Thursday, December 20, 2018

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth century (2)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
TWELFTH CENTURY (2)
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is part #13, "Twelfth century (2)" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. See also 29Mar14. For more information about this series see part #1, "1st century and Index." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. As mentioned [see 29Nov18], I decided to split this my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Twelfth Century" (1101-1200) into two parts 1101-1151 (1) and 1152-1200 (2), and insert a summary of the c. 1151 Chartres Cathedral stained glass windows into the first part (1). An then renumber this part as #13 and increase the already posted parts #13 to #15.

[Index #1] [Previous: 12th century (1) #12] [Next: 13th century #14]


12th century (1101-1200).

[Above (enlarge): "The Entombment" (upper) and "Visit to the Sepulchre" (lower) in the Hungarian Pray Manuscript, or Pray Codex, (1192-95)[2]. According to Wikipedia:

"The Codex Pray, Pray Codex or The Hungarian Pray Manuscript is a collection of medieval manuscripts. In 1813 it was named after György Pray, who discovered it in 1770. It is the first known example of continuous prose text in Hungarian. The Codex is kept in the National Széchényi Library of Budapest. One of the most prominent documents within the Codex (f. 154a) is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer ... It is an old handwritten Hungarian text dating to 1192-95. Its importance of the Funeral Sermon comes from that it is the oldest surviving Hungarian, and Uralic, text ... One of the five illustrations within the Codex shows the burial of Jesus. It is sometimes claimed that the display shows remarkable similarities with the Shroud of Turin: that Jesus is shown entirely naked with the arms on the pelvis, just like in the body image of the Shroud of Turin; that the thumbs on this image appear to be retracted, with only four fingers visible on each hand, thus matching detail on the Turin Shroud; that the supposed fabric shows a herringbone pattern, identical to the weaving pattern of the Shroud of Turin; and that the four tiny circles on the lower image, which appear to form a letter L, `perfectly reproduce four apparent "poker holes" on the Turin Shroud', which likewise appear to form a letter L.[3] The Codex Pray illustration may serve as evidence for the existence of the Shroud of Turin prior to 1260–1390 AD, the alleged fabrication date established in the radiocarbon 14 dating of the Shroud of Turin in 1988"[4].
See "1192" below. Also see 21Jun17; 11Apr17; 07Aug16; 07May16; 27Dec15; 11Jan10; 08Dec09; 08Oct09 & 03Apr08].

1157 Nicholas Soemundarson, the Abbot of Thingeyrar Benedictine monastery, Iceland[5], returned from a pilgrimage to Constantinople[6]. He then drew up a very detailed inventory in medieval Icelandic of the relics[7] in Constantinople he had seen[8]. In that list was the sveitakuk (sweat cloth) and the maetull (Mandylion)[9] or Shroud (see "990")[10] with the blood and body of Christ on it[11]. The reference to blood means that these were burial cloths[12].

c. 1167 This Christ Acheiropoietos (not made with hands) copy of the Mandylion/Image of Edessa (the face panel of the Shroud "four-doubled" - tetradiplon) in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow (see below), is estimated to date from 1167[13]. It has, by my count, 12 out of a

[Above: Twelfth century Christ Acheiropoietos (not made with hands - see Mk 14:58; Acts 7:48, 19:26; 2Cor 5:1; Heb 9:11, 24), copy of the Mandylion/Shroud face panel) from the Assumption (Dormition) Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin, now in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow[14]. This icon is closely related to the Holy Face of Laon (see below).]

possible 14 (since there is no throat for the transverse line across it - VM13 - to be depicted) Vignon markings (see above). This is one of a few Image of Edessa/Mandylion icons which contain most of the 15 Vignon markings[15] and, together with all the other evidence for it, prove beyond reasonable doubt that the Image of Edessa/Mandylion was the face panel of the tetradiplon ("four-doubled") Shroud. So this is yet more evidence that medieval artists saw the Shroud, centuries before its earliest 1260 radiocarbon date[16]!

1171 Chronicler William of Tyre (c.1130–1186), as Archbishop of Tyre[17], accompanied a state visit of King Amaury I (L. Amalric I) of Jerusalem (r. 1163-74) to Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (L. Comnenus) (r.1143-80) in Constantinople[18]. The purpose of the visit was to gather support to drive the Muslims from the Eastern part of the Byzantine Empire[19]. William recorded his party being shown "the most precious evidences of the passion of our Lord Jesus Christ" including "the shroud" [sindon][20]. William did not mention an image on the shroud, but this can be explained either by him only seeing its reliquary within which was the folded cloth[21] or the light being too dim for him to distinguish the Shroud's faint image [see "Faint"] . [See also 29Mar14 & 21Jun17].

c. 1175 The Holy Face of Laon (French: "Sainte Face de Laon"[22]) is a glazed panel painted presumably at Constantinople[23] about

[Above (enlarge): "Icon of the Holy Face (Mandylion) of Laon. Purchased in 1249 in Bari (Italy) by Jacques Pantaleon, later to become Pope Urban IV"[24]. The close relationship between this icon and the Christ Acheiropoietos icon (above) is evident.]

1175[25]. In 1249, Jacques Pantaleon (1195–1264), then Archdeacon of Laon[26], and later to become Pope Urban IV (r.1261–1264)[27], gave the icon to his sister Sibylle, the abbess of a nearby convent at Montreuil-en-Thierache[28]. It is now kept in the Cathedral of Laon, Picardy, France[29]. The icon is actually a copy of the Image of Edessa or Mandylion[30], as its background has a trellis pattern[31] like other depictions of the Image. It also shows a brown monochrome, rigidly front facing, disembodied head of Jesus on cloth, strongly reminiscent of the Shroud[32]. This icon corresponds more closely to the face on the Shroud than any other[33], having 13 of the 15 Vignon markings (see above)[34]. It also bears an inscription in ancient slavonic: OBRAZ GOSPODIN NA UBRUSJE "the portrait of the Lord on the cloth"[35], which must mean that the artist worked directly from the Shroud[36], which was in Constantinople between 944 and 1204[37] [see "944b" and "1204"]. But since the Sainte Face dates from the end of the 12th century, and it is a copy of the Shroud image, then the Shroud itself must date from well before 1200[38]. This cannot be reconciled with the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating[39]! [See 21 Jun17].

c. 1181 A champlevé enamel panel which forms part of the altar in the Klosterneuburg monastery, near Vienna, was completed no later than 1181 by Nicholas of Verdun (1130–1205)[40]. As can be seen below,

[Above (enlarge): Entombment of Jesus, c. 1181, by Nicholas of Verdun, Klosterneuburg Abbey, Vienna[41].]

Jesus is depicted being wrapped in a double body length burial shroud[42], with His hands crossed over His loins, right over left (as it appears on the Shroud), crossing awkwardly at the wrists[43], exactly as on the Shroud[44]! Yet this was at least 79 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud! [See 21 Jun17].

1185 Establishment of a Knights Templar administrative and training preceptory in the village of Templecombe, Somerset, England[45]. While the Templars never possessed the Shroud (see above), they

[Above (enlarge)[46]: Painted face on the lid of a wooden chest found in c. 1944 wired to the ceiling of a building which had been part of a twelfth century Templar preceptory in Templecombe, Somerset, England. The face has similarities to copies of the Image of Edessa in the "Holy Face" style (see the "Holy Face of Genoa").].

owned and revered painted copies of the Image of Edessa/Shroud. Evidence of this is first, at their trial following the order's 1307 arrest (see above), one the charges brought against the Templars was that they worshipped an idol which was a head with a reddish beard[47]. And second, during World War II (c. 1944) a nearby bomb blast in the village of Templecombe, Somerset, England, dislodged a piece of plaster in the ceiling of an outbuilding which was originally part of the above Templar preceptory, and revealed to its tenant, a Mrs Molly Drew, a painted face wired to the ceiling and covered with plaster[48] (see above). Mrs Drew and the owner of the house a Mrs A. Topp, had the panel removed from the outbuilding and brought it into the house[49]. They then called in the local rector, a retired Bishop George Wright, who had it moved to his rectory and then cleaned, removing some of the original paint[50]. But fortunately Mrs Drew had taken a black and white photograph of the panel before it was cleaned[51] (see below), which showed a trellis pattern around the

[Above (enlarge): A black and white photograph of the Templecombe panel, taken by Mrs Molly Drew, before it was cleaned with loss of historical information. As can be seen, the face had a trellis pattern around it, as the Image of Edessa did (see above).]

face[52], confirming that it was a copy of the Image of Edessa/Shroud!

1187 Fall of Jerusalem. The Kurdish general, Saladin (1137–93), had succeeded in uniting the Muslims[53]. In 1169 Saladin defeated a combined Crusader-Byzantine attack on the port of Damietta, Egypt[54]. In 1174 Saladin conquered Damascus[55], and by 1183 Saladin's Muslim state surrounded the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem on its north, east, and south[56]. In 1187 at the Battle of Hattin, near Tiberias in today's Israel, the Muslim armies under Saladin decisively defeated the combined Crusader forces[57]. After a brief seige Jerusalem surrendered in 1187 to Saladin's forces, and the the loss of most of the Holy Land, including Acre on the Mediterranean coast, speedily followed[58].

1189 The Third Crusade (1189-92). The loss of Jerusalem and most of the Holy Land to the Muslims roused Europe to the Third Crusade (1189-1192) to retrieve those losses[59]. Three great armies were led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (r. 1155–90), by King Philip II of France (r. 1179-1223), and by King Richard I of England (r. 1189-99)[60]. The Crusaders arrived in Constantinople in 1189, where they were warned in a note from Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem (r. 1186–1190) of a secret alliance between Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos (r. 1185–95, 1203–04) and Saladin[61]. This would have further added to the bitterness felt in the West towards the Byzantine Empire following its lack of support in the Second Crusade (see above ), and further helps to explain the 1204 Sack of Constantinople by Western forces on their way to the Fourth Crusade [see "1204"], especially since it was the same Emperor! But Frederick was accidentally drowned in 1190 while crossing a river in Cilicia, plunging his army into chaos, with only a small fraction of the original force reaching Acre[62]. The death of Frederick left the Crusader armies under the command of Philip II and Richard I, who were rivals in Europe, and this led to the Third Crusade's subsequent failure[63]. In 1191 Richard captured Cyprus from Isaac Komnenos (c.1155–1196)[64]. Richard used the island as a supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens[65]. In 1992 Richard sold the island to the Knights Templar, who in turn sold it that year to Guy of Lusignan (c.1150–1194), king of the crusader state of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 through his marriage in 1180 to Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem[66]. His brother and successor Aimery (1155-1205) was recognised as King of Cyprus by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1191–1197)[67]. Anne de Lusignan (1418–62), wife of Duke Louis I of Savoy (1413–65), owner of the Shroud, was a direct descendant of Aimery, King of Cyprus[68]. Richard's forces helped recover Acre[69] and established Mediterranean coastal crusader states[70], but Philip and his army returned to France[71], leaving Richard's forces alone unable to retake Jerusalem[72]. This failure of the Third Crusade to recover Jerusalem from Muslim control led to the Fourth Crusade, which had very important consequences for the Shroud [see "1204"]!

1192-5 The Hungarian Pray Manuscript, or Codex (see above), is dated 1192-95[73]. The Codex was compiled at the ancient Benedictine monastery at Boldva, Hungary[74]. Hungary was then ruled by King Bela III (r.1172–1196), who had spent six years (1163–1169) as a young man in the imperial court at Constantinople[75]. Two pen and ink drawings[76] on one page of the Codex, one above the other (see above), document the existence of the Shroud in the late twelfth century[77]. The upper drawing is a depiction of Jesus' body being prepared for burial[78]. Correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud include: 1. Jesus is nude[79]; 2. His hands are crossed awkwardly at the wrists, right over left (as it appears on the Shroud), covering His genitals[80]; 3. No thumbs are visible on Jesus' hands[81]; 4. His hands and fingers are unnaturally long[82]; 5. Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (see below)[83] and 6.

[Above (enlarge): Jesus is about to be wrapped in a double body length shroud (highlighted green) in the Pray Codex upper Entombment scene (see above).]

Red marks on Jesus' scalp and forehead are in the same position as the bloodstains (including the "reversed 3") on the Shroud[84]. In the lower drawing an angel is showing three women disciples Jesus' empty tomb symbolised by a sarcophagus with an open lid[85]. Correspondences between this lower drawing and the Shroud include: 7. The sarcophagus lid has a herringbone weave pattern[86]; 8. Red zigzags match the inverted V-shaped blood trickles down the Shroud man's arms[87] and 9. L-shaped patterns of tiny circles in the herringbone weave of the sarcophagus lid match the `poker holes' on the Shroud[88]. Thomas de Wesselow, an agnostic art historian[89] concludes:

"We have now identified eight [there are at least nine - see above] telling correspondences between the Shroud and the drawings on a single page of the Pray Codex ... It is inconceivable that all these detailed links with the Shroud, several of which are found nowhere else, could have occurred on a single manuscript page by chance. The only reasonable conclusion is that the artist of the Pray Codex was aware of the Shroud. The Shroud existed and was already damaged, then, by 1192-5, when the illustrations in the Pray Codex were drawn. Given the close links at the time between Hungary and Byzantium, it can hardly be doubted that the artist saw the relic in Constantinople. The Shroud was the Byzantine Sindon."![90]
On plate IV of Berkovits (1969), the same artist has shown two more telling correspondences between the Pray Codex and the Shroud: 10. the nail in the wrist of the right hand (as it appears on the Shroud)

[Above (enlarge): Extract of plate IV in Berkovits (1969), showing the nail wound in the wrist of Jesus' right hand (as it appears on the Shroud), while the nail wound in the left hand (which is covered on the Shroud) is traditionally in the palm. This shows the artist knew the traditional view but deliberately chose to depict the nail in Jesus' right wrist because that is what he saw on the Shroud! Also note that the fingers of Jesus' right hand are unnaturally long, and the rest of that hand is unnaturally short, as it is on the Shroud because the latter are xray images of the Shroud man's finger and hand bones! See "X-Raya #22".]

of the resurrected and enthroned Jesus[91]; and 11. The angel is holding Jesus' cross with three nails[92], matching the three nail wounds on the Shroud[93].

Because of these, not eight, but eleven telling correspondences with the Shroud, the Pray Codex is the final nail in the coffin of the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud[94]. That is because, being the sindon of Constantinople [see "1204"] [95], the Shroud arrived there in 944 [see "944b"] from Edessa where it had been since 544 [see "544"][96], which makes the Shroud more than seven centuries older than the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date!

Continued in the next part #14 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page.[return]
2. Berkovits, I., 1969, "Illuminated Manuscripts in Hungary, XI-XVI Centuries," Horn, Z., translated, West, A., revised., Irish University Press: Shannon, Ireland, pl. III. [return]
3. Scavone, D.C., 1996, "Book Review of "The Turin Shroud: In Whose Image?," Shroud.com. [return]
4. "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 12 April 2017. [return]
5. Barnes, A.S., 1934, "The Holy Shroud of Turin," Burns Oates & Washbourne: London, p.53; Ricci, G., 1981, "The Holy Shroud," Center for the Study of the Passion of Christ and the Holy Shroud: Milwaukee WI, p.xxxv. [return]
6. Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, 1983, p.72; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.58. [return]
7. Heller, 1983, p.72; Scavone, D.C., "The Shroud of Turin in Constantinople: The Documentary Evidence," in Sutton, R.F., Jr., 1989a, "Daidalikon: Studies in Memory of Raymond V Schoder," Bolchazy Carducci Publishers: Wauconda IL, pp.311-329, 320. [return]
8. Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.120; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
9. Wilson, 1979, p.167; Iannone, 1998, p.120; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.184. [return]
10. Hynek, R.W., 1951, "The True Likeness," [1946], Sheed & Ward: London, p.8; Ricci, 1981, p.xxxv; Heller, 1983, p.73; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
11. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Ricci, 1981, p.xxxv; Heller, 1983, p.73; Scavone, 1989a, p.320; Ruffin, 1999, p.58. [return]
12. Scavone, 1989a, p.320. [return]
13. de Riedmatten, P., 2008, "The Holy Face of Laon," BSTS Newsletter, No. 68, December, p.7. [return]
14. "File:Christos Acheiropoietos.jpg," Wikipedia, 24 August 2005. [return]
15. de Riedmatten, 2008, p.7. [return]
16. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.141. [return]
17. "William of Tyre," Wikipedia, 21 September 2017. [return]
18. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.8; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.165; Iannone, 1998, pp.120-121; Wilson, 1998, p.271; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.6; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.25; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.177. [return]
19. Iannone, 1998, pp.120-121. [return]
20. Barnes, 1934, p.53; Hynek, 1951, p.8; Wilson, 1979, pp.165-166; Scavone, D.C., 1989b, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.321; Iannone, 1998, p.121; Wilson, 1998, p.271; Tribbe, 2006, p.25; de Wesselow, 2012, p.177. [return]
21. Bulst, 1957, p.8. [return]
22. Currer-Briggs, N., 1984, "The Holy Grail and the Shroud of Christ: The Quest Renewed," ARA Publications: Maulden UK, p.158; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988a, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.45. [return]
23. Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, pp.58-59. [return]
24. "File:Icône Sainte Face Laon 150808.jpg, Wikimedia Commons, 13 September 2008. Translated from French by Google. [return]
25. de Riedmatten, 2008, p.7. [return]
26. Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.21. [return]
27. "Pope Urban IV," Wikipedia, 30 September 2017. [return]
28. Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.45; Wilson, 1991, pp.47, 78. [return]
29. Wilson, 1986, p.110F. [return]
30. Wilson, 1991, p.78. [return]
31. Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.60; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.158; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.136; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.131. [return]
32. Wilson, 1979, pp.114-115; Wilson, 1998, pp.150-151. [return]
33. Currer-Briggs, N., 1995, "Shroud Mafia: The Creation of a Relic?," Book Guild: Sussex UK, p.56. [return]
34. Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.58. [return]
35. Wilcox, 1977, p.97; Wilson, I., 1983, "Some Recent Society Meetings," BSTS Newsletter, No. 6, September/December, p.13; Currer-Briggs, 1984, p.21; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.157; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988b, "Dating the Shroud - A Personal View," BSTS Newsletter No. 20, October, pp.16-17; Wilson, 1991, p.47; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.205; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.108. [return]
36. Wuenschel, 1954, pp.58-59; Currer-Briggs, 1988a, p.158; Oxley, 2010, p.108. [return]
37. Wilson, 1991, p.78. [return]
38. Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.56. [return]
39. Currer-Briggs, 1995, pp.56-57]. [return]
40. Wilson, I., 2008, "II: Nicholas of Verdun: Scene of the Entombment, from the Verdun altar in the monastery of Klosterneuburg, near Vienna," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 67, June; Wilson, 2010, p.182. [return]
41. Wilson, 2008. [return]
42. Wilson, 2008. [return]
43. Wilson, 1979, p.160. [return]
44. Wilson, 2008; Wilson, 2010, pp.182-183. [return]
45. "Templecombe Preceptory," Wikipedia,15 August 2017. [return]
46. Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.116. [return]
47. Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.171-204, 197. [return]
48. Morgan, R., 1987a, "Was the Holy Shroud in England?," Shroud News No. 42, August, pp.3-17, 5; Morgan, R., 1987b, "The Templecombe Panel Painting," BSTS Newsletter, No. 17, September, pp.3-11, 4. [return]
49. Morgan, 1987a, p.6; Morgan, 1987b, pp.6-7. [return]
50. Morgan, 1987a, p.6; Morgan, 1987b, p.7. [return]
51. Morgan, 1987a, p.13; Morgan, 1987b, p.8. [return]
52. Wilson, 1987, "Templecombe Panel-Painting Carbon Dated," BSTS Newsletter, No. 16, May, pp.3-5, 4-5. [return]
53. Latourette, K.S., 1953, "A History of Christianity: Volume 1: to A.D. 1500," Harper & Row: New York NY, Reprinted, 1975, p.411; Walker, W., 1959, "A History of the Christian Church," [1918], T. & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Revised, Reprinted, 1963, p.222. [return]
54. "Saladin: Vizier of Egypt," Wikipedia, 8 August 2017; "Damietta: History," Wikipedia, 11 September 2017. [return]
55. Walker, 1959, p.222; "Saladin: Conquest of Damascus," Wikipedia, 8 August 2017. [return]
56. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222. [return]
57. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Battle of Hattin," Wikipedia, 13 October 2017. [return]
58. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Siege of Jerusalem (1187)," Wikipedia, 10 October 2017. [return]
59. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Siege of Jerusalem (1187): Aftermath," Wikipedia, 10 October 2017. [return]
60. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.222; "Third Crusade," Wikipedia, 14 October 2017. [return]
61. "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
62. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
63. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor: Third Crusade and death," Wikipedia, 11 October 2017. [return]
64. "Cyprus: Middle Ages," Wikipedia, 30 October 2018. [return]
65. Ibid. [return]
66. Ibid. [return]
67. Ibid. [return]
68. Jones, S.E., 2016, "Savoy Family Tree," Ancestry.com.au (members only); Oxley, 2010, p.68. [return]
69. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Richard I of England: In the Holy Land," Wikipedia, 16 October 2017. [return]
70. "Third Crusade: Aftermath," Wikipedia, 13 November 2017. [return]
71. Latourette, 1953, p.411; Walker, 1959, p.223; "Philip II of France: Third Crusade," Wikipedia, 8 October 2017. [return]
72. Walker, 1959, p.223; "Richard I of England: In the Holy Land," Wikipedia, 16 October 2017; "Third Crusade: Advances on Jerusalem, regicide, and negotiations," Wikipedia, 14 October 2017. [return]
73. Berkovits, 1969, p.19. [return]
74. Berkovits, 1969, p.19. [return]
75. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
76. Wilson, 1991, p.150; Guerrera, 2001, p.104. [return]
77. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
78. de Wesselow, 2012, p.178. [return]
79. Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
80. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.91; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
81. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Iannone, 1998, p.155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, pp.59-60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91; Oxley, 2010, p.37; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
82. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91. [return]
83. Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
84. Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 2010, p.183; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
85. de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
86. Iannone, 1998, p.155; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; de Wesselow, 2012, p.179. [return]
87. Maloney, P.C., "Researching the Shroud of Turin: 1898 to the Present: A Brief Survey of Findings and Views," in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.16-47, 33. [return]
88. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.164; Iannone, 1998, pp.154-155; Wilson, 1998, p.146; Ruffin, 1999, p.60; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91; Oxley, 2010, p.38; de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
89. de Wesselow, 2012, p.192. [return]
90. de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
91. Wilson, I., 1995, "News From Around The World," BSTS Newsletter, No. 39, January, pp.4-13, 6; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Oxley, 2010, p.38; Wilson, 1998, p.146. [return]
92. Wilson, 1995, p.6; Guerrera, 2001, p.105. [return]
93. Barbet, P., 1953, "A Doctor at Calvary," [1950], Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, Reprinted, 1963, p.85; Bulst, 1957, p.49. [return]
94. de Wesselow, 2012, p.183. [return]
95. Scavone, D.C., "Greek Epitaphoi and Other Evidence for the Shroud in Constantinople up to 1204," in Walsh, B., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.196-211, 197; de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
96. Oxley, 2010, p.38. [return]

Posted: 20 December 2018. Updated: 31 December 2018.

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

It is mentioned about the Pray Codex that Jesus' fingers are unnaturally long and with no thimbs as evidence. However, the fingers of the man pouring the oil are of the same length, and one of the hands has no thumb merely because of the angle. For example, the length of the toes is also unnatural.

In these pictures, which are not intended to be detailed in any way, it makes no sense to say that some proportion is unnatural. Pretty much everything is unnatural, since it is not intended to be detailed. Ragarding the nails on the wrist, in the picture the right hand has a so small palm that it could be considered to be on the palm. It would also be strange that an artist, having seen a nail wound on the wrist, would think that the other nail would be on the palm.

The positions of the hands seem to be a natural way to depict someone being buried, and does not necessarily mean inspiration by the shroud, though of course the consistency is needed.

I would focus on the things that are clearly deliberate, such as the L holes, the weaving pattern, or the strange red zigzag marks (though their placement is strange).

Stephen E. Jones said...

Anonymous

>It is mentioned about the Pray Codex that Jesus' fingers are unnaturally long and with no thimbs as evidence.

I have changed it to: "4. His hands and fingers are unnaturally long" which is what I meant.

>However, the fingers of the man pouring the oil are of the same length,

But the hands and fingers combined of Jesus in the Pray Codex upper Entombment scene are longer than those of the man pouring the oil.

And others agree with me. My reference "[82]" was: '82. Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.163; Guerrera, 2001, p.105; Whiting, 2006, p.91."

Here they are quoted:

"the Pray manuscript ... In the upper scene, the inspiration of the Shroud is very evident. It shows the anointing of Christ, after He had been taken down from the cross ... the hands, which cover the lower belly, do not show the thumbs, while the index fingers are as long as the middle ones." (Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.163).

"... the following common characteristics between the Pray Manuscript and the Shroud ... The fingers were unnaturally elongated, and the thumbs invisible." (Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.105)

"... Pray' (Codex) Manuscript of Jesus being placed on His burial shroud. His arms are shown folded at the wrists and His fingers appear unnaturally long, as they are on the Shroud, and there are no visible thumbs." (Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.91)

>and one of the hands has no thumb merely because of the angle.

No. When I place my own hands crossed in that position my thumbs are seen. Only if I retract them into my palms are they not seen.

>For example, the length of the toes is also unnatural.

There are no toes in that Entombment scene, plate III. If you mean plate IV, no one is claiming the length of the toes are unnatural.

And the fingers in plate IV are unnaturally long compared with the rest of the hand.

>In these pictures, which are not intended to be detailed in any way,

That is merely your unsubstantiated opinion. The Pray Codex drawings which depict the Shroud show details, albeit within the limits of miniatures in 4 colours of ink.

[continued]

Stephen E. Jones said...

[continued]

>it makes no sense to say that some proportion is unnatural.

That is your opinion. I and the others I quoted disagree with you.

>Pretty much everything is unnatural, since it is not intended to be detailed.

Disagree. See above.

>Ragarding the nails on the wrist, in the picture the right hand has a so small palm that it could be considered to be on the palm.

Wrong! In plate IV, the nail wound in Jesus' apparent right hand is in line with the base of his thumb and little finger. That is well before the palm, at the wrist, on my right (and left) hand.

But the nail wound in Jesus' apparent left hand, hidden on the Shroud, is well past the base of Jesus' thumb and in fact is in a line with the join of Jesus' thumb and index finger, which is in the palm.

>t would also be strange that an artist, having seen a nail wound on the wrist, would think that the other nail would be on the palm.

You are ignoring what I wrote in my post above, under plate IV:

"Extract of plate IV in Berkovits (1969), showing the nail wound in the wrist of Jesus' right hand (as it appears on the Shroud), while the nail wound in the left hand (which is covered on the Shroud) is traditionally in the palm. This shows the artist knew the traditional view but deliberately chose to depict the nail in Jesus' right wrist because that is what he saw on the Shroud!"

>The positions of the hands seem to be a natural way to depict someone being buried, and does not necessarily mean inspiration by the shroud, though of course the consistency is needed.

You are deceiving yourself. As I pointed out in my post above, there are ..."eleven telling correspondences with the Shroud" in these two Pray Codex drawings in Berkovits, 1969, plates III and IV.

Indeed, as I pointed out in my "Open letter to Professor Christopher Ramsey" [04Oct18] (which was after the original date of the above part 2 (23Sep17) before it was split into two), there are "at least fourteen (14) correspondences between the drawings on two folios of the Pray Codex and the Shroud!"

>I would focus on the things that are clearly deliberate, such as the L holes, the weaving pattern, or the strange red zigzag marks (though their placement is strange)

You can focus on what you like, but don't tell me what I should, or should not post on this my blog. Because of that, to be consistent I should have deleted your comment as substandard, as per my policy most recently stated in my "Shroud of Turin News, October 2018":

"Having said that, it is my policy to always delete as substandard comments that tell me what I should, or should not, post. My response to all such commenters is, `If you don't like what I post, or how I post, then don't read my blog'! [see 01Jan18 & 02Mar18]."

Stephen E. Jones
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MY POLICIES. Comments are moderated. Those I consider off-topic, offensive or sub-standard will not appear. Except that comments under my latest post can be on any Shroud-related topic. I normally allow only one comment per individual under each one of my posts.