Saturday, September 23, 2017

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth century

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
© Stephen E. Jones

This is part #12, "Twelfth century," of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. See also 29Mar14. For more information about this series see part #1, "1st century and Index." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Index #1] [Previous: 11th century #11] [Next: 13th century #13]

12th century (1101-1200).

[Above (enlarge): "The Entombment" (upper) and "Visit to the Sepulchre" (lower) in the Hungarian Pray Manuscript, or Pray Codex, (1192-95)[2]. According to Wikipedia:

"The Codex Pray, Pray Codex or The Hungarian Pray Manuscript is a collection of medieval manuscripts. In 1813 it was named after György Pray, who discovered it in 1770. It is the first known example of continuous prose text in Hungarian. The Codex is kept in the National Széchényi Library of Budapest. One of the most prominent documents within the Codex (f. 154a) is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer ... It is an old handwritten Hungarian text dating to 1192-95. Its importance of the Funeral Sermon comes from that it is the oldest surviving Hungarian, and Uralic, text ... One of the five illustrations within the Codex shows the burial of Jesus. It is sometimes claimed that the display shows remarkable similarities with the Shroud of Turin: that Jesus is shown entirely naked with the arms on the pelvis, just like in the body image of the Shroud of Turin; that the thumbs on this image appear to be retracted, with only four fingers visible on each hand, thus matching detail on the Turin Shroud; that the supposed fabric shows a herringbone pattern, identical to the weaving pattern of the Shroud of Turin; and that the four tiny circles on the lower image, which appear to form a letter L, `perfectly reproduce four apparent "poker holes" on the Turin Shroud', which likewise appear to form a letter L.[3] The Codex Pray illustration may serve as evidence for the existence of the Shroud of Turin prior to 1260–1390 AD, the alleged fabrication date established in the radiocarbon 14 dating of the Shroud of Turin in 1988"[4].
See "1192" below. Also see 21Jun17; 11Apr17; 07Aug16; 07May16; 27Dec15; 11Jan10; 08Dec09; 08Oct09 & 03Apr08].

1119 Formation of the Knights Templar[5]. The Order of Knights Templar was founded by noblemen from north-eastern France to defend Christianity against the Saracens at the beginning of the twelfth century[6]. It reached the height of its power and wealth during the thirteenth century and was finally suppressed in 1307 by King Philip IV of France (r.1285-1314)[7] [See "1307"]. In 1314 France's two leading Templars,

[Right (enlarge): Minia- ture (1380) depiction of the burning at the stake on 18 March 1314, of Templars Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney on an island (Île des Juifs - Isle of the Jews) in the Seine River, Paris[8].]

Jacques de Molay (c.1243–1314) and Geoffroi de Charney (c.1240–1314), were burned at the stake for recanting their confessions extracted under torture and proclaiming their, and the Templar Order's, innocence of the false charges brought by King Philip IV[9, 10, 11]. See my 09May15 that this Geoffroi de Charney was the great-uncle of Geoffroy I de Charny (c. 1300–1356), the first undisputed owner of the Shroud [See "1314"] Pro-authenticist historian Ian Wilson theorised that the Templars acquired

[Above (enlarge): Composite map illustrating Ian Wilson's theory that the Shroud was taken from Constantinople in 1204 to Acre, in today's Israel, and from there to France after 1291[12].]

the Shroud after it was looted from Constantinople in 1204 by soldiers of the Fourth Crusade[13], and took it to their fortress at Acre[14]. Then after the Fall of Acre in 1291 the Templars took the Shroud to France and hid it in their network of fortresses and castles[15]. However, there is little evidence for Wilson's Templar theory[16] (see "1185" below) and at the 2012 Valencia Shroud conference, Wilson announced that he no longer held it[17].

Pre-1130 Before 1130, Vatican Library codex 5696, folio 35[18], is a Latin update of an original Greek[19] Easter Friday sermon by Pope Stephen III (r.768-772), delivered in 769[20]. [see "769"]. Stephen's original 8th century sermon quoted Jesus' supposed letter in response to Edessa's King Abgar V's request for healing [see "50"]:

"Since you wish to look upon my physical face, I am sending you a likeness of my face on a cloth ..."[21]
The twelfth-century Vatican version contains an interpolation (in italics):
"Since you wish to look upon my physical face, I am sending you a likeness of not only of my face but of my whole body divinely transformed on a cloth ..."[22]
Clearly the twelfth century copyist knew that the Edessa cloth now in Constantinople had an image not only of Jesus' face, but of His entire body, and he updated Pope Stephen's 769 sermon according to the new information he had[23]. [see "950" [11May14]

c.1130 An English-born Normandy monk Ordericus Vitalis (1075–c.1142)[24], in his History of the Church, written by 1130, when he came to an important event near his own day, the capture of Edessa in the First Crusade [see "1095], he retold the Abgar story, but with a new twist:

"Abgar the ruler reigned at Edessa; the Lord Jesus sent him a sacred letter and a beautiful linen cloth he had wiped the sweat from his face with. The image of the Saviour was miraculously imprinted on to it and shines out, displaying the form and size of the Lord's body to all who look on it"[25].
As with the above Pope Stephen III's sermon interpolation, this is an altered version of the Abgar story which substituted an image of Jesus' face, with an image of Jesus' whole body, imprinted onto a cloth[26].

1140a "The Song of the Voyage of Charlemagne to Jerusalem" (known by various names in French, including "Chanson du Voyage de Charlemagne à Jerusalem"[27], or "Le Pèlerinage de Charlemagne"[28]), is an Old French epic

[Left: The front cover of a 1965 reprint of the poem[29. The oldest known written version was probably composed around 1140"[30].]

poem about a fictional expedition by Emperor Charlemagne the Great (c.742-814) and his knights, composed around 1140[31]. Although imaginary it bears historical testimony to the existence of the Shroud at the time, in that it reflects the accounts then given by pilgrims[32]. In it the Emperor asks the Patriarch of Jerusalem if he has any relics to show him, and the Patriarch replies:

"I shall show you such relics that there are not better under the sky: of the Shroud of Jesus which He had on His head, when He was laid and stretched in the tomb ..."[33].
While this contains an inaccuracy in that the Shroud was not in Jerusalem in Charlemagne's time (c.742-814) but continuously in Edessa from 544 to 944[see "544"] and ["944b"]. See also ["670a"] where the pilgrim French Bishop Arculf had reported seeing a shroud in Jerusalem in c.670, but this cannot have been the Shroud [see below]. So The Voyage of Charlemagne evidently reflects genuine but mistaken pilgrims' reports of a shroud in Jerusalem in the Early Middle Ages. The word for "Shroud" in The Voyage of Charlemagne is the Old French equivalent of "sindon"[34], the Greek word, used in the Gospels for Jesus' burial shroud (Mt 27:59; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53)[35]. Moreover this Old French word (presumably sydoines) is the same word used by crusader Robert de Clari (1170-1216) of the shroud with "the figure of Our Lord on it" that he saw ~63 years later in Constantinople in 1203[36] (see future "1203"). So this is evidence that in 1140, over a century before the earliest, 1260, radiocarbon date of the Shroud, it was common knowledge that the burial shroud of Jesus existed, upon which He had been laid stretched out in the tomb, and which had then covered His head!

1140b Peter the Deacon (c. 1107-c.1159), a monk of Monte Cassino, Italy[37], claimed that in 1140 he had seen the Shroud in Jerusalem[38]. From his description of the ceremony, Peter's belief that this was Jesus' burial shroud was shared by the authorities in Jerusalem[39], as they were in Arculf's day [see above] and "670a"]. But the Shroud was continuously in Constantinople from 944 [see "944b"] to 1204 [see "1204"]. The shroud that Peter and Arculf saw in Jerusalem was only eight feet long[40], so it cannot have been the Shroud which is over fourteen feet long[41]. However, it could have been the Besançon shroud which had a painted frontal image only[42] and was eight feet long[43]. See future ["c. 1350"] and ["1794"].

1144 Edessa, having been captured in 1098 by Christian forces under Baldwin of Boulogne (1058-1118), who became the first ruler of the Crusader state, the County of Edessa [see "1095"], fell to Turkish Muslim forces[44] in the 1146 Siege of Edessa[45]. The bones

[Right (enlarge)[46]. A stone Christian cross over a lion's head in a former fountain in modern Sanliurfa (ancient Edessa), which has survived the almost complete eradication of Edessa's Christian history since the Muslim recapture of Edessa in 1144. The lion was the symbol of the Abgar dynasty[47], which ceased ruling over Edessa after Abgar VIII's death in 212 [see "212"].]

of Abgar V and Addai (Thaddeus) were thrown out of their coffins in the Church of St John the Baptist and scattered, but were retrieved by Christians and reinterred in the Church of St Theodore[48].

1146 After a temporary Crusader recapture under the former Count of Edessa, Joscelin II (1113-59), Edessa was again taken by the Turks in 1146[49]. This time there was much bloodshed[50], with more than 30,000 Christians killed, and 16,000 women and children enslaved[51]. Edessa was systematically looted[52], its Records Office destroyed[53], and its famous churches, including the Hagia Sophia cathedral, regarded as one of the wonders of the world[54], were reduced to rubble and many replaced with mosques[55]. Almost every

[Above (enlarge): Another rare survivor of the obliteration of almost all of Edessa's Christian history since 1144. A 6th-7th century mosaic copy of the Image of Edessa/Shroud, found in the wall of a house[56] in Bireçik, a small town in Sanliurfa Province about 69 kilometres (43 miles) west of Edessa/Sanliurfa [see 25Apr16].]

vestige of Christian imagery in Edessa was ruthlessly destroyed as an offence to the Koran, making any survival of pictorial evidence of the Image of Edessa/Shroud's former presence in Edessa highly unlikely[57]. From this time on Edessa became a wholly Muslim city, with almost all traces of its former Christianity obliterated[58].

1147a In 1147 Louis VII, King of France (r. 1137-80) and Conrad III King of Germany (r.1138-52), enroute to Jerusalem in the Second Crusade (see 1147b below)[59], visited Constantinople[60, 61].

[Left (enlarge): Louis VII, King of France and Conrad III, King of Germany, entering Constantinople in 1147. Miniature by Jean Fouquet (1420–1481) in the Chronicles of St. Denis, 15th century.]

Louis was shown the Shroud by Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos [Latin Comnenus] (r.1143-80)[62]. However Manuel was unable to contribute any Byzantine troops to the Second Crusade because his empire had just been invaded by Roger II of Sicily (r. 1130-54) and the Byzantine army was needed in the Peloponnese[63].

1147b The Second Crusade (1147-49) was the response by Latin (Roman Catholic) Christian Europe to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 and 1146 to Turkish Islamic forces[64]. (see above "1144" and "1146"). The crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III (r.1145- 53)[65] with the aim of restoring Edessa as the northern bulwark of the

[Right (enlarge): The Crusader States c.1140[66]. This map shows the strategic impossibility of Western European Latin Christianity (without help from Byzantine Eastern Greek Christ- ianity), defending Jerusalem as a Crusader state against the more numerous and organised Turkish Islamic forces.]

crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem[67]. Eugene commissioned the French abbot Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153) to preach the case for a second Crusade[68]. Bernard in turn enlisted Kings Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany in 1146[69]. From Constantinople [see above], rather than taking the coastal road through Christian territory, Conrad took his army across Muslim-controlled Anatolia where it suffered heavy losses by the Seljuk Turks at the second Battle of Dorylaeum (1147)[70]. Louis, after merging with the remains of Conrad's army followed a route closer to the Mediterranean coast but they were still attacked and weakened by the Turks along the way[71]. The remnant of Louis' and Conrad's combined army reached Antioch by sea in 1148[72]. The military objective was Edessa but Louis wanted to complete his pilgrimage to Jerusalem[73]. However, in Jerusalem the preferred military target of King Baldwin III (1143–63) and the Knights Templar was Damascus[74]. But the Siege of Damascus in 1148 was another heavy defeat for the Crusader armies[75]. So the Second Crusade ended a disastrous failure[76], which left a bitter feeling in the West toward the Byzantine empire, because it could have done more to help[77]. This bitterness between West and East was no doubt a factor in the Sack of Constantinople in 1204 by Western troops enroute to the Fourth Crusade[78] [see "1204"].

c.1149 Copy of the Shroud face on a Crusader period (1131-69) painted column in the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem! "In the nave of the

[Above (enlarge): Extract from the cover of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, issue #54, August 1989. [See 04Aug16]. The caption is, "Crusader period painting of Christ in the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem: Another copy from the Shroud?" The photo was taken by the late archaeologist, Eugenia Nitowski (1947-2007) (aka Sr Damian of the Cross).]

Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem are twenty-seven polished columns containing paintings of holy figures (c. 1130 and 1169)"[79]. Until 1131, the Church of the Nativity was used as the primary coronation church for crusader kings[80]. That is, from the coronation in 1100 of Baldwin I of Jerusalem (r.1100-1118)[81] to the coronation in 1131 of Baldwin I's granddaughter, Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem (r.1131-53)[82]. During this time and up to 1169, the crusaders made extensive decoration and restorations of the church and grounds[83].

This icon of Jesus' face dates from between c.1130 and 1169, and has, by my count, at least ten of the fifteen Vignon Markings: nos. 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 - especially no. 8 "enlarged left nostril", and therefore

[Above (enlarge): The Vignon markings: (1) Transverse streak across forehead, (2) three-sided `square' between brows, (3) V shape at bridge of nose, (4) second V within marking 2, (5) raised right eyebrow, (6) accentuated left cheek, (7) accentuated right cheek, (8) enlarged left nostril, (9) accentuated line between nose and upper lip, (10) heavy line under lower lip, (11) hairless area between lower lip and beard, (12) forked beard, (13) transverse line across throat, (14) heavily accentuated owlish eyes, (15) two strands of hair." [84]. [See 25Jul07, 29Jul08, 11Feb12, 22Sep12, 14Apr14, 09Nov15 and 15Feb16]

it is indeed "Another copy from the Shroud"! There are photos of the column online (e.g. "Jesus Christ Image on Pillar of Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem") but they are not high quality. Nevertheless, despite the poor quality of the photographs, it can be seen that this icon is very significant! Here is an icon on a pillar in the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, which has at least 10 of the 15 Vignon Markings that are on the Shroud, and therefore it is beyond reasonable doubt this icon was based on the Shroud. Yet the icon is securely dated c. 1130-69, i.e. between 91 and 130 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud as "mediaeval ... AD 1260-1390"[85]! So this is yet another of the "lot of other evidence that" Oxford radiocarbon dating laboratory's Prof. Christopher Ramsey, who was involved in the 1988 dating and was a signatory to the 1989 Nature article admitted, "suggests [to put it mildly] ... that the Shroud is older than the radiocarbon dates allow" (my emphasis):

"There is a lot of other evidence that suggests to many that the Shroud is older than the radiocarbon dates allow and so further research is certainly needed. It is important that we continue to test the accuracy of the original radiocarbon tests as we are already doing. It is equally important that experts assess and reinterpret some of the other evidence. Only by doing this will people be able to arrive at a coherent history of the Shroud which takes into account and explains all of the available scientific and historical information."[86]
c. 1150a A Christ Pantocrator ("Ruler of all"[87]) fresco, dating back to the twelfth century, in the rupestrian (cave) Church of St. Nicholas in Casalrotto, Italy[88]. Jesus' face is Shroud-like, rigidly forward-

[Above (enlarge): Christ Pantocrator centre panel of fresco between Mary and John the Baptist (see here), in the twelfth century cave church in Casalrotto, Italy[89]. See also 29Mar14 & 21Jun17.]

facing with Vignon markings including a forked beard, open staring eyes, a wisp of hair where the reversed `3' bloodstain is in the Shroud, and a triangle between the nose and the eyebrows[90].

c. 1150b The Christ Pantocrator mosaic in the apse of Cefalu Cathedral, Sicily[91] is among the most recent of many such

[Above: (enlarge): Christ Pantocrator, Cefalu Cathedral, Sicily[92].

"... if the radiocarbon dating is to be believed, there should be no evidence of our Shroud [before 1260]. The year 1260 was the earliest possible date for the Shroud's existence by radiocarbon dating's calculations. Yet artistic likenesses of Jesus originating well before 1260 can be seen to have an often striking affinity with the face on the Shroud ... Purely by way of example we may cite from the twelfth century the huge Christ Pantocrator mosaic that dominates the apse of the Norman Byzantine church at Cefalu, Sicily ..."[93].]
works in the Byzantine tradition,which depict a Shroud-like, long-haired, fork-bearded, front-facing likeness of Christ[94]. But at c.1150 it is still over a century before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud[95]. It has 14 out of 15 Vignon markings (see above)[96], including a triangle between the nose and the eyebrows, concave cheeks, asymmetrical and pronounced cheekbones, each found on the Shroud, and a double tuft of hair where the reversed `3' bloodstain is on the Shroud[97]. This means the artist was working from the face on the Shroud, copying each feature carefully, even though he did not understand what some of them were, for example the open, staring eyes are actually closed in photographic negative on the Shroud[98]. [See 29Mar14 & 21Jun17].

1157 Nicholas Soemundarson, the Abbot of Thingeyrar Benedictine monastery, Iceland[99], returned from a pilgrimage to Constantinople[100]. He then drew up a very detailed inventory in medieval Icelandic of the relics[101] in Constantinople he had seen[102]. In that list was the sveitakuk (sweat cloth) and the maetull (Mandylion)[103] or Shroud (see "990")[104] with the blood and body of Christ on it[105]. The reference to blood means that these were burial cloths[106].

c. 1167 This Christ Acheiropoietos (not made with hands) copy of the Mandylion/Image of Edessa (the face panel of the Shroud "four-doubled" - tetradiplon) in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow (see below), is estimated to date from 1167[107]. It has, by my count, 12 out of a

[Above: Twelfth century Christ Acheiropoietos (not made with hands - see Mk 14:58; Acts 7:48, 19:26; 2Cor 5:1; Heb 9:11, 24), copy of the Mandylion/Shroud face panel) from the Assumption (Dormition) Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin, now in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow[108]. This icon is closely related to the Holy Face of Laon (see below).]

possible 14 (since there is no throat for the transverse line across it - VM13 - to be depicted) Vignon markings (see above). This is one of a few Image of Edessa/Mandylion icons which contain most of the 15 Vignon markings[109] and, together with all the other evidence for it, prove beyond reasonable doubt that the Image of Edessa/Mandylion was the face panel of the tetradiplon ("four-doubled") Shroud. So this is yet more evidence that medieval artists saw the Shroud, centuries before its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date[110]!

1171 Chronicler William of Tyre (c.1130–1186), as Archbishop of Tyre[111], accompanied a state visit of King Amaury I (L. Amalric I) of Jerusalem (r. 1163-74) to Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (L. Comnenus) (r.1143-80) in Constantinople[112]. The purpose of the visit was to gather support to drive the Muslims from the Eastern part of the Byzantine Empire[113]. William recorded his party being shown "the most precious evidences of the passion of our Lord Jesus Christ" including "the shroud" [sindon][114]. William did not mention an image on the shroud, but this can be explained either by him only seeing its reliquary within which was the folded cloth[115] or the light being too dim for him to distinguish the Shroud's faint image [see "Faint"] . [See also 29Mar14 & 21Jun17].

c. 1175 The Holy Face of Laon (French: "Sainte Face de Laon"[116]) is a glazed panel painted presumably at Constantinople[117] about

[Above (enlarge): "Icon of the Holy Face (Mandylion) of Laon. Purchased in 1249 in Bari (Italy) by Jacques Pantaleon, later to become Pope Urban IV"[118]. The close relationship between this icon and the Christ Acheiropoietos icon (above) is evident.]

1175[119]. In 1249, Jacques Pantaleon (1195–1264), then Archdeacon of Laon[120], and later to become Pope Urban IV (r.1261–1264)[121], gave the icon to his sister Sibylle, the abbess of a nearby convent at Montreuil-en-Thierache[122]. It is now kept in the Cathedral of Laon, Picardy, France[123]. The icon is actually a copy of the Image of Edessa or Mandylion[124], as its background has a trellis pattern[125] like other depictions of the Image. It also shows a brown monochrome, rigidly front facing, disembodied head of Jesus on cloth, strongly reminiscent of the Shroud[126]. This icon corresponds more closely to the face on the Shroud than any other[127], having 13 of the 15 Vignon markings (see above)[128]. It also bears an inscription in ancient slavonic: OBRAZ GOSPODIN NA UBRUSJE "the portrait of the Lord on the cloth"[129], which must mean that the artist worked directly from the Shroud[130], which was in Constantinople between 944 and 1204[131] [see "944b" and "1204"]. But since the Sainte Face dates from the end of the 12th century, and it is a copy of the Shroud image, then the Shroud itself must date from well before 1200[132]. This cannot be reconciled with the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating[133]! [See 21 Jun17].

c. 1181 A champlevé enamel panel which forms part of the altar in the Klosterneuburg monastery, near Vienna, was completed no later than 1181 by Nicholas of Verdun (1130–1205)[134]. As can be seen below,

[Above (enlarge): Entombment of Jesus, c. 1181, by Nicholas of Verdun, Klosterneuburg Abbey, Vienna[135].]

Jesus is depicted being wrapped in a double body length burial shroud[136], with His hands crossed over His loins, right over left (as it appears on the Shroud), crossing awkwardly at the wrists[137], exactly as on the Shroud[138]! Yet this was at least 79 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! [See 21 Jun17].

1185 Establishment of a Knights Templar administrative and training preceptory in the village of Templecombe, Somerset, England[139]. While the Templars never possessed the Shroud (see above), they

[Above (enlarge)[140]: Painted face on the lid of a wooden chest found in c. 1944 wired to the ceiling of a building which had been part of a twelfth century Templar preceptory in Templecombe, Somerset, England. The face has similarities to copies of the Image of Edessa in the "Holy Face" style (see the "Holy Face of Genoa").].

owned and revered painted copies of the Image of Edessa/Shroud. Evidence of this is first, at their trial following the order's 1307 arrest (see above), one the charges brought against the Templars was that they worshipped an idol which was a head with a reddish beard[141]. And second, during World War II (c. 1944) a nearby bomb blast in the village of Templecombe, Somerset, England, dislodged a piece of plaster in the ceiling of an outbuilding which was originally part of the above Templar preceptory, and revealed to its tenant, a Mrs Molly Drew, a painted face wired to the ceiling and covered with plaster[142] (see above). Mrs Drew and the owner of the house a Mrs A. Topp, had the panel removed from the outbuilding and brought it into the house[143]. They then called in the local rector, a retired Bishop George Wright, who had it moved to his rectory and then cleaned, removing some of the original paint[144]. But fortunately Mrs Drew had taken a black and white photograph of the panel before it was cleaned[145] (see below), which showed a trellis pattern around the

[Above (enlarge): A black and white photograph of the Templecombe panel, taken by Mrs Molly Drew, before it was cleaned with loss of historical information. As can be seen, the face had a trellis pattern around it, as the Image of Edessa did (see above).]

face[146], confirming that it was a copy of the Image of Edessa/Shroud!

1187 Fall of Jerusalem. The Kurdish general, Saladin (1137–93), had succeeded in uniting the Muslims[147]. In 1169 Saladin defeated a combined Crusader-Byzantine attack on the port of Damietta, Egypt[148]. In 1174 Saladin conquered Damascus[149], and by 1183 Saladin's Muslim state surrounded the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem on its north, east, and south[150]. In 1187 at the Battle of Hattin, near Tiberias in today's Israel, the Muslim armies under Saladin decisively defeated the combined Crusader forces[151]. After a brief seige Jerusalem surrendered in 1187 to Saladin's forces, and the the loss of most of the Holy Land, including Acre on the Mediterranean coast, speedily followed[152].

1189 The Third Crusade (1189-92). The loss of Jerusalem and most of the Holy Land to the Muslims roused Europe to the Third Crusade (1189-1192) to retrieve those losses[153]. Three great armies were led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (r. 1155–90), by King Philip II of France (r. 1179-1223), and by King Richard I of England (r. 1189-99)[154]. The Crusaders arrived in Constantinople in 1189, where they were warned in a note from Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem (r. 1186–1190) of a secret alliance between Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos (r. 1185–95, 1203–04) and Saladin[155]. This would have further added to the bitterness felt in the West towards the Byzantine Empire following its lack of support in the Second Crusade (see above ), and further helps to explain the 1204 Sack of Constantinople by Western forces on their way to the Fourth Crusade [see "1204"], especially since it was the same Emperor! But Frederick was accidentally drowned in 1190 while crossing a river in Cilicia, plunging his army into chaos, with only a small fraction of the original force reaching Acre[156]. The death of Frederick left the Crusader armies under the command of Philip II and Richard I, who were rivals in Europe, and this led to the Third Crusade's subsequent failure[157]. In 1191 Richard captured Cyprus from Isaac Komnenos (c.1155–1196)[157a]. Richard used the island as a supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens[157b]. In 1992 Richard sold the island to the Knights Templar, who in turn sold it that year to Guy of Lusignan (c.1150–1194), king of the crusader state of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 through his marriage in 1180 to Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem[157c]. His brother and successor Aimery (1155-1205) was recognised as King of Cyprus by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1191–1197)[157d]. Anne de Lusignan (1418–62), wife of Duke Louis I of Savoy (1413–65), owner of the Shroud, was a direct descendant of Aimery, King of Cyprus[157e]. Richard's forces helped recover Acre[158] and established Mediterranean coastal crusader states[158a], but Philip and his army returned to France[159], leaving Richard's forces alone unable to retake Jerusalem[160]. This failure of the Third Crusade to recover Jerusalem from Muslim control led to the Fourth Crusade[161], which had very important consequences for the Shroud [see "1204"]!

1192-5 The Hungarian Pray Manuscript, or Codex (see above), is dated 1192-95[161]. The Codex was compiled at the ancient Benedictine monastery at Boldva, Hungary[162]. Hungary was ruled at the time by King Bela III (r.1172–1196), who had spent six years (1163–1169) as a young man in the imperial court at Constantinople[163]. Two pen and ink drawings[164] on one page of the Codex, one above the other (see above), document the existence of the Shroud in the late twelfth century[165]. The upper drawing is a depiction of Jesus' body being prepared for burial[166]. Correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud include: 1. Jesus is nude[167]; 2. His hands are crossed awkwardly at the wrists, right over left (as it appears on the Shroud), covering His genitals[168]; 3. No thumbs are visible on Jesus' hands[169]; 4. His fingers are unnaturally long[170]; 5. Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (see below)[171] and 6.

[Above (enlarge): Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (highlighted green) in the Pray Codex upper Entombment scene (see above).]

Red marks on Jesus' scalp and forehead are in the same position as the bloodstains (including the "reversed 3") on the Shroud[172]. In the lower drawing an angel is showing three women disciples Jesus' empty tomb symbolised by a sarcophagus with an open lid[173]. Correspondences between this lower drawing and the Shroud include: 7. The sarcophagus lid has a herringbone weave pattern[174]; 8. Red zigzags match the inverted V-shaped blood trickles down the Shroud man's arms[175] and 9. L-shaped patterns of tiny circles in the herringbone weave of the sarcophagus lid match the `poker holes' on the Shroud[176]. Thomas de Wesselow, an anti-Christian, agnostic art historian[177] concludes:

"We have now identified eight [there are at least nine - see above] telling correspondences between the Shroud and the drawings on a single page of the Pray Codex ... It is inconceivable that all these detailed links with the Shroud, several of which are found nowhere else, could have occurred on a single manuscript page by chance. The only reasonable conclusion is that the artist of the Pray Codex was aware of the Shroud. The Shroud existed and was already damaged, then, by 1192-5, when the illustrations in the Pray Codex were drawn. Given the close links at the time between Hungary and Byzantium, it can hardly be doubted that the artist saw the relic in Constantinople. The Shroud was the Byzantine Sindon."![178]
On plate IV of Berkovits (1969), the same artist has shown two more telling correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud: 10. the nail in the wrist of the right hand (as it appears on the Shroud)

[Above (enlarge): Extract of plate IV in Berkovits (1969), showing the nail wound in the wrist of Jesus' right hand (as it appears on the Shroud), while the nail wound in the left hand (which is covered on the Shroud) is traditionally in the palm. This shows the artist knew the traditional view but deliberately chose to depict the nail in Jesus' right wrist because that is what he saw on the Shroud! Also note that the fingers of Jesus' right hand are unnaturally long, and the rest of that hand is unnaturally short, as it is on the Shroud because the latter are xray images of the Shroud man's finger and hand bones! See "X-Raya #22".]

of the resurrected and enthroned Jesus[179]; and 11. The angel is holding Jesus' cross with three nails[180], matching the three nail wounds on the Shroud[181].

Because of these, not eight, but eleven telling correspondences with the Shroud, the Pray Codex is the final nail in the coffin of the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud[182]. That is because, being the sindon of Constantinople [see future "1203"][183], the Shroud arrived there in 944 [see "944b"] from Edessa where it had been since 544 [see "544"][184], which makes the Shroud more than seven centuries older than the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date!

Continued in the next part #13 of this series.

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page.[return]
2. Berkovits, I., 1969, "Illuminated Manuscripts in Hungary, XI-XVI Centuries," Horn, Z., translated, West, A., revised., Irish University Press: Shannon, Ireland, pl. III. [return]
3. Scavone, D.C., 1996, "Book Review of "The Turin Shroud: In Whose Image?," [return]
4. "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 12 April 2017. [return]
5. "Knights Templar," Wikipedia, 24 September 2017. [return]
6. Currer-Briggs, N., 1984, "The Holy Grail and the Shroud of Christ: The Quest Renewed," ARA Publications: Maulden UK, p.17. [return]
7. Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.17. [return]
8. "File:Templars Burning.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 7 June 2015. [return]
9. "Jacques de Molay: Death," Wikipedia, 11 September 2017. [return]
10. "Geoffroi de Charney: Death," Wikipedia, 19 September 2017. [return]
11. "Knights Templar: Arrests, charges and dissolution," Wikipedia, 24 September 2017. [return]
12. Wilson, I., 1978, "The Turin Shroud," Victor Gollancz: London, inside front cover. [return]
13. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, pp.178-179. [return]
14. Wilson, 1979, p.188. [return]
15. Wilson, 1979, p.188. [return]
16. Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 197-198. [return]
17. "So obviously there remains an unexplained gap between 1204 and the 1350s (and my suggestion of Templar ownership during this period has never been more than tentative and provisional - please note that I no longer support the claims for this ..." (Wilson, I., 2012, "Discovering more of the Shroud's Early History: A promising new approach ...," Talk for the International Congress on the Holy Shroud in Spain, Aula Magna of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain, 28-30 April, 2012, p.2). [return]
18. Wilson, 1979, pp.158, 256, 312; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, pp.145-146; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.120. [return]
19. Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, p.47; Scavone, 1991, p.195. [return]
20. Wilson, 1979, pp.158, 312 n.7; Iannone, 1998, p.120. [return]
21. Scavone, D., "The Shroud of Turin in Constantinople: The Documentary Evidence," in Sutton, R.F., Jr., 1989a, "Daidalikon: Studies in Memory of Raymond V Schoder," Bolchazy Carducci Publishers: Wauconda IL, p.311-329, 318. [return]
22. Green, M., 1969, "Enshrouded in Silence: In search of the First Millennium of the Holy Shroud," Ampleforth Journal, Vol. 74, No. 3, Autumn, pp.319-345; Wilcox, R.K., 1977, "Shroud," Macmillan: New York NY, p.94; Wilson, 1979, p.158-159; Wilson, 1986, p.114; Scavone, D.C., 1989b, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.88; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville TN, p.78; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.152; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.270. [return]
23. Scavone, 1989b, pp.88-89; Wilson, 1998, p.270. [return]
24. Wilson, 1998, pp.144, 270. [return]
25. Wilcox, 1977, p.94; Wilson, 1979, pp.158, 257; Wilson, 1986, p.114; Wilson, 1991, pp.152-153; Wilson, 1998, pp.144, 270; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.177, 301, 325; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, pp.382-383. [return]
26. Drews, 1984, p.47; Scavone, 1991, p.195. [return]
27. Beecher, P.A., 1928, "The Holy Shroud: Reply to the Rev. Herbert Thurston, S.J.," M.H. Gill & Son: Dublin, p.147. [return]
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33. Ibid. [return]
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35. Wilson, 1998, p.269; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.109; Bennett, J., 2001, "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, pp.145-147, 148; Wilson, 2010, p.50. [return]
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54. Wilson, 2010, p.146F. [return]
55. Wilson, 2010, p.1. [return]
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104. Hynek, R.W., 1951, "The True Likeness," [1946], Sheed & Ward: London, p.8; Ricci, 1981, p.xxxv; Heller, 1983, p.73; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
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106. Scavone, 1989a, p.320. [return]
107. de Riedmatten, P., 2008, "The Holy Face of Laon," BSTS Newsletter, No. 68, December, p.7. [return]
108. "File:Christos Acheiropoietos.jpg," Wikipedia, 24 August 2005. [return]
109. de Riedmatten, 2008, p.7. [return]
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113.Iannone, 1998, pp.120-121. [return]
114. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Hynek, 1951, p.8; Wilson, 1979, pp.165-166; Scavone, 1989b, p.321; Iannone, 1998, p.121; Wilson, 1998, p.271; Tribbe, 2006, p.25; de Wesselow, 2012, p.177. [return]
115. Bulst, 1957, p.8. [return]
116. Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.158; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p45. [return]
117. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, pp.58-59. [return]
118. "File:Icône Sainte Face Laon 150808.jpg, Wikimedia Commons, 13 September 2008. Translated from French by Google. [return]
119. de Riedmatten, 2008, p.7. [return]
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123. Wilson, 1986, p.110F. [return]
124. Wilson, 1991, p.78. [return]
125. Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.60; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.158; Wilson, 1991, p.136; Antonacci, 2000, p.131. [return]
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129. Wilcox, 1977, p.97; Wilson, I., 1983, "Some Recent Society Meetings," BSTS Newsletter, No. 6, September/December, p.13; Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.21; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.157; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988b, "Dating the Shroud - A Personal View," BSTS Newsletter No. 20, October, pp.16-17; Wilson, 1991, p.47; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.205; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.108. [return]
130. Wuenschel, 1954, pp.58-59; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.158; Oxley, 2010, p.108. [return]
131. Wilson, 1991, p.78. [return]
132. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.56. [return]
133. Currer-Briggs, 1995, pp.56-57]. [return]
134. Wilson, I., 2008, "II: Nicholas of Verdun: Scene of the Entombment, from the Verdun altar in the monastery of Klosterneuburg, near Vienna," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 67, June; Wilson, 2010, p.182. [return]
135. Wilson, 2008. [return]
136. Wilson, 2008. [return]
137. Wilson, 1979, p.160. [return]
138. Wilson, 2008; Wilson, 2010, pp.182-183. [return]
139. "Templecombe Preceptory," Wikipedia,15 August 2017. [return]
140. Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.116. [return]
141. Scavone, 1991, p.197. [return]
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143. Morgan, 1987a, p.6; Morgan, 1987b, pp.6-7. [return]
144. Morgan, 1987a, p.6; Morgan, 1987b, p.7. [return]
145. Morgan, 1987a, p.13; Morgan, 1987b, p.8. [return]
146. Wilson, 1987, "Templecombe Panel-Painting Carbon Dated," BSTS Newsletter, No. 16, May, pp.3-5, 4-5. [return]
147. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222. [return]
148. "Saladin: Vizier of Egypt," Wikipedia, 8 August 2017; "Damietta: History," Wikipedia, 11 September 2017. [return]
149. Walker, 1959, p.222; "Saladin: Conquest of Damascus," Wikipedia, 8 August 2017. [return]
150. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222. [return]
151. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Battle of Hattin," Wikipedia, 13 October 2017. [return]
152. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Siege of Jerusalem (1187)," Wikipedia, 10 October 2017. [return]
153. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Siege of Jerusalem (1187): Aftermath," Wikipedia, 10 October 2017. [return]
154. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Third Crusade," Wikipedia, 14 October 2017. [return]
155. "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
156. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
157. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
157a. "Cyprus: Middle Ages," Wikipedia, 30 October 2018. [return]
157b. Ibid. [return]
157c. Ibid. [return]
157d. Ibid. [return]
157e. Jones, S.E., 2016, "Savoy Family Tree," (members only); Oxley, 2010, p.68. [return]
158. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Richard I of England: In the Holy Land," Wikipedia, 16 October 2017. [return]
158a. "Third Crusade: Aftermath," Wikipedia, 13 November 2017. [return]
159. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Philip II of France: Third Crusade," Wikipedia, 8 October 2017. [return]
160. Walker, 1959, p.223; "Richard I of England: In the Holy Land," Wikipedia, 16 October 2017; "Third Crusade: Advances on Jerusalem, regicide, and negotiations," Wikipedia, 14 October 2017. [return]
161. Berkovits, 1969, p.19. [return]
162. Berkovits, 1969, p.19. [return]
163. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
164. Wilson, 1991, p.150; Guerrera, 2001, p.104. [return]
165. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
166. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
167. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
168. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.91; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
169. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, pp.59-60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
170. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91. [return]
171. Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
172. Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
173. de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
174. Iannone, 1998, p.155; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
175. Maloney, P.C., "Researching the Shroud of Turin: 1898 to the Present: A Brief Survey of Findings and Views," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.16-47, 33. [return]
176. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.164; Iannone, 1998, pp.154-155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91; Oxley, 2010, p.38; de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return] Wesselow, 2012, p.192. [return]
178. de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
179. Wilson, I., 1995, "News From Around The World," BSTS Newsletter, No. 39, January, pp.4-13, 6; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 1998, p.146. [return]
180. Wilson, 1995, p.6; Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
181. Barbet, P., "A Doctor at Calvary," [1950], Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, 1953, Reprinted, 1963, p.85; Bulst, 1957, p.49. [return]
182. de Wesselow, 2012, p.183. [return]
183. Scavone, D.C., "Greek Epitaphoi and Other Evidence for the Shroud in Constantinople up to 1204," in Walsh, B., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.196-211, 197; de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
184. Oxley, 2010, p.38. [return]

Posted: 23 September 2017. Updated: 11 December 2018.

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