Saturday, April 16, 2022

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twentieth century (3)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #27, "Twentieth century" (3) of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see the Index #1. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. This page was initially based on Ian Wilson's 1996, "Highlights of the Undisputed History: 1900."

[Index #1] [Previous: 20th century (2) #26] [Next: 20th century (4) #28]

20th century (3) (1969-1977).

[Above (enlarge): Photograph of the Shroud hanging vertically in a frame at the 1973 exposition (see below), taken by author Robert K. Wilcox (1943-)[2].]

1969 The Archbishop of Turin, Cardinal Michele Pellegrino (r. 1965-77), after consulting with Pope Paul VI (r. 1963-78) and the Shroud's owner, ex-king Umberto II (1904-83), secretly appoints an 11-member Commission of Italian experts to advise on the preservation of the Shroud and on specific testing, including carbon-14 dating[3], which might be under-taken[4]. It was the first scientific investigation of the Shroud[5]. Three members of the Commission were priests, five were scientists, one was a historian and the other a former director of art galleries[6]. Not until 1976 were the names of the Commission members made public, hence it has been called "the Secret Commission"[7], but it later became evident who they were[8]. They included Dr Giovanni Battista Judica-Cordiglia (-1980), Professor of Forensic Medicine at the University of Turin, who took the first colour photograph of the Shroud [Right (enlarge)[9]], as well as black and white and Woods light photographs[10]. On 16 June the Shroud is secretly taken out of its casket for its state of preservation to be studied for 3 days, 16-18 June, by the team of experts[11]. They examine, photograph and discuss for three days, but do no direct testing[12]. The Commission did not publish its findings until 1976[13], which included that the cloth was in good condition, precautionary measures to be taken to preserve the Shroud from deterioration and proposals for further scientific research[14]. While one member, Noemi Gabrielli (1901-79), retired Director of the art galleries of Piedmont, insisted that the image was a painted forgery[15], the majority concluded that the cloth could have come from the area and time of Christ and could not be dismissed as a fake relic[16]. The Commission's Vice-President, Rev. Jose Cottino, stated that extensive photographic and other tests had been made, and while no definitive traces of blood had been found, nothing had been discovered which contradicted that the Shroud had wrapped the body of Christ[17].

1969b September. Fr. Maurus Green (1919–2001), publishes in the Ampleforth Journal his seminal article on the Shroud: "Enshrouded in Silence," in which "he effectively set down the guidelines for all future research on the Shroud's history."[18].

1970. Prince Victor Emmanuel of Savoy (1937-), the only son of ex-king Umberto II (1904-83), marries champion water skier Marina Ricolfi-Doria (1935-) in a Las Vegas civil ceremony, having consulted neither of his parents, nor invited them to attend[19]. In doing so he broke a centuries-old Savoy family tradition, requiring the crown prince always to consult his father concerning his choice of marriage partner, leaving Umberto with no option but to formally disinherit his son[20]. Further scandals involving the Prince confirmed Umberto's decision to bequeath the Shroud to the Roman Catholic Church upon his death, which occurred in 1983[21]. [See future "1983"].

1972. 1 October. An attempt is made to set fire to the Shroud by an unknown individual who breaks into the Royal Chapel after climbing over the Palace roof[22]. The Shroud, which is kept wrapped around a velvet-covered staff within successive caskets of wood, iron, asbestos, and silver, survives the arson attempt[23].

1973a. A new Commission of experts, comprising a few members of the 1969 Commission[24], the Turin Scientific Commission, is set up by Cardinal Pellegrino[25]. On 4 October the Commission first met before the Shroud hanging vertically in a frame[26] (see above) in the Hall of the Swiss, within Turin's Royal Palace[28]. Among the new Commission members are Belgian textile expert, Professor Gilbert Raes (1914-2001) of the Ghent Institute of Textile Technology[29]. And also Max Frei-Sulzer (1913-83) the recently retired founder, and for 25 years Director, of the Zurich Police Scientific Laboratory and a former Professor of Criminalistics at the University of Zurich[30]. In 1955 Frei had published an article on the falsification of photographs, so he was among the experts called to testify before a notary that the photographs of the Shroud taken by Dr Judica-Cordiglia in 1969 (see above) were genuine[31]. While inspecting the Shroud to compare it with the 1969 photographs, Frei, whose Ph.D was in Botany[32], noticed pollen spores in the dust on the Shroud's surface and within its weave[33]. Being the inventor of the sticky tape uplift method of obtaining forensic evidence[34], Frei asked for, and was granted, permission to take dust samples from the Shroud[35]. As a pioneer forensic scientist, Frei knew that pollen grains trapped in a fabric can indicate its past whereabouts so might help establish the historical locations of the Shroud[36]. Being a Zwinglian Protestant Frei was initially sceptical of the Shroud's authenticity[37], so his original motive likely was to prove that the Shroud had only ever been in Europe.

1973b. 22 November. The Shroud is displayed in the Hall of the Swiss, in preparation for its first ever television showing[38]. International journalists and researchers on the subject, including the USA's Fr Adam Otterbein (1916-98) and Fr Peter Rinaldi (1911-93) as well as Britain's Dr. David Willis (-1976), Fr. Maurus Green (1919-2001) and Ian Wilson (who emailed me that it is his head in the bottom right of the above photo!) and Robert Wilcox, are allowed to view the Shroud directly during this time[39]. Wilson recorded his eye-witness experience of seeing the Shroud for the first time:

"By lunch-time on 22 November [1973], I found myself, with some thirty others, being given a brief preliminary introduction by Turin's then archbishop, Cardinal Michele Pellegrino. The group was escorted up a grand marble staircase of Turin's Royal Palace and into a huge, frescoed hall, the Hall of the Swiss. At the far end of this the Shroud hung upright in a simple oak frame, its fourteen- foot length brilliantly illuminated by high-powered television lights. Then came the second shock. It did not look at all as I had expected. Everything that I knew of the Shroud up to this point - and I thought I knew quite a lot - had been based on black-and-white photographs that, whether they are in positive or negative, make it look a lot darker than it really is. To see the original's faintness and subtlety was really quite breath-taking. Framed by the burns and patches from the other fire in which the Shroud came perilously close to destruction - a similarly ruinous chapel blaze while it was being kept at Chambery in 1532 - there was the familiar `body image' that to me was the Shroud's central mystery. If you stood back you could make it out readily enough: a bearded face, a pronounced chest, crossed hands, legs side by side, together with, as one looked up at the back-of-the-body image, a long rope of hair, taut shoulders and buttocks, and soles of the feet. But the image colour was the subtlest yellow sepia, and as you moved in closer to anything like touching distance (and I saw to my astonishment that the cloth was unprotected by any glass), it seemed virtually to disappear like mist. Because of the lack of outline and the minimum contrast to the ivory-coloured background, it became wellnigh impossible to `see' whatever detail you were trying to look at without stepping some distance back again. To me, as a practising life-painter and an enthusiast of art history, it seemed absolutely impossible that any artist-faker could have created an image of this kind, certainly not one of centuries ago. The succeeding day and a half during which I was allowed some eight hours of further direct examination served to reaffirm my conviction, despite all the obvious rational objections, that this cloth simply had to be genuine"[40].

1973c. 23 November. The Shroud is exhibited for the first time ever on television, in color, and it was seen first in Italy, then throughout Europe and parts of South America[41]. The exposition was introduced by Pope Paul VI[42], who recalled his emotions when he first saw the Shroud as a young priest at the 1931 exposition [see "1931a"]:

"We personally still remember the vivid impression it made on our mind when, in May 1931, We were fortunate to be present on the occasion of a special celebration in honor of the Holy Shroud. Its projection on a large, luminous screen and the face of Christ represented thereon appeared to us so true, so profound, so human and divine, such as we have been unable to admire and venerate in any other image. It was for us a moment of singular delight"[43].
The exposition took place in the Hall of the Swiss in the Royal Palace of Turin. The Shroud was suspended in a wooden frame with ts full length hanging down (see above), in contrast to previous expositions which had always displayed it horizontally[44].

1973d. 24 November. The Shroud is secretly examined by the new commission of experts, brought together by Cardinal Pellegrino (see above)[45]. Giovanni Battista Judica Cordiglia, also a member of the 1969 Commission (see above), took more photographs, including colour ultraviolet and infra-red[46]. Seventeen samples, mostly single threads, selected by the 1969 Commission, are taken from the Shroud with the permission of Umberto II, on the condition that once analysed the samples be returned to Turin[47]. Prof. Gilbert Raes takes from one

[Left (enlarge): The site of one of the the Raes samples (lighter area of Holland cloth backing pointed to by an arrow) taken from the Shroud's front edge[48]. As we shall see, the 1988 radiocarbon dating sample was taken immediately to the left of where this Raes sample was taken.]

edge of the Shroud's frontal end one 40 x 13 mm sample, also from the side-strip one 40 x 10 mm portion, together with one 13 mm warp thread and one 12 mm weft thread[49]. Prof. Giorgio Frache, a forensic serologist from the University of Modena and also a member of the 1969 Commission, took 5 threads from bloodstained areas of the Shroud[50]. Human Anatomy Professors Guido Filogamo and Alberto Zina take two threads back to their University of Turin to examine them under a microscope[51]. Max Frei takes 12 samples of dust from the Shroud's extreme frontal end, using adhesive tape to remove these[52]. The Shroud is returned to its casket the same evening[53].

1974a. US Airforce captain John Jackson, a physicist at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, on Kirtland Air Force Base, in Albuquerque, New Mexico[54], approaches Don Devan (1939-2009), a civilian image enhancement consultant, with an Enrie negative photograph of the Shroud [see "1931a"], and asked him if he could help in determining whether there was three-dimensional information in it[55]. Jackson sought to test French biologist Paul Vignon (1865-1943)'s observation (his emphasis):

"Some emanation from the body has acted on the linen, and since the hollows on the Shroud are less vigorously reproduced than the raised portions it must be admitted that this something worked with less intensity in proportion as the distance from the body increased ... In the present case it is indeed hard to determine with what rapidity the unknown action took place between the body and the Shroud; the main point is that we can assert that the action diminished in proportion as the distance of the body from the Shroud increased ... the raised parts of the body are reproduced strongly while the hollows have given fainter impressions in proportion to their distance from the cloth ... In the language of science it is the result of action at a distance (that is to say without contact); geometrically speaking it is a projection"[56].
That is, the darkness, or intensity, of each part of the image varies in inverse proportion to how far that part of the body would have been from that part of the Shroud which had covered it[57]. The darkest portions would have been closest to the sheet, and the lightest farthest away[58]. And that the image seemed to be present even where the cloth could not have touched the body[59]. So whatever had created the image acted at a distance, not just by direct contact[60]. After Jackson explained what the Shroud was to Devan, a Jew, he proposed taking microdensitometer (an instrument which measures variations in optical intensity) readngs of it[61]. After taking 750,000(!) microdensitometer readings by hand from the Shroud photograph they needed help digitising it for computer analysis[62].

1974b. Rudolph (Rudy) Dichtl (c.1944-), a physicist and electrical engineer colleague of Jackson's suggested Eric Jumper, an aerodynamics engineer, who had recently arrived at Kirtland Air Force Base[63]. Although, like Jackson, a Roman Catholic, Jumper had never heard of the Shroud and Jackson had to explain it to him also[64]. Although sceptical that the Shroud was Jesus' burial cloth, Jumper agreed to join Jackson and Devan's research on the Shroud by studying the Enrie Shroud photograph that Jackson had[65]. This was the beginning of what would become the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP)[66].

1974c. Jackson, Jumper and Devan needed better Shroud photos than the fourth-generation photo that Jackson had from the Holy Shroud Guild[67]. So they wrote to the Guild President, Fr Adam Otterbein, describing their Shroud research and asking him if he had any earlier generation Shroud photos that he could send them[68]. Fr Otterbein, who had been trying for years to get scientists interested in the Shroud, immediately sent them a second generation photo of the Shroud face, copied from an Enrie 1933 original[69].

1974d. Jackson and Jumper constructed a full-scale cloth model of the Shroud on which they had traced all major image features[70]. Then they draped the cloth model over a volunteer of similar height and weight as the man in the Shroud (see below)[71]. They then

[Above (enlarge): Linen Shroud model covering a volunteer's body[72].]

measured the cloth-body distances along the ridge line (the body's highest points of contact with the Shroud) from side-view photographs[73]. The results were then compared with microdensitometer readings along a corresponding line from a 1933 Enrie photograph of the Shroud[74]. The results showed a positive correlation between image intensity and cloth-to-body distance[75]. They then found that a relatively simple mathematical function could adequately relate the two sets of data (see below)[76]. It was

[Above (enlarge): Mathematical simulation of the Shroud draping a human body[77].]

apparent that the image on the Shroud must be equivalent to the three-dimensional volunteer man's body[78].

1975 Jackson had previously met Donald J. Lynn (1932-2000) and Jean J. Lorre (-2005) (a man), working on the Viking Project at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California[79]. They were image enhancement specialists whose job was to filter out the noise from the faint signal of interplanetary spacecraft[80]. They were already interested in the Shroud and Jackson flew to Los Angeles to give them copies of Fr Otterbein's second generation Shroud photographs to work with in their limited spare time[81].

1976a. 19 February. Jackson approaches Robert (Bill) Mottern (1924-2015), an image enhancement specialist at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque[82], to obtain some Wratten photographic filters[83]. Mottern showed Jackson a VP-8 Image Analyzer[84], which translates

[Above (enlarge): Chessboard demonstration that the VP-8 Image Analyzer automatically displays lighter shades as vertically higher and darker shades as lower, even when the object is not three-dimensional[85].]

an image's degrees of lightness and darkness into vertical relief[86]. It was used to produce relief maps of the Moon and the planets because their shades of lightness and darkness has a distance, and therefore a three-dimensional, component[87]. Jackson had never heard of a VP-8 Image Analyzer and Mottern had never heard of the Shroud, but Jackson had brought some Shroud photos with him to show to Mottern[88]. When Mottern placed Jackson's three-by-five-inch transparency of the Shroud under the VP-8's video camera, they were astononished to see a three-dimensional image of the Shroudman (below) on the VP-8's screen[89]! The three-dimensional relief of what

[Above (enlarge): "The Shroud image's three-dimensional characteristics, as revealed by the VP-8 Image Analyzer in February 1976. Here the face and body appear in sculpted relief, framed by the two lines of scorches from the chapel fire of 1532"[90]. The scorches from the 1532 fire appear three-dimensional but only because the VP-8 automatically converts lighter shades as vertically higher, irrespective of whether they are in reality. So they and the white squares on a chessboard falsely appear higher (see above). They are therefore meaningless and so are falsely three-dimensional under a VP-8. But the Shroudman's image is meaningful, being consistent with a real human body, and therefore truly, three-dimensional. All other photographs of persons or things processed by the VP-8 appear distorted and therefore are falsely three-dimensional[91].]

appeared to be a two-dimensional Shroud photo confirmed Vignon's and Jackson's theory that the degrees of lightness and darkness of the Shroud image are due to the varying distance of the cloth from the body when the image was formed[92]!

1976b. 20 February. The Holy Shroud Guild's President Fr Adam Otterbein arrives for a pre-arranged meeting with Jackson and Jumper at the Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque to discuss their plans[93].

1976c. March? At a theology course in Santa Fe, New Mexico, Jackson meets Rev Robert Dinegar (1921-2005), a chemist and Episcopal priest from Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico[94]. Dinegar invites Jackson to Los Alamos to talk about the Shroud, which he does and more scientists are added to Jackson's team, including Ray Rogers (1927–2005), Don Janney, and Roger Morris[95]. Both Jackson and Jumper are transferred as Assistant Professors to the faculty of the US Airforce Academy in Colorado Springs[96]!

1976d. April. Release of the Report of the Turin Scientific Commission[97], La S. Sindone: Ricerche e studi della Commissione di Esperti ("The Holy Shroud: Research and Studies of the Commission of Experts")[98]. The Commission had recommended against carbon-14 dating of the Shroud, because excessively large pieces of cloth would have to be destroyed and its accuracy could not be guaranteed[99]. Raes reported that the samples of thread from the main body of the Shroud and the side strip were both made of linen[100].The cloth samples were spun with a Z twist[101] and woven in a three-to-one herringbone twill pattern[102], which is a complex and expensive weave[103]. Raes found traces of cotton in the sample taken from the main body of the Shroud, but not in the sidestrip sample, which he assumed was due to the loom on which the linen Shroud had been woven, had previously been used to weave cotton cloth[104]. Raes found the cotton to be of the Gossypium herbaceum variety, which is fron the Middle East[105]. Garments made of both linen and wool were prohibited in the Old Testament (Lev 19:19 & Deut 22:11) but not those of linen and cotton[106]. Profs Filogamo and Zina discovered on their two threads granules of unknown origin and round bodies of organic origin, neither of which they could identify[107]. Raes concluded that the Shroud could have been manufactured in the first century AD but he could not say with certainty that it was[108]. Commision member Silvio Curto, Professor of Egyptology at the University of Turin, agreed that the Shroud's fabric could date from the time of Christ[109]. Prof. Frache's team tested their 5 threads from bloodstained areas of the Shroud for haemochromogen, a derivative of haemoglobin frequently found in marks of an ancient date, but they found none[110]. They made chromatographic tests, with no better fortune[111]. Frache however, warned the Shroud was so old that only a positive result would count[112]. The proofs of blood may have vanished down through the centuries[113]. Blood chemist Alan Adler, who later demonstrated the presence of blood on the Shroud [see future], believed that Frache's team was unsuccessful because they were unable to get the blood into a solution in order to perform the necessary wet chemical test[114]. Frache's team did make the important discovery that the body image appeared only on the upper surface of the cloth and was composed of yellow fibrils that did not penetrate the cloth[115]. The Commission's report included the first public information of the pollen findings of Max Frei, who claims that the Shroud's dust includes pollens from some plants that are exclusive to Israel and to Turkey, suggesting that the Shroud must at one time have been exposed to the air in these countries[116]. Specifically, Frei reported that three-quarters of the varieties of pollen he found on the Shroud came from plants that grew in Palestine[117]. Among them were thirteen species which are almost exclusive to the Negev desert and the Dead Sea[118]. Twenty of the identified species found came from Anatolia, which included Edessa[119].

1977a. 23-24 March. Due to the great scientific interest in Jackson and Jumper's findings that the Shroud image is three-dimensional[120], they convene the first United States Conference of Research on the Shroud, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, attended by Frs Rinaldi and Otterbein, Rev. David Sox (1936-2016), Bishop John Robinson (1919-83) , film-maker David Rolfe and many members of what would become the STURP team[121]. At the conference Jackson presented a paper, "The Three Dimensional Image on Jesus' Burial Cloth"[122], in which he reported on his team's research into the three dimensionality of the Shroud image[123] and in particular their testing of Vignon's observation that the intensity of the image seemed to vary inversely with cloth-body distance[124]. First, Jackson outlined his team's experiment draping a full-scale cloth model of the Shroud over a male volunteeer who matched the man on the Shroud's height and weight (see above), measuring the cloth-body distance along a ridge-line (the highest points in profile of the draped cloth over the volunteer) and then measuring with a microdensitometer the image's intensity along the equivalent ridge line on an Enrie 1933 photograph of the Shroud[125]. They then plotted opacity (image intensity) against cloth-body distance and established that there was a close correlation between the two variables[126] (see below). It is evident that the image on the Shroud is

[Above (enlarge)[127]: Extract of correlation curve of image intensity and cloth-body distance of the Shroudman' image. As can be seen, when cloth-body distance is least, image intensity of the Shroudman's image is greatest and vice-versa.]

equivalent to the three dimensional surface of a man's body[128]. Next Jackson presented his team's research using a VP-8 Image Analyzer, pointing out that only when a photograph of an object scanned by the VP-8 contains distance information, will it show a meaningful three-dimensional vertical relief display of the photographed object[129]. Jackson supported this with photos of ordinary objects appearing distorted under the VP-8 [see 05Feb17] and a photograph of a VP-8's screen showing a composite three-dimensional relief of the Shroud's front and back image (see below).

[Above (enlarge)[130]: Extract of VP-8 Image Analyzer-generated three-dimensional relief surfaces of the Shroudman's body image. Except that only the frontal image is three-dimensional. The back image does not show relief of the man's buttocks and seems to be showing a false three-dimensional image of the large dark bloodstain in the small of the man's back. This is evidence for Jackson's Cloth Collapse Theory [see 18Jan12], because only the top (i.e. front) side of the Shroud fell into the field of intense light radiation emittted by Jesus' resurrected body, imparting distance information into the Shroud image as it fell[131].]. Finally Jackson reported that a VP-8 Image Analyzer scan of the Shroudman's face revealed objects resembling small buttons resting atop the man's closed eyelids (below)[132]. After considering other possibilities, Jackson's team concluded

[Above (enlarge): Extract of a close-up of the VP-8 Image Analyzer's three-dimensional relief of the Shroud face, showing the "button-like objects" over each eye[133]. Except that, as can be seen, the "button" over the man's right (left facing) eye is in the correct place, but that over the left (right facing) eye, has been displaced to the edge of the eye-socket (as confirmed by later computer enhancement)[134]. ]

that they were most likely coins placed over the man's eyelids to keep them closed[135]. Shroud historian Ian Wilson, who was at the conference, confirmed that these "buttons" were the same size and shape as lepton coins minted by Pontius Pilate (r. 26-36AD) in AD 30-31[136]!

1977b. Image enhancement specialists Don Lynn and Jean Lorre, who Jackson flew to Los Angeles to give them copies of Fr Otterbein's second generation Shroud photographs (see above), presented a paper, "Digital Enhancement of Images of the Shroud of Turin," at the 1977 conference[137]. Lynn and Lorre, working at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1976, used a microdensitometer to scan Jackson's photos of the Shroud[138]. The scanning data was then processed through a computer and displayed on a computer screen[139]. The image resulting from this technique highlighted additional subtle details invisible to the naked eye[140]. These density studies revealed another image characteristic: the Shroud body image was non-directional[141]. When the computer-displayed image was viewed at high resolutions, the only directional features found on the Shroud were in the weave of the cloth (see below)[142]. This absence of directionality (up and down,

[Right (enlarge)[143]: The computer screen showing that the Shroud image's microdensit-ometer data was random and therefore not directional[144]. The white cross in the centre of the screen represents the warp and weft of the weave which is directional[145].]

side to side) is note-worthy because the microdensitometer would expose the presence of brush strokes if the image had been painted[146]. The image's directionless nature provides further evidence that the Shroud image did not result from an artist's application of some foreign substance[147] but rather was encoded directly from a body lying underneath the cloth[148].

1977c. 18 May. First successful experimental test at Rochester University, New York, by Ken Purser (1929-2018) of General Ionex Corporation, Professor of Physics at the University of Toronto, Ted Litherland (1928- age 94!) and Professor of Physics at the University of Rochester, Harry E. Gove (1922-2009), of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method of radiocarbon dating[149]. Because AMS counts all the carbon-14 atoms in a sample[150], not just those that decayed at the time of measurement as the Libby and Proportional Counters method did[151], much smaller samples could be dated than had previously been possible[152]. This is the method that will be used to date the Shroud in 1988[153].

1977d. 24 June. Rev. David Sox (1936-2016), General Secretary of the newly formed British Society for the Turin Shroud, writes to Professor Harry Gove of Rochester, following an article in Time magazine[154]. about the new radiocarbon-dating technique[155]. It was the first time those in the Rochester AMS project had ever heard of the Turin Shroud[156]. Gove responded on behalf of the project that AMS could date the Shroud, but it was too soon to apply so recently developed a technique to such a renowned object[157]. However it was Sox's inquiry which led to the dating of the Shroud cloth by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry eleven years later[158].

1977e. 16-17 September. A Symposium on the Shroud is held at the Anglican Institute of Christian Studies, London, with Drs Jackson, Jumper, Frei and Walter McCrone (1916-2002) among the speakers, also Frs Rinaldi and Otterbein, Monsignor Giulio Ricci (1913-95) and Don Piero Coero-Borga (1924-86)[159]. Max Frei in his talk said that, without having completed his research, he nevertheless is certain that the pollen he collected from the Shroud includes that of six species of exclusively Palestinian plants, and a significant number of plants from Turkey, mostly from the Anatolian steppe[160]. In his own words, "These permit the definite conclusion that the Holy Shroud is not an adulteration [forgery]"[161]!

1977f. September. After the London Conference(?) seven of the scientist present at the Albuquerque Conference in March 1977 (see "1977a) went to Turin with Frs Otterbein and Rinaldi to request scientific testing of the Shroud in connection with its planned 1978 exposition[162].

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Wilcox, R.K., 2010, "The Truth About the Shroud of Turin: Solving the Mystery," [1977], Regnery: Washington DC, p.128I; Email from Ian Wilson, 2022, "RE: Have you a photo you could email me of the Shroud hung vertically in the 1973 TV exposition?" 21 April, 6:39 am. [return]
3. Wilcox, 2010, p.46. [return]
4. Meacham, 1983, pp.283-311, 288; Borkan, M., 1995, "Ecce Homo?: Science and the of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, pp.18-51, 20; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.12; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.73; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.55; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.1; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.199. [return]
5. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.64; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.8; Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, p.288; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.30; Borkan, 1995, p.20. [return]
6. Wilson, 1979, p.65; Oxley, 2010, p.199. [return]
7. Wilson, 1979, p.66; Tribbe, 2006, p.1; Guerrera, 2001, p.55; Wilcox, 2010, p.46. [return]
8. Wilson, 1979, p.66; Guerrera, 2001, p.55. [return]
9. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.19; Moretto, G., 1999, "The Shroud: A Guide," Neame, A., transl., Paulist Press: Mahwah NJ, p.33. [return]
10. McNair, P., 1978, "The Shroud and History: Fantasy, Fake or Fact?," in Jennings, P., ed., "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, p.27; Wilson, 1979, p.265; Moretto, 1999, p.33; Iannone, 1998, p.6; Wilson, 1998, p.302; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.32; Guerrera, 2001, p.55; Oxley, 2010, p.200. [return]
11. Brent, P. & Rolfe, D., 1978, "The Silent Witness: The Mysteries of the Turin Shroud Revealed," Futura Publications: London, p.68; Wilson, 1998, p.302; Moretto, 1999, p.33; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.307. [return]
12. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
13. Adams, 1982, p.92; Borkan, 1995, p.20; Tribbe, 2006, p.1. [return]
14. Iannone, 1998, p.12; Ruffin, 1999, p.73; Guerrera, 2001, p.55; Tribbe, 2006, p.1; Oxley, 2010, p.200. [return]
15. Adams, 1982, p.92. [return]
16. Adams, 1982, p.92. [return]
17. Adams, 1982, p.92. [return]
18. Wilson, I., 2002, "Obituary - Fr. Maurus Green, OSB," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 56, December. [return]
19. Wilson, 2010, p.276. [return]
20. Wilson, 2010, p.276. [return]
21. Wilson, 2010, p.276. [return]
22. McNair, 1978, p.24; Cruz, J.C., 1984, "Relics: The Shroud of Turin, the True Cross, the Blood of Januarius. ..: History, Mysticism, and the Catholic Church," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.49; Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
23. McNair, 1978, p.24; Murphy, C., 1981, "Shreds of evidence: Science confronts the miraculous-the Shroud of Turin," Harper's, Vol. 263, November, pp.42-65, 45; Cruz, 1984, p.49; Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
24. Guerrera, 2001, p.56. [return]
25. Oxley, 2010, p.200. [return]
26. Adams, 1982, p.86; Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "Revisiting the Eye Images: What are They?," in Fanti, G., ed., 2009, "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Proceedings of the 2008 Columbus Ohio International Conference, August 14-17, 2008, Progetto Libreria: Padua, Italy, pp.136-137; Wilcox, 2010, p.61. [return]
28. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
29. Iannone, 1998, p.13; Oxley, 2010, p.200. [return]
30. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.24; Adams, 1982, p.86; Borkan, 1995, p.21; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E. 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.200; Danin, et al., 1999, p.7; Ruffin, 1999, p.75. [return]
31. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.24; Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.53; Adams, 1982, p.86; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.200; Wilson, 1998, pp.98-99; Maloney, P.C., 1999, "A Contribution toward a History of Botanical Research on the Shroud of Turin," in Walsh, B., ed., "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, 2000, p.241. [return]
32. Danin, A., Whanger, A.D., Baruch, U. & Whanger, M., 1999, "Flora of the Shroud of Turin," Missouri Botanical Garden Press: St. Louis MO, p.7. [return]
33. Cruz, 1984, p.73; Wilson, I. & Miller, V., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.38; Wilson, 1998, p.99; Danin, et al., 1999, p.7. [return]
34. Danin, et al., 1999, p.7; Maloney, 1999, p.241; "Frei-Sulzer, Max,", 2019; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.112. [return]
35. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.24; Adams, 1982, p.86; Wilson, 1998, p.99; Maloney, 1999, p.241; Milne, L., 2005, "A Grain of Truth: How Pollen Brought a Murderer to Justice," New Holland: Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia, p.93. [return]
36. de Wesselow, 2012, p.112. [return]
37. Wilson, 1979, p.80; Ruffin, 1999, p.76; de Wesselow, 2012, p.113. [return]
38. Wilson, 1998, p.302; Wilson, 2010, pp.21, 308. [return]
39. Otterbein, A.J., 1977, "American Conference of Research on the Shroud of Turin," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, pp.3-9, 9; Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.30; Wilson, 1998, pp.3, 302. [return]
40. Wilson, 1998, pp.3-4. [return]
41. Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.30; Tribbe, 2006, p.1; Wilson, 2010, p.308. [return]
42. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
43. Cruz, 1984, p.50; Guerrera, 2001, p.28; Tribbe, 2006, p.189. [return]
44. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.32. [return]
45. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
46. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.169; Iannone, 1998, p.6. [return]
47. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.69; Ruffin, 1999, p.74. [return]
48. Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.35. [return]
49. Iannone, 1998, p.13; Wilson, 1998, p.302; Rogers, R.N., 2008, "A Chemist's Perspective on the Shroud of Turin," Lulu Press: Raleigh, NC, p.64; Wilson, 2010, p.70. [return]
50. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72; Scavone, 1989, p.30; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.206; Ruffin, 1999, p.74. [return]
51. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, pp.69-70; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.200; de Wesselow, 2012, p.102. [return]
52. Adams, 1982, p.86; Schwalbe, L.A. & Rogers, R.N., 1982, "Physics and Chemistry of the Shroud of Turin: Summary of the 1978 Investigation," Reprinted from Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 135, No. 1, 1982, pp.3-49, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co: Amsterdam, p.10; Wilson, 1998, p.302; Danin, et al., 1999, p.7; Maloney, 1999, p.241; Ruffin, 1999, p.76; Maloney, 2002, p.31. [return]
53. Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
54. Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
55. Murphy, 1981, p.60; Heller, 1983, pp.23-24; Tribbe, 2006, p.121. [return]
56. Vignon, P., 1902, "The Shroud of Christ," University Books: New York NY, Reprinted, 1970, pp.136-137. [return]
57. Culliton, B.J., 1978, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July, pp.235-239, 237; Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.73; Murphy, 1981, p.60; Adams, 1982, p.93; Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.51; Balossino, N., 1998, "The image on the Shroud: Results of Photography and Information Technology," Neame, A., transl., St Pauls: Ireland, p.19; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.39. [return]
58. Adams, 1982, p.93; Balossino, N., 1998, "The image on the Shroud: Results of Photography and Information Technology," Neame, A., transl., St Pauls: Ireland, p.19. [return]
59. Jumper, E., Stevenson, K. & Jackson, J., 1978, "Images of Coins on a Burial Cloth?," The Numismatist, July, Vol. 91, No. 7, pp.1349-1357, 1352; Oxley, 2010, p.202. [return]
60. Adams, 1982, p.93; Oxley, 2010, p.202. [return]
61. Heller, 1983, pp.23-25. [return]
62. Heller, 1983, p.25. [return]
63. Heller, 1983, pp.20, 25-26; Murphy, 1981, pp.58, 60; Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
64. Heller, 1983, p.26; Murphy, 1981, pp.58, 60; Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
65. Heller, 1983, pp.26-27. [return]
66. Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
67. Heller, 1983, p.27. [return]
68. Heller, 1983, p.28. [return]
69. Heller, 1983, p.28; Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; . [return]
70. Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J., Mottern, R.W. & Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "The Three Dimensional Image on Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, 1977, pp.74-94, 74-75; Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Culliton, 1978. p.237. [return]
71. Wilson, 1979, pp.227-228; Heller, 1983, p.29; Culliton, 1978. pp.237-238; Antonacci, 2000, p.39. [return]
72. Jackson, J., 1989, "The Vertical Alignment of the Frontal Image," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 32/33, September/December, pp.3-26, 8. [return]
73. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.76-77; Culliton, 1978. pp.237-238; Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Wilson, 1979, p.228; Murphy, 1981, p.60; Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982, p.7; Maher, 1986, p.52; Borkan, 1995, p.22; Antonacci, 2000, p.39. [return]
74. Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Murphy, 1981, p.60; Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982, p.7; Maher, 1986, p.52; Borkan, 1995, p.22; Antonacci, 2000, p.40. [return]
75. Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Murphy, 1981, p.60; Meacham, 1983, p.288; Maher, 1986, p.52; Antonacci, 2000, p.40. [return]
76. Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352; Schwalbe & Rogers, 1982, p.7; Maher, 1986, p.52. [return]
77. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.74-75; Jackson, 1989, p.8. [return]
78. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.77; Culliton, 1978. p.238; Meacham, 1983, p.288. [return]
79. Heller, 1983, p.29. [return]
80. Heller, 1983, p.29. [return]
81. Heller, 1983, p.29. [return]
82. Wilson, 1979, p.229; Morgan, 1980, p.132; Adams, 1982, p.93; Wilson, 1998, p.302. [return]
83. Heller, 1983, pp.30, 38. [return]
84. Heller, 1983, pp.30, 38. [return]
85. Weiss, A. & Schumacher, P., 2016, "SEAM VP8 Image Analyzer Presentation -," 31 December. [return]
86. Adams, 1982, p.93; Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.47; de Wesselow, 2012, p.101. [return]
87. Adams, 1982, p.93; Jackson, et al., 1977, p.74; Antonacci, 2000, p.38. [return]
88. Wilson, 1979, p.229; Heller, 1983, p.38; Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.47. [return]
89. Wilson, 1979, p.229; Heller, 1983, p.388; Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.47; Wilson, 1998, pp.28-29; Antonacci, 2000, p.39. [return]
90. Wilson, 2010, p..82I. [return]
91. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.80-81; Culliton, 1978. p.238; Wilson, 1979, pp.229-230; Morgan, 1980, p.132; Murphy, 1981, p.47; de Wesselow, 2012, p.101. [return]
92. Heller, 1983, p.42; Antonacci, 2000, p.39; Guerrera, 2001, p.65. [return]
93. Otterbein, 1977, p.7; Heller, 1983, pp.40-41; Tribbe, 2006, pp.121-122. [return]
94. Heller, 1983, p.44; Murphy, 1981, pp.60-61. [return]
95. Heller, 1983, p.44; Murphy, 1981, p.47. [return]
96. Heller, 1983, p.43; Adams, 1982, p.93. [return]
97. Wilson, 1998, p.302; Tribbe, 2006, p.120. [return]
98. Wilson, 1979, p.302; Wilson & Miller, 1986, p.49. [return]
99. Tribbe, 2006, p.120. [return]
100. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
101. Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
102. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
103. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
104. Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
105. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.98. [return]
106. Borkan, 1995, p.21; Antonacci, 2000, p.99; Guerrera, 2001, pp.55-56. [return]
107. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, pp.69-70; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.200; de Wesselow, 2012, p.108. [return]
108. Tribbe, 2006, p.110. [return]
109. Cruz, 1984, p.48. [return]
110. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72. [return]
111. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.207. [return]
112. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72. [return]
113. Brent & Rolfe, 1978, p.72. [return]
114. Heller, 1983, pp.13-14; Ruffin, 1999, pp.74-75. [return]
115. Guerrera, 2001, p.57. [return]
116. Wilson, 1998, p.303. [return]
117. Adams, 1982, p.88. [return]
118. Adams, 1982, p.88. [return]
119. Adams, 1982, p.88. [return]
120. Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "Revisiting the Eye Images: What are They?," in Fanti, G., ed., 2009, "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Proceedings of the 2008 Columbus Ohio International Conference, August 14-17, 2008, Progetto Libreria: Padua, Italy, pp.134-139, 135. [return]
121. Wilson, 1979, p.303; Borkan, 1995, p.21. [return]
122. Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J., Mottern, R.W. & Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "The Three Dimensional Image on Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, 1977, pp.74-94. [return]
123. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.74. [return]
124. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.74. [return]
125. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.74-77; Jumper, et al., 1978, p.1352. [return]
126. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.77; Culliton, 1978. p.201; Meacham, 1983, p.288. [return]
127. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.77. [return]
128. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.77. [return]
129. Jackson, et al., 1977, pp.79-80. [return]
130. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.79. [return]
131. Jackson, J.P. ,1990, "Is the image on the Shroud due to a process heretofore unknown to modern science?," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 34, March, pp.3-29, 15; Jackson, J.P., 1991, "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image]," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.325-344, 340-341. [return]
132. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.89; Guerrera, 2001, p.96. [return]
133. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.88. [return]
134. Moroni, M., 1997, "Those Contentious 'Coins over the Eyes'...," Letters to the Editor, BSTS Newsletter, No. 46, November/December; Moretto, 1999, p.51. [return]
135. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.90. [return]
136. Jackson, et al., 1977, p.90. [return]
137. Lorre, J.J. & Lynn, D.J, "Digital Enhancement of Images of the Shroud of Turin," in Stevenson, 1977, pp.154-181; Oxley, 2010, p.205. [return]
138. Antonacci, 2000, p.37. [return]
139. Antonacci, 2000, p.37. [return]
140. Antonacci, 2000, p.37. [return]
141. Antonacci, 2000, p.37; Oxley, 2010, p.205. [return]
142. Antonacci, 2000, pp.37-38. [return]
143. Antonacci, M., 2016, "Test The Shroud: At the Atomic and Molecular Levels," Forefront Publishing Company: Brentwood TN, p.7. [return]
144. Antonacci, 2016, p.7. [return]
145. Ibid. [return]
146. Antonacci, 2000, p.38. [return]
147. Antonacci, 2000, p.38. [return]
148. Antonacci, 2000, p.38. [return]
149. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, pp.12-13, 320; Wilson, 1998, pp.5,180. [return]
150. "Radiocarbon dating: Accelerator mass spectrometry," Wikipedia, 10 May 2022. [return]
151. "Radiocarbon dating: Beta counting," Wikipedia, 10 May 2022. [return]
152. Wilson, 1979, p.303; Gove, 1996, pp.13,46; Wilson, 1998, pp.5,180. [return]
153. Wilson, 1979, p.303. [return]
154. Stoler, P., 1977, "New Dating Game," Time magazine, June 27. Reprinted in Gove, H.E., 1999, "From Hiroshima to the Iceman: The Development and Applications of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, p.20[return]
155. Wilson, 1979, p.303; Gove, 1996, p7. [return]
156. Gove, 1996, p7. [return]
157. Gove, 1996, p.7. [return]
158. Gove, 1996, p.7. [return]
159. Wilson, 1979, p.303. [return]
160. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Book Club Associates: London, p.63. [return]
161. Wilson, 1978, p.63. [return]
162. Tribbe, 2006, p.130. [return]

Posted 16 April 2022. Updated 13 February 2024.

Monday, April 4, 2022

Shroud of Turin News, July - December 2021

© Stephen E. Jones[1]

[Previous: May-June 2021] [Next: January-April 2022]

This is the July-December 2021 issue of my Shroud of Turin News. I will try to catch up over the coming months. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. The articles' words are bold to distinguish them from mine. A Google search of "Shroud Turin" (without the quotes) for those months found only one article worth commenting on!

X-ray dating of Shroud sample I received an email today (12 April 2022, Western Australian time) from Joe Marino, which began:

*New Peer-Reviewed (Open-Access) paper: "X-ray Dating of a Turin Shroud's Linen Sample" by Liberato De Caro, et al., Heritage 2022, 5(2), 860-870;

*Abstract: "On a sample of the Turin Shroud (TS), we applied a new method for dating ancient linen threads by inspecting their structural degradation by means of Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS). The X-ray dating method was applied to a sample of the TS consisting of a thread taken in proximity of the 1988/radiocarbon area (corner of the TS corresponding to the feet area of the frontal image, near the so-called Raes sample). The size of the linen sample was about 0.5 mm × 1 mm. We obtained one-dimensional integrated WAXS data profiles for the TS sample, which were fully compatible with the analogous measurements obtained on a linen sample whose dating, according to historical records, is 55–74 AD, Siege of Masada (Israel). The degree of natural aging of the cellulose that constitutes the linen of the investigated sample, obtained by X-ray analysis, showed that the TS fabric is much older than the seven centuries proposed by the 1988 radiocarbon dating. The experimental results are compatible with the hypothesis that the TS is a 2000-year-old relic, as supposed by Christian tradition, under the condition that it was kept at suitable levels of average secular temperature—20.0–22.5 °C—and correlated relative humidity—75–55%—for 13 centuries of unknown history, in addition to the seven centuries of known history in Europe. To make the present result compatible with that of the 1988 radiocarbon test, the TS should have been conserved during its hypothetical seven centuries of life at a secular room temperature very close to the maximum values registered on the earth."
*11 pages*

Coincidentally this new method of dating the Shroud was done by a team led by Italian engineering professor, Giulio Fanti, whose other three methods of dating the Shroud are mentioned below. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) is an established process "commonly used to determine a range of information about crystalline materials" (Wikipedia). But this is the first time it has been used to date materials (ResearchGate). No doubt there will be further news articles discussing this, and I will comment on this and those in my next January-April 2022 Shroud of Turin News.

My news.My book. I am making progress writing my book. I now

[Left (enlarge): The planned cover of my book.]

have a 21-chapter dot-point outline of the book in Gmail on my phone and almost every day I add to it. Because my problem is I get too quickly into details, my plan is to: 1) Write first a dot-point outline of the book `off the top of my head' on my phone; 2) When the outline is finished, write one paragraph, `off the top of my head' under each outline heading; 3) Write the book manuscript on a word-processor with references; and 4) Either self-publish or have published my book in 2025, to coincide with the next public exposition of the Shroud (which I hope to go to Turin to see).

My domain. New direct .au domain names became available for Australians on Thursday 24 March 22 and I have registered and! I am leaning towards having hosted as my website. As time permits, I will then upload to it PDFs of my original BSTS Newsletter Nos 1-42, Shroud Spectrum International and Shroud News, which I scanned for Barrie Schwortz' All will have the original page numbers. I will also upload to my website my HTML copies of all my posts to this my blog. I might also upload the scanned text of my Shroud books and articles. And finally, if I self-publish my book, it will be able to be purchased from my website. At first my website will be written in plain HTML, but it will have to be professionally written if I sell my book through it.

"The Shroud From Outer Banks Is Actually Kinda Real," Bustle, 4 August 2021, Gretchen Smail ... Though both the Royal Merchant gold and the cross are fictional, it's likely that Outer Banks based the shroud on a real relic called The Shroud of Turin. Depending on who you ask, The Shroud of Turin (called La Sindone in Italy) is either an actual Christian artifact or a very clever medieval forgery. This is what I call the "Central Dilemma of the Shroud" [see 19Oct12 & 18Jul20], that either the Shroud is a work of human art; or it is the burial sheet of Jesus, bearing the imprint of His dead body; there is no third alternative. Writer John Evangelist Walsh (1927-2015) [Right (enlarge)[2].] stated the dilemma in his 1963 book "The Shroud":

"Only this much is certain: The Shroud of Turin is either the most awesome and instructive relic of Jesus Christ in existence-showing us in its dark simplicity how He appeared to men-or it is one of the most ingenious, most unbelievably clever, products of the human mind and hand on record. It is one or the other; there is no middle ground"[3].
It's a 14-foot, yellowed linen cloth that appears to bear an image of a crucified man. The Shroud doesn't merely "appear" to, it does bear an image of a crucified man, whether real or forged! Some believe it's the robe that Jesus Christ was buried in, while others think it's just a religious icon that has manifested the image of Jesus on its surface. This "some" and "others" gives the impression that views on the Shroud are equally for and against by those who have studied it thoroughly. But as the agnostic art historian Thomas de Wesselow (who accepts that the Shroud is Jesus', but not that He rose from the dead), pointed out, "the overwhelming majority of those who consider the matter carefully ... conclude that the Shroud might very well be ... the winding sheet of Jesus":
"`Too good to be true' - that is a regular response to the Shroud of Turin. Without even looking at it, most people make a rough calculation (based on all sorts of hidden assumptions) that it is plainly incredible, not even worth considering. The doubts creep in only when and if - a rare event they start studying the cloth. Surprisingly, perhaps, the overwhelming majority of those who consider the matter carefully (including atheists, agnostics and non-Catholic Christians with a healthy disregard for religious relics) conclude that the Shroud might very well be what it purports to be: the winding sheet of Jesus"[4].
The first mentions of the Shroud of Turin appeared in France during the 1350s[sic]. This is false. As I have previously pointed out [see 24May20, 21Jun20, 03Mar21 & 13Jul21], that the first undisputed appearance of the Shroud was at Lirey, France in c.1355, meaning that anti-authenticists don't dispute it, is not the same as "the first mentions of the Shroud of Turin [having] appeared." Because in 1201, Nicholas Mesarites, the overseer of the Byzantine Empire's relic collection in Constantinople's Pharos Chapel wrote that in the collection was "The funerary sheets [sindones] of Christ [which] wrapped the un-outlined, dead, naked ... body ... after the Passion":
"... in Constantinople ... the Pharos Chapel ... housed the magnificent collection of relics owned by the Byzantine emperors. In 1201 the Overseer of the collection, Nicholas Mesarites, delivered a speech in which he described the Sindon [Shroud] in some detail: `The funerary sheets [sindones][5]. of Christ: they are of cheap and easy-to-find material, still smell of myrrh, and defy destruction, because they wrapped the un-outlined, dead, naked and embalmed [body] after the Passion. ... First, Christ's body is referred to as naked. This is significant, as in this period the dead Christ was almost invariably conceived as wearing a loincloth ... The novel idea that Christ was naked when wrapped in his winding sheet could have been inferred from the Shroud. Secondly, the adjective aperilepton, meaning literally `un-outlined', is a word that is obviously applicable to the blurry, un-outlined Shroud-image. ... What better way of describing the figure seen in the Shroud?"[6].
This is objective, historical evidence that the Shroud existed in Constantinople in 1201, over a century and a half (154 years) before it was exhibited at Lirey in c. 1355! And 59 years before the earliest possible radiocarbon date of 1260!

Per, a French knight named Geoffroi de Charny allegedly presented it to the dean of the church in Lirey, France as Jesus Christ's burial robe. Presumably this is in the article: "The Shroud of Turin: 7 Intriguing Facts - HISTORY" but on clicking it I get a message that it isn't available in my area (Western Australia)! But there is no record of how Charny got his hands on the shroud or why it would be in France when Jesus was likely buried outside of Jerusalem. This also is false! There are records that Othon de la Roche (c.1170-1234), a leader of the Fourth Crusade[7], looted the Shroud in the 1204 Sack of Constantinople[8] and took it to Athens[9]. Othon then sent the Shroud to his father Pons de la Roche (1145–95)[10] at his chateau at Ray-sur-Saône in Bergundy[11], in which there is a wooden chest (see below) of which

[Left (enlarge): Wooden chest in Ray-sur-Saône chateau, which it is claimed to be that in which Othon de la Roche brought the Shroud from Constantinople[12].]

it is claimed to be that in which the Shroud was brought by Othon from Constantinople[13]. Pons in turn gave the Shroud for safekeeping to the Archbishop of Besançon, Amedee de Tramelay (r. 1197–1220)[14], who placed it in Besançon's St-Etienne's (Stephen's) Cathedral[15]. After Othon's death in 1234, the Shroud was passed down through his descendants, some of whom were de Vergys and/or bishops of Besançon[16]. Besançon was within the Holy Roman Empire but the Shroud was owned by the French de Vergy descendants of Othon de la Roche, who feared it would be lost to France[17]. When St-Etienne's Cathedral was struck by lightning in 1349 and destroyed by the ensuing fire[19], the Shroud had already been secretly taken in 1343 to the King of France, Philip VI (r. 1293-1350)[20], and had been replaced with the painted "Besançon `shroud'"[21]. Philip

[Right (original)[22]: Extract from a 1634 copy of the Besançon `shroud', which was destroyed in the French Revolution (1789-99)[23]. It may have been the "cunningly painted" `shroud' that Bishop d'Arcis (see below) had confused with the real Shroud[24].]

in turn gifted the Shroud to Geoffroi I de Charny[25] on the condition that he marry Jeanne de Vergy (c. 1332-1428), a direct descendant of Othon de la Roche[26], which he did in 1346 when she reached the then marriageable age of 14[27]. The ~32 years difference in their ages (Geoffroi was ~46) shows that this was no ordinary marriage!

Per a 1981 New York Times article, there were numerous claims of religious relics during the Middle Ages in Europe. Presumably this was, "Opinion: The Shroud of Turin.," New York Times 4 December, 1981. As a result, the authenticity of the shroud has been debated for decades, starting from the moment it was discovered. This falsely begs the question that the Shroud was "discovered" in "about 1350." See above that what can only be the Shroud was in Constantinope in 1201 (for starters). In 1357, the Bishop of Troyes, France Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377–1395). proclaimed it was a forgery, with his successors saying he believed the cloth "had been cunningly painted" and was more "a work of human skill" rather than a miraculous artifact. Presumably she means one of d'Arcis' predecessors, Henri de Poitiers (r. 1354–1370). But this was mere hearsay by d'Arcis in his 1389 Memorandum. There is no evidence that Bishop de Poitiers had a problem with the Shroud and much evidence that he didn't [see 16Feb15, 03Jul18, 14Jan19 & 29Dec20]. Besides the Shroud is not painted [see 11Jul16], so either d'Arcis was mistaken (see above on his possible confusion of the painted Besançon `shroud' with the real Shroud) or he was lying! If it was in fact painted by an artist, that person would have singlehandedly changed the way Jesus is depicted today. Again, the Shroudman's image was not painted!

As Duke professor Dr. Alan B. Whanger He was "Alan D. Whanger." told New York Times in 1982, Jesus was initially drawn without a beard to resemble Greek gods. Presumably this was: Wilford, J.N., 1982, "New Data on Shroud of Turin," New York Times, 28 January, p.A16. But because of the shroud's image, he's now typically depicted as a tall, thin man with long hair, a beard, and deep-set eyes. This is an important point. The image of Jesus that everyone (even Shroud sceptics) has in their heads is that of the man on the Shroud! Google Jesus Images.

The Pope appointed a team of experts to study the shroud in 1969, This became known as the 1969 Secret Commission because . It was followed in 1973 by another Commission which was not secret. and in the 1980s, it was pored over by countless scientific teams. Hardly "countless"! This journalist, Gretchen Smail (like many, if not most journalists), knows little about the subject that she is writing about! In fact she, "is an entertainment journalist at Bustle, where she writes about genre TV shows, true crime and documentary series, and projects from creators of color"! Presumably her "in the 1980s", includes the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP)'s October 1978 5-day round-the-clock examination of the Shroud, using a battery of scientific tests. If the Shroud had been a fake, they would have discovered that within hours, if not minutes. Instead, in its final report, STURP wrote:

"We can conclude for now that the Shroud image is that of a real human form of a scourged, crucified man. It is not the product of an artist. The blood stains are composed of hemoglobin and also give a positive test for serum albumin. The image is an ongoing mystery and until further chemical studies are made, perhaps by this group of scientists, or perhaps by some scientists in the future, the problem remains unsolved"[28].
Finally, in 1988 the Roman Catholic Church announced it was not the authentic cloth that Jesus Christ was buried in, as the linen was radiocarbon dated back to the Middle Ages."This also is false. One Roman Catholic, the then Archbishop of Turin, Cardinal Anastasio Ballestrero (r. 1977-1989), not the entire "Roman Catholic Church," foolishly said that he accepted the radiocarbon dating results, instead of saying the church would study the results and announce its response later. This led to dishonest headlines, such as, "Church Says Shroud of Turin Isn't Authentic":
"TURIN, Italy, Oct. 13 - The Roman Catholic Church announced today that the Shroud of Turin, venerated by millions of Christians over the centuries as the burial cloth of Jesus, could not be authentic because new scientific tests show that the linen dates from the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, Catholics were encouraged to continue their veneration of the shroud as a pictorial image of Christ, still capable of performing miracles. At a news conference today, the shroud's custodian, Anastasio Cardinal Ballestrero, revealed that radiocarbon tests conducted independently by three laboratories this year had concluded that the shroud cloth was created between 1260 and 1390 ... While church officials did not contest the test results, they said further research and evaluation would be necessary before the origins of the shroud were clearly established"[29].
But the church didn't discourage the belief that the shroud still somehow manifested an image of Jesus Christ, and thus is capable of performing healing miracles. That's because the Roman Catholic Church did not agree with Archbishop Ballestrero's foolish acceptance of the 1988 radiocarbon dating's "1260-1390" results (see above). That should have been the end of the discussion, but debate continues to this day about its authenticity. Why should one set of scientific tests be "the end of the discussion"? Considering that the evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic, i.e. is Jesus' "linen shroud" recorded in the Gospels (Mt 27:59; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53)! And that Oxford radiocarbon dating laboratory's Director, Prof. Christopher Ramsey (see below), a signatory to the 1989 Nature article which reported the "1260-1390" results admitted, "There is a lot of other evidence that suggests to many that the Shroud is older than the radiocarbon dates allow":
"There is a lot of other evidence that suggests to many that the Shroud is older than the radiocarbon dates allow and so further research is certainly needed. It is important that ... experts assess and reinterpret some of the other evidence. Only by doing this will people be able to arrive at a coherent history of the Shroud which takes into account and explains all of the available scientific and historical information"[30].
In 2013, scientists in Italy used infrared light and spectroscopy to date the shroud between 280 B.C.E. and 220 C.E., which is much closer to when Jesus supposedly died. There is no "supposedly" about it. Wikipedia states (footnotes omitted) that, "Most scholars agree that he [Jesus] died in 30 or 33 AD":
"A number of approaches have been used to estimate the year of the crucifixion of Jesus. Most scholars agree that he died in 30 or 33 AD. The Gospels state that the event occurred during the prefecture of Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea from 26 to 36 AD. The date for the conversion of Paul (estimated to be 33–36 AD) acts as an upper bound for the date of Crucifixion. The dates for Paul's conversion and ministry can be determined by analyzing the Pauline epistles and the Acts of the Apostles. Astronomers have tried to estimate the precise date of the Crucifixion by analyzing lunar motion and calculating historic dates of Passover, a festival based on the lunisolar Hebrew calendar. The most widely accepted dates derived from this method are 7 April 30 AD, and 3 April 33 AD (both Julian"[31].
Googling "2013 date shroud between 280 B.C.E. and 220 C.E." (without the quotes) revealed that Smailes is quoting from a article, "Shroud of Turin Isn't Jesus' Burial Cloth, Claims Forensic Study," which again I can't read. But presumably it's referring to the experiments by Italian engineering professor, Giulio Fanti (see below). And if so, his "average of all three dates of the Shroud is 33 BC ±250 years," i.e. 217BC - AD283, which is "a date range in which Jesus' death (either AD 30 or AD 33) falls" (see below)! To save time I will copy-and-paste (changing the footnote numbers) from my post of 19Jul17 summarising this:

... Another work indicated an age for the TS "between 1300-and 3000-years old." A mechanical analysis coupled with opto-chemical measurements has recently dated the TS to 90 AD ±200 years.

... The, "A mechanical analysis coupled with opto-chemical measurements has recently dated the TS to 90 AD ±200 years" (above) presumably is an update of three different methods (or a new fourth) to date the Shroud, carried out under the leadership of engineering professor Giulio Fanti [Right (enlarge)[32].] at the University of Padua, Italy. I had blogged about Prof. Fanti's three new methods of dating the Shroud in my posts of 27Mar13, 02Apr13, 21Apr13 and 02Jan14. They were mainly in response to the news articles, Tornielli, A., 2013, "New experiments on Shroud show it's not medieval," Vatican Insider, 26 March and Squires, N., 2013, "Turin Shroud 'is not a medieval forgery'," Daily Telegraph, 30 March. These three tests and their results were:

"Final results show that the Shroud fibres examined produced the following dates, all of which are 95% certain and centuries away from the medieval dating obtained with Carbon-14 testing in 1988: the dates given to the Shroud after FT-IR testing, is 300 BC ±400, 200 BC ±500 after Raman testing and 400 AD ±400 after multi-parametric mechanical testing. The average of all three dates of the Shroud is 33 BC ±250 years"[33].
This is summarised in the following table:
FT-IR300 BC ±400700 BC-AD 100
Raman200 BC ± 500700 BC-AD 300
Mechanical400 AD ± 400AD 0 - AD 800

So all three tests yield a date range in which Jesus' death (either AD 30 or AD 33) falls!

Per CNN, a member of the 1988 radiocarbon dating team said in December 2013 that he was willing to retest the shroud. Not "CNN" but presumably this refers to the following article:

"Christopher Ramsey, the current head of the Oxford AMS lab and ... an author on the original 1989 paper, confirmed that he has looked into the matter as well ... Fanti's alternative dating technique relies on a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy and mechanical textile breaking parameters to arrive at dates. Ramsey is cautious about Fanti's technique. `Those aren't methods that are used for dating in the archaeological community,' he points out. It is easy to see why Ramsey is so cautious. Most dating systems rely on some form of radioactive decay, be it radiocarbon for young samples, or argon–argon, uranium–lead, neodymium–samarium decays for geological samples. Other techniques, like electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence, exist to date archaeological samples. The point in all cases is that these systems have a solid theoretical underpinning and a long history of use, rigorous testing and cross-calibration behind them. Fanti's technique is not only new, but seems to have been devised specifically to address the issue of the Turin Shroud. In short, the scientific cart seems to have been put in front of the methodological horse"[34].
This is a fallacious argument. Scientific truth does not depend on whether Ramsey accepts it. That Shroud samples dated by three different scientific methods returned dates which straddle the date of Jesus' crucifixion needs to be explained. Ramsey is in my opinion playing a double game. Pretending to be open to "further research [which] is certainly needed" (see above) but refusing to even consider Fanti's 3 different dating methods of the Shroud. Well now he has another, the Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) method (see above)! I replied to Joe Marino today (12 April 2022):
"I expect that using WAXS for dating will be embraced by archaeologists as another tool in their dating toolkit. If so, it will put more pressure on Ramsey and Jull to explain why, if WAXS returns reliable dates, their C-14 dating of the Shroud is such an outlier. They must know, or suspect, that Linick hacked Arizona's dates. Arizona's "1350" first run date, "591±30" in Table 1 of the 1989 Nature paper, is the most recent of all the dates! They must know that Linick was the leaker of Arizona's first "1350" date [see 03Aug19]. As you presumably know, in October 2018 I wrote an open letter to Ramsey, which I both emailed and snail mailed to him. [providing evidence that: "... the Shroud of Turin existed not just 65 years, nor only 316 years, but at least 716 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! Therefore, the 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud of Turin must be wrong and cannot be salvaged."] He could have shot it down in flames if it was wrong. But he didn't even acknowledge it. Their `body language' is that of ... hiding something important! So you are probably right that they would never publicly admit their 1989 Nature paper was wrong. They are in too deep for that"[35].
And in 2018, a forensic scientist found that the shroud could not be authentic, as the blood patterns on the material are not consistent with how a crucified body would bleed. This was in the article, Borrini, M. & Garlaschelli, L., 2018, "A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin," Journal of Forensic Sciences, 10 July. See my critique of it in my post of 13Aug18, which included: • Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) has increasingly attracted sceptical scutiny because it relies too much on crime investigators' "subjective hunches." • Borrini and Garlaschelli's lance wound in the side experiment was not on a human body (living or dead) but a plastic manne-quin [Left[36].]! • They did not use post-mortem blood mixed with lung and heart sac fluid as is on the Shroud, but "synthetic blood". • They did not understand, or care, that the lance wound in Jesus' side occurred after He was dead (Jn 19:34), and a dead crucifixion victim (Jesus) would have been slumped forward held by the nails in his wrists, so any blood that did not adhere to the immediate vicinity of the wound would not have flowed down the body but dripped off onto the ground. • Most of the blood from the lance wound in the side had pooled around the small of the man's back, which shows that it had flowed out after his body had been taken down from the cross and laid on the Shroud.

Today, the Shroud of Turin is housed in the Duomo of Torino Turin Cathedral. in a climate-controlled case in a chapel built just to hold it. No. The Shroud was in the Royal Chapel until a fire in 1997 severely damaged it and the Shroud was moved into Turin Cathedral where it has been ever since. Even though the Royal Chapel was restored in 2018. There are several reasons why: • The Royal Chapel since 1946 has been owned by the Italian State. • The Shroud is safer in the Cathedral than in the Royal Chapel. • The Church has spent a lot of money providing a climate-controlled reliquary for the Shroud in the Cathedral. Because it's extremely fragile, it's not viewable to the public except during very rare exhibitions (the last of which was in 2015). As I wrote above, the next public exposition of the Shroud is expected to be 2025, but it hasn't been definitely announced that it will be.

Despite her many mistakes in this article, I am grateful to this journalist Gretchen Smail for writing such a wide-ranging article about the Shroud for me to comment on!

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "Walsh, John Evangelist," Obituaries,, 28 March 2015. [return]
3. Walsh, J.E., 1963, "The Shroud," Random House: New York NY, pp.xi-xii. [return]
4. de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.133. [return]
5. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.53. There were linen strips [othonia] found by Peter and John in the empty tomb (Jn 20:6). They may also have been in the Pharos Chapel with the Shroud but have since been lost. [return]
6. de Wesselow, 2012, pp.176-177. [return]
7. Beecher, P.A., 1928, "The Holy Shroud: Reply to the Rev. Herbert Thurston, S.J.," M.H. Gill & Son: Dublin, p.58; Barnes, 1934, pp.54-55; O'Connell, P. & Carty, C., 1974, "The Holy Shroud and Four Visions," TAN: Rockford IL, pp.7-8; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.50; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.96; Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 198; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.127; Scavone, D.C., 1998, "A Hundred Years of Historical Studies on the Turin Shroud," Paper presented at the Third International Congress on the Shroud of Turin, 6 June 1998, Turin, Italy, in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.58-70, 66; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.32; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.104; "Othon de la Roche," Wikipedia, 11 January 2022. [return]
8. Beecher, 1928, p.58; O'Connell & Carty, 1974, p.8; Scavone, 1991, p.198; Scavone, 1998, p.66; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, pp.9-10; Oxley, 2010, p.104; "Othon de la Roche: Early life," Wikipedia, 11 January 2022. [return]
9. Scavone, 1989, p.96; Scavone, 1991, p.198; Iannone, 1998, pp.127-128; Scavone, 1998, p.66; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.273; Tribbe, 2006, pp.24,32; Oxley, 2010, p.104; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.211, 301; "Othon de la Roche: Lord of Athens," Wikipedia, 11 January 2022. [return]
10. Barnes, 1934, p.55; Scavone, 1989, pp.97-98; Tribbe, 2006, pp.24,32. [return]
11. O'Connell & Carty, 1974, p.8; Scavone, 1989, p.97; Oxley, 2010, p.105; "Othon de la Roche: Lord of Athens," Wikipedia, 11 January 2022. [return]
12. Extract from slide 25 of Piana, A., 2010b, "The `Missing Years' of the Holy Shroud," Frascati (Rome), 5th May 2010. [return]
13. Oxley, 2010, p.105. [return]
14. Barnes, 1934, p.55; Scavone, 1989, pp.97-98; Tribbe, 2006, pp.24,32. [return]
15. Barnes, 1934, p.55; Scavone, 1989, pp.97-98; Tribbe, 2006, pp.24,32. [return]
16. Scavone, 1991, p.198; Oxley, 2010, p.105. [return]
17. Barnes, 1934, p.55; Scavone, 1989, pp.97-98. [return]
19. Beecher, 1928, p.58; Barnes, 1934, p.55; O'Connell & Carty, 1974, p.8; Scavone, 1989, p.98; Scavone, 1991, p.198; Scavone, 1998, p.66; Tribbe, 2006, pp.24,32. [return]
20. Barnes, 1934, p.55; O'Connell & Carty, 1974, p.8. [return]
21. Scavone, 1998, p.67. [return]
22. "The Holy Shroud of Besançon," 1634, by Jean de Loisy (c. 1603-60), The Art Institute of Chicago. [return]
23. Scavone, 1998, p.67. [return]
24. Scavone, 1998, p.67. [return]
25. Barnes, 1934, p.55; Scavone, 1998, p.66. [return]
26. Wilson, 1998, p.273; Tribbe, 2006, p.32; Wilson, 2010, pp.210-211;. [return]
27. Scavone, 1998, p.66; Tribbe, 2006, p.32. [return]
28. "Shroud of Turin Research Project," Wikipedia, 26 September 2021. [return]
29. Suro, R., 1988, "Church Says Shroud of Turin Isn't Authentic," New York Times, 1 October. [return]
30. Ramsey, C.B., 2008, "The Shroud of Turin," Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, March. [return]
31. "Jesus: Chronology," Wikipedia, 8 April 2022. [return]
32. Roberto Brumat, 2013, "Shroud, new dating compatible with the age of Christ," (Google Translate). [return]
33. Tornielli, A., 2013, "New experiments on Shroud show it's not medieval," Vatican Insider, 26 March. [return]
34. Corfield, R., 2013, "Chemistry in the face of belief," 23 December. [return]
35. Email to Joe Marino, "Re: NEW PEER-REVIEWED SHROUD PAPER / Various Shroud videos," 12 April 2022 12:48 pm. [return]
36. Borrini, M. & Garlaschelli, L., 2018, "A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin," Journal of Forensic Sciences, 10 July, pp.1-7, 5, Fig. 7. [return]

Posted 4 April 2022. Updated 16 August 2022.