Friday, February 11, 2022

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twentieth century (2)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #26, "Twentieth century" (2) of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see the Index #1. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. This page was initially based on Ian Wilson's 1996, "Highlights of the Undisputed History: 1900."

[Index #1] [Previous: 20th century (1) #25] [Next: 20th century (3) #27]

20th century (2) (1940-68).

[Above (enlarge)[2]: Photograph of the Sudarium of Oviedo ("the face cloth [Greek soudarion] that had been on Jesus’ head" - Jn 20:7), taken in 1965 by Giulio Ricci (1913-95). Ricci compared his photographs of the Sudarium with those of the face of the Shroud and "found a perfect correspondence" between bloodstains on the Sudarium and the Shroud (see below). See also 08Aug07, 17Jun08, 08Dec09, 17Apr10, 28Jul12, 21Jan16, 25May16, 24Jun16, 16Sep19 & 27Apr21.]

1940 10 June. Under Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini (r. 1922-43), Italy entered World War II on the, eventually losing, Axis side by declaring war on Britain and France[3].

1942 Dr Jean Volckringer (c. 1906-91), pharmacist at St Joseph's Hospital, Paris (the same hospital where Dr. Pierre Barbet was Chief Surgeon), publishes a paper[4] on the relationship of the Shroud's

[Above (enlarge)[5]: Volckringer's comparison of an image of a pressed plant Lysimachia vulgaris (left), and the positive image of the Shroud face (right), to support his theory that both images are the result of cellulose degradation[6], albeit from different causes.]

image to the phenomenon of images of plants occurring on the pages of pressed plant collections[7]. In 1935 Volckringer had theorised that both the imprints of plants pressed between paper in museum and herbarium collections, and the image on the Shroud, were both the result of cellulose degradation, thus anticipating STURP's finding that it was, nearly 50 years later[8]!

1943a 25 July. Following a series of Italian military defeats[9] and Allied forces invading Sicily and bombing the Italian mainland[10], King Victor Emmanuel III (1900-46) dismisses Mussolini as Prime Minister and has him arrested[11].

1943b 3 September. Allied forces land on the `toe' of Italy and on that day the Italian Government agrees to an armistice with the Allies[12]. The armistice was publicly announced by the king on 8 September, but it would not be until 8 October that Victor Emmanuel declares war on Germany[13].

1943c 12 September. German paratroopers rescue Mussolini and after a meeting with Hitler, Mussolini agreed to set up a new regime, the Italian Social Republic, based in the north Italy town of Salò[14].

1944a May. Discovery by a Mrs Molly Drew, after a World War II German bombing dislodged plaster over its ceiling hiding place[15],

[Above (enlarge): "The Shroud-like Templar panel painting discovered at Templecombe, England, during the Second World War, which represents the prime clue that the Knights Templar may secretly have owned the Shroud during the period immediately following the capture of Constantinople and up to their suppression in 1307"[16]. Ian Wilson later abandoned his theory that the Templars obtained the Shroud in the 1204 Sack of Constantinople and brought it from Acre, Palestine to France in 1291[23Sep17a]. But the Templars began in Jerusalem in 1120, in which later there were Shroud-like artworks[23Sep17b], so it seems likely that this Templar panel face was indirectly based on the Shroud!]]

of a Knights Templar panel painting in the English village of Templecombe, in what had been an outbuilding of a 12th century Templar Preceptory[17].

1944b 4 June. Rome is liberated by the Allies, and the retreating Germans ignore Hitler's order to blow up the Tiber bridges[18].

1945a 10 April. Victor Emmanuel, being irrevocably tainted by his earlier support of the Mussolini's Fascist regime, under pressure from the Allies, transferred most of his constitutional powers to his son, Crown Prince Umberto (1904-83)[19].

1945b 28 April. While attempting to escape to Switzerland from the advancing Allied forces, Mussolini and his entourage were executed by communist partisans[20].

1945c 8 May. World War II in Europe ends (V-E Day)[21].

1945d 2 September. Formal signing of Japanese surrender documents aboard the USS Missouri (V-J Day)[22].

1946a 9 May. Victor Emmanuel formally abdicates as King of Italy in

[Right (enlarge)[23]: Prince Umberto in 1944. "Umberto II ... was the last King of Italy. He reigned for 34 days, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946, although he had been de facto head of state since 1944 and was nicknamed the May King"[24]. Umberto II would also be the last Duke of Savoy[25] (see future "1983").]

favour of his son who ascends to the throne as King Umberto II (r. 1946)[26].

1946b 1 June. Willard Libby (1908-80) publishes his theory of radiocarbon dating[27] for which he will be awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (see below).

1946c 6 June. Formal proclamation of the Italian Republic and end of King Umberto II's 34-day reign, following a referendum on 2-3 June as to whether Italy should remain a monarchy or become a republic, which was narrowly decided 54% to 46% for a republic[28]. All male members of the House of Savoy were required to leave Italy forever, with Victor Emmanuel III chosing exile in Egypt[29] and Umberto II, the Shroud's legal ownerl[30], in Portugal[31].

1946d 28 October. The Archbishop of Turin, Cardinal Maurilio Fossati (r. 1930-65), returned to the Sanctuary of Montevergine, in southern Italy, to bring back to Turin the Shroud which he had secretly taken there for safekeeping in September 1939[32]. [see "1939d"]. The Shroud is exhibited to the monks, most of whom didn't know it had been there, and then is returned to Turin's now state-owned Royal Palace on 31 October[33].

1948 Pioneer forensic scientist Max Frei-Sulzer (1913-83)[34] founds the Zurich Police Scientific Laboratory and would be its Director for the next twenty-five years[35]. See future "1973" and "1978".

1950a Publication of French surgeon Pierre Barbet (1884–1961)'s book, La Passion de N. S. Jesus-Christ selon le Chirurgien, which would in 1953 be translated into English as, "A Doctor at Calvary"[36].

1950b May. First International Shroud Congress held in Rome and Turin[37]. Barbet presented a report showing how the various `bloody' stains on the Shroud, exhibit the subtlest morphological characteristics of the stains and marks of coagulated blood[38].

1950c Fr. Adam Otterbein (1916-98) founds the "Holy Shroud Guild" in Esopus, New York[70].

1955a Easter. British war hero, Group Captain Leonard Cheshire,

[Left (enlarge)[40]: Front page photo of the Shroud face in Britain's Daily Sketch of 7 March 1955.]

VC (1917-92), publishes articles about the Shroud with a photograph of its face in the British Daily Sketch and Picture Post magazines[41]. For many in the UK this was their first and lasting introduction to the Shroud[42]. One of those for whom the photograph of the Shroud in Cheshire's Picture Post article was his first and lasting introduction to the Shroud, is Ian Wilson:

"During that same year [1955], flicking through a popular weekly journal called Picture Post I came across an article by World War Two hero Group Captain Leonard Cheshire VC on the subject of the Turin Shroud. In my rampantly anti-Christian mindset of that time, any Roman Catholic relic automatically had to be a fake. But in this particular instance my strong interests in art and art history came into play. Priding myself that I could look at any section of an `old master' and identify the artist from the style, the sight of the Shroud's `photographic' face and body image - to my eyes so self-evidently not the work of any artist - profoundly challenged my hitherto complacent agnosticism"[43].
1955b 11 May. "Cheshire receives a letter from Mrs. Veronica Woollam of Gloucester, asking if her ten-year-old daughter Josephine, crippled with osteomyelitis in the hip and leg, 'could be blessed with the relic of the Holy Shroud'. Cheshire takes Josephine and her mother by train, first to Portugal, for ex-King Umberto's permission, then to Turin in the hope of her being healed via the Shroud. The Shroud is taken out of its casket [by order of the Archbishop of Turin, Cardinal Maurilio Fossati (r. 1930-65)], its seals are broken and Josephine is allowed to put her hand in beneath the silk covering. But it is not unrolled. Although there was no immediate change in Josephine's condition, she later recovers to lead a normal life, though she will die young"[44] (1945-81 = 36).

1957 Discovery of the Sakli or 'Hidden' Church, after a landslide had

[Above (enlarge)[45]: Sakli (Hidden) Church, Goreme. The fresco depicting the Image of Edessa/Shroud tetradiplon "four-doubled' is above the arch (see below).]

blocked its entrance for five hundred years[46]. It is one of the abandoned rock-cut churches in the Goreme region of Cappadocia (Acts 2:9; 1 Peter 1:1), central Turkey, about halfway between Urfa/Edessa and Istanbul/Constantinople[47]. It is also one of the least visited of those churches because it can be reached only by a steep, rocky track which requires the help of a guide to find it[48]. Above one

[Above (enlarge)[49]: Tenth to mid-eleventh century fresco copy of the Image of Edessa, in the church of St. John at Sakli, Cappadocia[50]. See its equivalent area of the Shroud below.]

[Above (enlarge)[51]: The equivalent portion of the Shroud when "doubled in four" compared to the Sakli fresco (above). See "5. Fourth doubling" in my "Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin."]

of its arches is a fresco painting of a wide piece of cloth imprinted with a sepia-coloured, front-facing face of Jesus with a striking semblance to the equivalent area of the Shroud we know today[52]. Wilson sums up the evidence for this 10th-11th century Sakli fresco being a copy of the face one-eighth of Shroud (see above), "A full two centuries earlier than the earliest date [1260] attributed to the Shroud by radiocarbon dating"[53]:

"One particularly interesting Edessa cloth copy ... is painted above an arch in the Sakli or `Hidden' church in the Goreme region of central Turkey ... It dates to the tenth or early eleventh century and, despite some damage to the face, its general resemblance to the facial portion on the Shroud is really quite remarkable. There is the same sepia-coloured, disembodied, rigidly frontal face on the same landscape cloth ... And when we know, as we do from the Official History, that this same Edessa cloth's imprint had the appearance of `a moist secretion without colouring or painter's art', then can we really believe that this could not have been our Shroud?"[54]
See 23Aug12, 18May14, 20Jan17, 13May17 & 18Mar18.

1959 18 December. Formation of the Centro Internazionale di Sindonologia International Center for the Turin Shroud) in Turin[55]. Its first Director was Prof. Giovanni Judica-Cordiglia[56]. In the same year the Centro began publication of its journal Sindon, with articles predominantly in Italian and French[57].

1960 December. Willard Libby wins the Nobel prize in Chemistry for his discovery and development of radiocarbon dating (see above)[58].

1963 Book "The Shroud" by John Evangelist Walsh (1927-2015) is published with the following words in its preface which "remain as relevant today as they were then"[59]:

"Only this much is certain: The Shroud of Turin is either the most awesome and instructive relic of Jesus Christ in existence - showing us in its dark simplicity how He appeared to men - or it is one of the most ingenious, most unbelievably clever, products of the human mind and hand on record. It is one or the other; there is no middle ground" (my emphasis)[60].

1965 Italian priest, artist and Shroud scholar, Giulio Ricci (1913-95), visits Oviedo, Spain searching for the "sudarium" mentioned in John 20:6-7[61]. Ricci photographs the Sudarium of Oviedo (see above) and back in Italy compares his photographs of the Sudarium with those of the Shroud[63]. Ricci "found a perfect correspondence" between bloodstains on the Sudarium and the Shroud (see below)[64]. Ricci

[Above (enlarge)[65]: Mapping by Ricci of bloodstains and imprints on the Sudarium of Oviedo (left) to the face of the Shroud (right). As can be seen, there are a least 11 "remarkable agreement[s]" between the Sudarium and the Shroud[66].]

concluded that the Sudarium of Oviedo was "the napkin [Greek soudarion, which had been on his [Jesus'] head" (Jn 20:7)[67]. But then the Shroud cannot have been the work of a 13-14th century forger, as claimed by the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating, because the "Sudarium ... came from the East about four centuries [sic seven centuries 1355 - 616 = 739 (see "614" and "c1355")] before the Holy Shroud appeared in the West"[68]!

1966a Shroud historian Ian Wilson experimentally proves that the Image of Edessa/Mandylion was the Shroud "four doubled" (tetradiplon)[69] (see below), with the Shroud face uppermost in landscape aspect in one of the one-eighths folds (see 13Jul21), by taking a full-length photograph of the Shroud and doubling it four

[Above (enlarge): From my 2012 post, "Tetradiplon and the Shroud of Turin." The full-length Shroud of Turin (1), is doubled four times (2 through 5) resulting in Jesus' face within a rectangle, in landscape aspect (5), exactly as depicted in early copies of the Image of Edessa, the 11th century Sakli church, Turkey (6) and the 10th century icon of King Abgar V of Edessa holding the Image of Edessa, St. Catherine's monastery, Sinai (7).]

times, so that the face one-eighth was uppermost in landscape aspect. Here in Wilson's own words is his account of his `Secondo Pia' discovery':

"Yes it was a very real and indeed a very moving moment, though the exact date was one that I never recorded, not least because at the time I had absolutely no idea of all that might subsequently flow from it. To the best of my recollection it would have been around the summer of 1966, probably early evening, and at my parents' home in south London. I was staying there after having recently left a job that had been based in Oxford (with Oxfam), and whilst doing a three month stint of `Shroud history' researches at the then Reading Room of the British Museum. I know that I had earlier (when still living in Oxford), purchased volume VIII of Roberts and Donaldson's Ante-Nicene Fathers, which has translations of the New Testament Apocrypha. And it was whilst reading the `Acts of the Holy Apostle Thaddaeus' in this that a footnote at the bottom of page 558 `Lit., doubled in four' struck my attention. It was so early in my researches that I did not even have to hand any readily usable full length photo suitable for performing the folding experiment. But I had a very strong feeling that it was going to work, so at the time hastily improvised by cutting out a photo from a newspaper article. Then the moment that I saw the result there was what I can only describe a quite extraordinary feeling of `thrill' – an all-encompassing tingling of the spine and incredibly humbling realisation that this was something that had to be significant"[70].

1966b British historian Geoffrey Ashe (1923-2022) wrote (having showed by an experiment in 1961 that placing a linen cloth over a heated brass horse ornament (below), "a scorch can produce an image

[Above (enlarge)[71]: Geoffrey Ashe's brass horse ornament which when heated and a white handerchief placed over it for a few seconds a "scorch-picture" formed[72] (see positive image below).]

[Above (enlarge)[73]: Positive image formed by a scorch on a white handerchief placed over the heated brass horse ornament sbove.]

[Above (enlarge)[74]: Negative of positive phototograph sbove.]

that not only reproduces details as small as an eighth of an inch, but that also, when photographed, yields a positive image on the photographic negative"[75]):

"But the Christian Creed has always affirmed that Our Lord underwent an unparalleled transformation in the tomb: his case is exceptional, and here perhaps is the key. It is at least intelligible (and has indeed been suggested several times) that the physical change of the body at the Resurrection may have released a brief and violent burst of some other radiation than heat — perhaps scientifically identifiable, perhaps not — which scorched the cloth. In this case the Shroud is a quasi-photograph of Christ returning to life, produced by a kind of radiance or `incandescence' partially analogous to heat in its effects"[76].
A claimed major problem with Ashe's scorch theory is that scorches caused by heat fluoresce but the Shroud image doesn't fluoresce[77]. Another is that a scorch on a cloth draped over a hot statue or bas relief causes hot spots in the image, but there are no hot spots on the Shroud image[78]. But these criticism are straw men which miss the point of Ashe's actual theory. Which is that, "some other radiation than heat ... scorched the cloth ... a kind of radiance or `incandescence' partially analogous to heat in its effects" (see above). And in 2011 Shroudie scientists, under the auspices of ENEA (the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), using a vacuum ultraviolet excimer laser, succeeded in producing on linen the closest characteristics of the Shroud image yet (see 22Dec11 & 06Jan12). And, what makes Ashe's theory so important (although of two leading Shroudies I asked for a photo of Ashe's brass horse ornament neither had one, as I didn't), the ENEA laser's ultraviolet light scorch on linen did not fluoresce:
"Instead, the results of ENEA `show that a short and intense burst of VUV directional radiation can color a linen cloth so as to reproduce many of the peculiar characteristics of the body image on the Shroud of Turin, including shades of color, the surface color of the fibrils of the outer linen fabric, and the absence of fluorescence'" (my emphasis)[79].
I will post an entry, "Ashe, G.," next in my Turin Shroud Encyclopedia.

1967 Leo Vala (c.1921-), a London photographer[80] and an agnostic[81], made the first three-dimensional reproduction of the Shroud face by using twin epidiascopes[82] to beam negatives of the Shroud face onto a lump of clay and then sculpting it[83] (below).

[Above: Leo Vala holds a negative photograph of the Shroud face (left) and the three dimensional clay sculpture he created from it (centre)[84]. See also 11Jun16 & 05Feb17]

Vala published his experiment in the March 8, 1967 issue of Amateur Photographer, stating in the article:

"I've been involved in the invention of many complicated visual processes, and I can tell you that no one could have faked that image. No one could do it today with all the technology we have. It's a perfect negative. It has a photographic quality that is extremely precise." (my emphasis)[85].
Vala became a critic of anyone who thought the image could have been produced by human hands[86].

1968 An ossuary (stone bone box) is found inside a Jewish tomb

[Above (enlarge)[87]: The ossuary bearing the inscription in Hebrew, "Yehohanan (or Jehohanan), son of Hagakol"[88].]

accidentally uncovered by building contractors working in Giv'at ha-Mivtar, a Jewish neighborhood in northern Jerusalem[89]. Jehohanan's grave was among a group of burials dating from the first century[90]. It was a Greek Orthodox monk-archaeologist Vassilios Tzaferis (1936 -2015) who discovered the ossuary and inside it the remains of a crucified man[91]. Inside the ossuary, Tzaferis found a heel bone with a ~7 inch (~17-18 cm) iron nail driven through it and a piece of olive wood attached[92] (below),

[Above (enlarge): "The calcaneus of Yehohanon ben Hagkol, with transfixed nail. Left: A reconstruction of what the foot may have looked like around the time of death. (Image used with kind permission of Joe Zias.)"[93].]

indicating that the occupant of the ossuary had been nailed to a cross[94]. Despite the hundreds of thousands of Roman crucifixion victims, it still is the only discovered physical remains of one[95]. The ossuary bore the inscription in Hebrew, "Jehohanan the son of Hagkol"[96]. The Jewish burial practice of that time was secondary burial: to lay out a corpse inside a burial cave and after the flesh had decomposed, leaving only the skeleton, the bones were gathered into an ossuary, a simple stone box[97]. In Christian iconography, Jesus is depicted with both feet nailed to the front of the vertical beam of the cross[98], but this man's feet had been affixed to the sides of the beam with nails hammered separately through each heel[99]. The archaeologist who first described Jehohanan's remains, Nicu Haas (c. 1927-87), believed that scratches on his radius bone at the wrist end of the forearm were due to "friction, grating and grinding between the radial bone and the nail towards the end of the crucifixion"[100] and that that Jehohanan had been suspended on his cross from nails driven through the forearm just above the wrist[101]. However, Jewish archaeologists Joe Zias and Eliezer Sekeles, reexamined the crucifixion remains and claimed the presence of the scratch in one of the forearms "was not convincing" evidence of a nail wound and that Jehohanan had been tied, rather than nailed, to the horizontal bar[102]. But as former Jerusalem archaelogist, Eugenia Nitowski (1949-2007) pointed out:

"If we argue merely from photographic evidence, in ... Haas's Israel Exploration journal article a dent can be seen exactly where a nail would be driven, and at no other place can dents or scratches be found on the radius. Coincidence?"[103].
Both of Jehohanan's lower legs had been broken, evidence of the Roman practice of crurifragium: breaking a crucifixion victim's legs to hasten death (Jn 19:31-33) by preventing him from raising up to breathe[104].

To be continued in the next part #27 of this series.

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to extract or quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided the extract or quote includes a reference citing my name, its title, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
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63. Ricci, 1981, p.137. [return]
64. Ricci, 1981, p.137. [return]
65. Ricci, 1981, p.139. [return]
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68. Ricci, 1981, p.138. [return]
69. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.120; Wilson & Miller, 1986, pp.112-113; Wilson, I., 1991c, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.141; Wilson, 1998, p.152; Wilson, & Schwortz, 2000, p.111; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.132; de Wesselow, 2012, p.288I. [return]
70. Ian Wilson, "Re: What was the date of your `Secondo Pia' discovery?," Email 12 December 2016 8:08 AM, to S.E. Jones (emphasis Wilson's) [return]
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72. Ashe, 1966, p.16. [return]
73. Ashe, 1966, p.16b & Wilcox, 1977, p.124. [return]
74. Ashe, 1966, p.16c & Wilcox, 1977, p.124. [return]
75. Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, pp.197-198; Morgan, 1980, p.74; Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, p.18; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.221; Guerrera, 2001, p.74; Oxley, 2010, p.211. [return]
76. Ashe, 1966, p.18; Tribbe, 2006, p.217. [return]
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78. Schwalbe, L.A. & Rogers, R.N., 1982, "Physics and Chemistry of the Shroud of Turin: Summary of the 1978 Investigation," Reprinted from Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 135, No. 1, pp.3-49, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co: Amsterdam, 1982, pp.27-28. [return]
79. Tosatti, M., 2011, "The Shroud is not a fake," The Vatican Insider, 12 December. [return]
80. Morgan, 1980, p.128; Wilson, & Schwortz, 2000, p.36; Tribbe, 2006, pp.144, 254. [return]
81. Humber, 1978, p.199; Wilson, 1998, p.19; Wilson, 2010, p.21. [return]
82. Wilson, 1979, p.35; Zugibe, F.T., 2005, "The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry," M. Evans & Co.: New York NY, p.234; Tribbe, 2006, p.254. [return]
83. Wilson, 1979, pp.34-35; Morgan, 1980, pp.128-129; Tribbe, 2006, pp.144, 188, 254. [return]
84. Wilson, & Schwortz, 2000, p.34. [return]
85. Vala, L., 1967, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Amateur Photographer, March 8, pp.332-335, in Wilcox, 1977, pp.130-131 & Wilson, 2010, p.21. [return]
86. Wilcox, 1977, p.131. [return]
87. Friedman, M., 2012, "In a stone box, the only trace of crucifixion," Times of Israel, 26 March. [return]
88. Guerrera, 2001, p.84; "Jehohanan," Wikipedia, 26 December 2021. [return]
89. Wilson, 1998, p.44; "Jehohanan," Wikipedia, 26 December 2021. [return]
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91. Morgan, 1980, p.104; Roddy, N., 2019, "The Orthodox Monk-Archaeologist who Discovered a Crucified Man," Public Orthodoxy, May 23; "Vassilios Tzaferis," Wikipedia, 24 February 2021. [return]
92. Morgan, 1980, p.104; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.76; Iannone, 1998, p.60; Wilson, 1998, p.44; Antonacci, 2000, p.116; Guerrera, 2001, p.84; Tribbe, 2006, p.63. [return]
93. Killgrove, K., 2015, "This Bone is the Only Skeletal Evidence for Crucifixion in the Ancient World," Forbes, 8 December. [return]
94. Friedman, 2012. [return]
95. Morgan, 1980, p.104; Iannone, 1998, p.60; Antonacci, 2000, pp.24, 115; Oxley, 2010, p.120. [return]
96. "Jehohanan," Wikipedia, 26 December 2021. [return]
97. Antonacci, 2000, p.106; Friedman, 2012. [return]
98. Friedman, 2012. [return]
99. Friedman, 2012. [return]
100. Morgan, 1980, p.104; Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, pp.283-311, 290; Iannone, 1998, p.60; Antonacci, 2000, p.24; Tribbe, 2006, p.64. [return]
101. Drews, 1984, p.25. [return]
102. Wilson, 1998, p.46; Friedman, 2012. [return]
103. Wilson, 1998, p.48. [return]
104. Adams, 1982, p.76; Iannone, 1998, pp.60, 62; Antonacci, 2000, pp.24, 116., 120; Tribbe, 2006, p.64; Wilson, 1998, p.45. [return]

Posted 11 February 2022. Updated 10 July 2022.