. Balossino, 1998, p.20. [return]
17. Moretto, 1999, p.51. [return]
18. Balossino, 1998, pp.28-31; Balossino, 2000, pp.118-119. [return]
19. Balossino, 1998, p.35. [return]
20. Moroni, M., "Pontius Pilate's Coin on the Right Eye of the Man in the Holy Shroud, in the Light of the New Archaeological Findings," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.285-286. [return]
21. Balossino, 1998, p.34. [return]
22. Vignon, P., 1939, "Le Saint Suaire de Turin: Devant La Science, L'archéologie, L'histoire, L'iconographie, La Logique," Masson et Cie. Éditeurs: Paris, Second edition, plate I. [return]
23. Balossino, 1998, pp.34-35; Balossino, 2000, pp.120-121. [return]
24. Finegan, J., 1964, "Handbook of Biblical Chronology: Principles of Time Reckoning in the Ancient World and Problems of Chronology in the Bible," Princeton University Press: Princeton NJ, pp.296,300; Doig, K.F., 2015, "New Testament Chronology: Part IV, The Crucifixion of Jesus" & "The 30 CE Crucifixion," 22 April. [return]
25. Moretto, 1999, p.51. [return]
26. Whanger, M. & Whanger, A.D., 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN, p.24; Zugibe, F.T., 2005, "The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry," M. Evans & Co.: New York NY, p.236. [return]
27. "Edgar L. Owen, Ltd," 16 October 2017. [return]
28. Madden, F.W., Fairholt, F. W. & Reidenbach, R., ed., 1967, "History of Jewish Coinage, and of Money in the Old and New Testament," [1864],Pegasus Publishing Co: San Diego CA, Revised, pp.148-149; Balossino, 1998, pp.37-38; Baima Bollone, P., "Images of Extraneous Objects on the Shroud," in Scannerini & Savarino, 2000, pp.132-133; Balossino, 2000, p.121. [return]
29. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, 1996, p.224; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.38; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.24; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, pp.98-99; Zugibe, 2005, p.236; Tribbe, 2006, p.117; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.100; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.177. [return]
30. Wilson, I., 1985, "Some Recent Publications," BSTS Newsletter, No. 9, January, pp.18-20, 19; Morgan, R., 1985, "Filas Coin Work," Shroud News, No. 27, February, p.15. [return]
31. Madden, 1967, pp.147-148. [return]
32. Ibid. [return]
33. Balossino, 1998, pp.37-38. [return]
34. Balossino, 1998, p.37. [return]
35. Moretto, 1999, p.51; Balossino, 1998, p.38. [return]
36. Lombatti, A., 1997, "Doubts concerning the Coins over the Eyes," Letters to the Editor, BSTS Newsletter, No. 45, June/July. [return]
37. Moroni, M., 1997, "Those Contentious 'Coins over the Eyes'...," Letters to the Editor, BSTS Newsletter, No. 46, November/December. [return]
38. Schiatti, L., 1998, "The Shroud: A Guide to the Reading of an Image Full of Mystery," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.31. [return]
39. Schiatti, 1998, p.31. [return]
40. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Face Only Vertical," [return]
41. "Simpulum," Forum Ancient Coins. [return]
42. Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J., Mottern, R.W. & Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "The Three Dimensional Image On Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, pp.74-94, 89; Iannone, 1998, p.33. [return]
43. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.90-91. [return]
44. Whanger & Whanger, 1998, pp.24-25. [return]
45. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.88. [return]
46. Culliton, B.J., 1978, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July, pp.235-239; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, pp.228-229; Morgan, R.H., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.132; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.93; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 22; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.79; Balossino, 2000, p.117; Tribbe, 2006, p.124; Wilson, 2010, p.21; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.101. [return]
47. Guerrera, 2001, p.99. [return]
50. Filas, F.L., 1981, "`Missing Link' Coin of Pontius Pilate Proves Authenticity, Place of Origin, and Approximate Dating of the Shroud Of Turin," News Release, Loyola University of Chicago, 1 September, pp.1-4, 2. [return]
51. Moroni, 1991, p.295. [return]
52. Filas, 1981, p.2; Iannone, 1998, p.44. [return]
53. Iannone, 1998, pp.43-44. [return]
54. Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.104; Fanti, G. & Malfi, P., 2015, "The Shroud of Turin: First Century after Christ!," Pan Stanford: Singapore, p.311. [return]
56. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, p.29; Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.25. [return]
57. Moroni, 1991, pp.pp.281a-282. [return]
58. Fanti & Malfi, 2015, pp.70, p.311; Antonacci, 2000, p.105. [return]
59. Morgan, 1980, pp.180-181. [return]
60. Filas, F.L., 1980, "The Dating of the Shroud of Turin from Coins of Pontius Pilate," Cogan Productions: Youngtown AZ, p.7; Antonacci, 2000, p.105. [return]
61. Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, pp.283-311, 290; Borkan, 1995, p.49; Iannone, 1998, pp.38-39; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.30; Ruffin, 1999, p.107; Fanti & Malfi, 2015, p.311. [return]
62. Borkan, 1995, p.49; Iannone, 1998, p.39. [return]
63. Meacham, 1983, p.290; Borkan, 1995, p.49; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, pp.30-31; Ruffin, 1999, pp.107-108. [return]
64. "Metrology IV," in Unger, M.F., 1966, "Unger's Bible Dictionary," [1957], Moody Press: Chicago IL, Third edition, Fifteenth printing, 1969, p.724; Wheaton, D.H., "Money," in Douglas, J.D., et al., eds., "New Bible Dictionary," [1962], Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester UK, Second edition, 1982, Reprinted, 1988, p.791; Zodhiates, S., 1992, "The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament," AMG Publishers: Chattanooga TN, Third printing, 1994, p.917. [return]
65 Borkan, 1995, p.49; Whanger & Whanger, 1998, p.30; Ruffin, 1999, p.107. [return]
66 Jackson, et al., 1977, p.90; Jumper, E., Stevenson, K. & Jackson, J., 1978, "Images of Coins on a Burial Cloth?," The Numismatist, July, Vol. 91, No. 7, pp.1349-1357, 1356; Morgan, 1980, p.135 & Borkan, 1995, p.49. [return]
67. Sessions, L., 2020, "Seeing things that aren't there? It's called pareidolia," Earth Sky, 25 November 25. [return]
68. "Pareidolia," Wikipedia, 2 May 2013. [return]
69. "Pareidolia," World English Dictionary, 2013. [return]
70. Mueller, M., 1982, "The Shroud of Turin: A Critical Appraisal," The Skeptical Inquirer_, Vol. 6, No. 3, Spring, p.24, in Nickell, J., 1987, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Prometheus Books: Buffalo NY, Revised, Reprinted, 2000, p.39. [return]
71. "Face In Cloud Real Pareidolia Event," 4QEDm 13 June 2014. [return]
72. "File:Rorschach blot 03.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 28 October 2020. [return]
73. Lombatti, 1997. [return]
74. Adams, 1982, pp.89-90. [return]
75. Antonacci, 2000, p.105. [return]
76. Madden, F.W., Fairholt, F. W. & Reidenbach, R., ed., 1967, "History of Jewish Coinage, and of Money in the Old and New Testament," [1864],Pegasus Publishing Co: San Diego CA, Revised, pp.153K; Wilson, I., 1985, "Some Recent Publications," BSTS Newsletter, No. 9 , January, pp.18-20, 19; Morgan, R., 1985, "Filas Coin Work," Shroud News, No. 27, February, p.15. [return]
77. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, p.301; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.7; de Wesselow, 2012, p.160. [return]
78. "Chronology of Jesus," Wikipedia, 11 September 2021. [return]
79. Baima Bollone, 2000, p.135. [return]
80. Iannone, 1998, p.44; Guerrera, 2001, p.99. [return]

Posted 4 August 2021. Updated 29 May 2022.