Tuesday, July 3, 2018

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Fourteenth century (3)

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
FOURTEENTH CENTURY (3)
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is the eleventh and final (which is continuation of the tenth and the fourth) installment of part #16, "Fourteenth century (3)" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. I had decided to again split the fourteenth century, this time into parts (2), 1351-1375 and this part (3) 1376-1400. For more information about this series see part #1, "1st century and Index." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Index #1] [Previous: 14th century (2) #15] [Next: 15th century #17]


14th century (3) (1376-1400).

1378 Robert of Geneva (1342-94), a nephew of Jeanne de Vergy's second husband Aymon of Geneva[2] [see "c1359"], was elected Pope by cardinals opposed to the Italian Pope Urban VI (1378-1389)[3], and took the name Clement VII (r.1378-94)[4]. The papacy was thus split between Avignon, France and Rome in the Western Schism[5].

1388 Death of Aymon of Geneva [see "c.1359"], thereby widowing Jeanne de Vergy (c.1332– 1428) for a second time[6] [see "1345a"].

1389a In April the Shroud was exhibited for the second time [see "c.1355"] at the Lirey collegiate church[7], by Geoffroy II de Charny (1352–1398) and his

[Right (enlarge): Drawn copy of the brass effigy which was over the tomb of Geoffroy II de Charny in Froidmont Abbey, Belgium[8]. The Abbey and the tombs within it were destroyed in World War I[9].

twice-widowed mother Jeanne de Vergy[10]. Lirey being a collegiate church, was not under the control of the Bishop of Troyes, Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-1395), so Geoffroy II, being a relative by marriage and former neighbour of Pope Clement VII [see "c1359" and "1389e" below] had bypassed d'Arcis and sought and received permission from Clement, through his nuncio, Cardinal Pierre de Thury (-1410), to exhibit the Shroud at the Lirey church[11]. This was subsequently confirmed in a letter of 28 July 1389 from Clement to Geoffrey II, which formally ratified Cardinal de Thury's permission for Geoffrey II to re-exhibit the "image or representation of the Shroud of our Lord Jesus Christ"[12]. Geoffroy II had also obtained the approval of Charles VI of France (r.1380–1420) for the exposition[13]. The exposition of the Shroud at the Lirey church attracted thousands of pilgrims[14]. The Cloth was held by "two priests vested in albs with stoles and maniples and using the greatest possible reverence, with lighted torches and upon a lofty platform constructed for this special purpose"[15]. Although it had been agreed that Geoffroy would claim that the Cloth was only a "picture" or "figure"[16] (for why see 15Aug17 and future "1389f"), by both unofficial word and actions, Geoffroy and the canons made it clear that it really was the true shroud of Christ[17]! On some days Geoffroy would hold the Cloth in his own hands before the crowds, his presence giving the impression that it was something far more precious and holy than simply a cloth bearing an 'image' or 'representation'[18].

1389b In August a letter signed in Paris by King Charles VI (presumably when he was suffering from one of his episodes of temporary insanity) ordered the bailli of Troyes to seize the Shroud at the Lirey church and bring it to the Bishop of Troyes (Pierre d'Arcis) so that he could relocate it in another church in Troyes[19]. But the Dean refused to hand over the Shroud because it was locked with different keys, one of which was held by Geoffroy II[20]. Then when later that month the bailli returned and threatened to break in and remove the Shroud, the Dean informed him that the Shroud was no longer there[21]. The Dean and canons then lodged an appeal to the King and in September the bailli of Troyes was told that the Shroud was now "verbally put into the hands of our lord the king" and that was the end of matter[22].

1389c In October Bishop d'Arcis appealed to Pope Clement VII about the current exhibition of the Shroud at Lirey, describing it as bearing the double imprint of a crucified man and that it was being claimed to be the true Shroud in which Jesus's body was wrapped, and was attracting crowds of pilgrims[27]. But according to d'Arcis' information it had been discovered to be the work of an artist[28] [see below].

1389d The d'Arcis Memorandum [Left (enlarge) [29].] One of two copies [30] found only in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (National Library of France)[31], of a draft, unsigned, undated, unaddressed docu-ment[32]. Which was in 1900 published in its original Latin by French Roman Catholic anti-authenticist historian Ulysse Chevalier (1841–1923)[33], who fraudulently added a title to make it appear to have been sent by Bishop d'Arcis to Pope Clement VII at the end of 1389[34]. Chevalier's fraud was continued by Fr Herbert Thurston (1856–1939)[35], another leading Roman Catholic opponent of the Shroud, who in 1903 published his translation of Chevalier's Latin into English[36]. [see also 31Oct14]. There is no evidence in either the Troyes or Papal archives of a final version of the d'Arcis memorandum that was sent to Pope Clement[37]. However since the Pope did reply to d'Arcis' appeals[38] [see below] it presumably is a record of d'Arcis verbal complaints to Clement VII through his nuncio, Cardinal de Thury. The value of the d'Arcis memorandum is that it is the earliest undisputed historical reference to the existence of the Shroud in c.1355[39].

In the memorandum Bishop d'Arcis stated that "thirty-four years or thereabouts ... to the present year"[40] (i.e. c.1355)[41] [see "c.1355"] at the Lirey church, an exhibition was held by its Dean of:

"... a certain cloth cunningly painted, upon which by a clever sleight of hand was depicted the twofold image of one man, that is to say, the back and front, he falsely declaring and pretending that this was the actual shroud in which our Saviour Jesus Christ was enfolded in the tomb, and upon which the whole likeness of the Saviour had remained thus impressed together with the wounds which He bore"[42].

D'Arcis appealed to Pope Clement VII to stop the exposition[43], claiming that one of his predecessors, Bishop Henri de Poitiers (r. 1354–1370) had discovered that the Shroud was "cunningly painted":
"... Henry of Poitiers ... then Bishop of Troyes ... after diligent inquiry and examination, he discovered the fraud and how the said cloth had been cunningly painted, the truth being attested by the artist who had painted it, to wit, that it was a work of human skill and not miraculously wrought or bestowed"[44].
But d'Arcis provided no evidence in his memorandum to substantiate his claims[45], which he would have if there had been any[46]. D'Arcis did not provide the name of the artist[47], nor a record of his confession[48], nor the source of his allegations[49]. There is also no record of Henri de Poitiers conducting any inquiry into the origin of Shroud[50] and d'Arcis did not even know its date[51]! But there is a record of a letter of 28 May 1356[see "1356a"], from Bishop Henri de Poitiers, praising Geoffroy I, ratifying the Lirey church and approving its "divine cult"[52], which presumably refers to the Shroud[53]! It is also highly unlikely that Geoffrey I de Charny, the owner of the Shroud in the 1350s [see "c.1355"], one of France's most ethical knights, and a devout author of religious poetry, was complicit in forging Jesus' burial shroud[54]. The final refutation of the d'Arcis memorandum is that the image of the man on the Shroud is not painted[55]! [see 11Jul16].

1389e Pope Clement VII allowed expositions of the Shroud to continue as a "figure" and "representation" of Jesus' burial shroud[56] and commanded Bishop d'Arcis to "perpetual silence" on this matter[57]. This unexpected siding of the Pope with the de Charnys against a senior bishop is explained by Clement, as Robert of Geneva (see above), being not only a nephew of Jeanne de Vergy's second husband Aymon of Geneva, but also having been their neighbour[58] [see above and "c1359"]. So Clement presumably had a private viewing of the Shroud[59] and was told by Jeanne that her ancestor, Othon de la Roche (c.1170-1234) had looted the Shroud in the 1204 sack of Constantinople[60] [see "1204," "c1359" and 25Oct15]. The problem for the Pope was that the Byzantine Empire (c.330–1453) still existed and its Emperor John V Palaiologos (1332–1391) lived in Chambéry, France! So if the de Charny's continued to claim that the Shroud was Jesus' burial Shroud, John V would have known it was the one looted from Constantinople and demanded it be returned to him, creating a diplomatic crisis for the Pope[61]! [see 15Aug17 & 20Jun18]. It may be no coincidence that the year the Byzantine Empire ended, 1453, was the same year that Geoffroy II's daughter, Marguerite de Charny [see "c1393" below], transferred the Shroud to Duke Louis I of Savoy (1440-1465) [see future "1453"].

1389f In December Bishop d'Arcis received a reply "from an authority higher even than Pope Clement"[62] in that Troyes cathedral was struck by lightning causing its roof to catch fire[63] and the nave of the unfinished cathedral to collapse[64]. The damage was so significant that it would not be for another 60 years that repairs would be completed[65]. In fact Troyes cathedral is still unfinished as it has only one tower, St. Peter's,

[Right (enlarge): The unfinished Troyes cathedral[66]. A judgement against Bishop d'Arcis' attempt to seize the Shroud to profit from it, by Jesus, the Man on the Shroud, who is ruling over all (Acts 10:36; Rom 9:5; Eph 1:21-22; Php 2:9)?]

while its planned second tower, St. Paul's, has never been built[67]. In 1389 Troyes Cathedral had already suffered a loss of revenue due to pilgrims visiting the nearby Lirey exposition and leaving their offerings there[68]. So presumably Bishop d'Arcis was envious of Lirey's relic[69] and wanted it for his cathedral[70] [see above].

1390a In January Pope Clement VII again commanded Bishop d'Arcis to "perpetual silence" on this matter, threatening him with excommunication, and sent a letter to Geoffrey II de Charny restating conditions under which expositions could be carried out[71].

1390c Upper limit of the 1260-1390 radiocarbon date of the Shroud[72].

c. 1392 Geoffroy II de Charny married Marguerite de Poitiers (1362–1418)[73] a niece of the late Bishop Henri de Poitiers, being the daughter of Henri's brother Charles (1325-1410)[74]. This would have been highly unlikely if Bishop Poitiers had really discovered that Geoffroy II's father and mother, Geoffroy I de Charny and Jeanne de Vergy, were exhibiting in c.1355 a "cunningly painted" forgery of Jesus' burial shroud (see above)[75]. See also future "1460" where Marguerite de Charny left her Lirey lands to her godson, Antoine-Guerry des Essars (c. 1408-74), who was the son of Guillemette de Poitiers (1370–1450), who in turn was one of four illegitimate children of Bishop Henri de Poitiers and his nun concubine, Jeanne de Chenery (1340–) [see 11Jul16]!

c. 1393 Birth of Marguerite de Charny (c. 1393–1460), to Geoffroy II de Charny and Marguerite de Poitiers[76].

1398 Death of Geoffroy II de Charny on 22 May 1398 in the Abbey at Froidmont, Belgium[77] [see above] from wounds sustained in the 1396 Battle of Nicopolis, near today's Nikopol, Bulgaria, where a combined besiging Crusader force was routed by the Ottoman Turks[78]. Marguerite de Charny, the eldest of three daughters, yet still a child aged ~5, became the owner of the Shroud[79]. However the Cloth remained in the Lirey church under the control of its canons[80], who came to believe, falsely, that they owned the Shroud [see future "1418]!

To be continued in the next part #17 of this series.

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.279; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, p.44; Wilson, 2010, p.233. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.62; Wilson, 1998, p.279. [return]
4. Wilson, 1991, p.62; Wilson, 1998, p.279; Whiting, 2006, p.44. [return]
5. Walsh, J.E., 1963, "The Shroud," Random House: New York NY, p.54; Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.206; Wilson, 1998, p.279; Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, p.151; Whiting, 2006, p.44. [return]
6. Wilson, 1979, pp.203, 205; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, p.43; Currer-Briggs, N., 1995, "Shroud Mafia: The Creation of a Relic?," Book Guild: Sussex UK, p.34; Wilson, 1998, p.280; Wilson, 2010, p.230. [return]
7. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.102; Antonacci, 2000, p.122. [return]
8. "Geoffroi de Charny: Brass effigy of his son Geoffroi II de Charny," Wikipedia, 17 April 2018. [return]
9. Wilson, I., 2007, "The Tombstone of Geoffrey II de Charny at Froidmont," BSTS Newsletter, No. 66, December; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.235-236. [return]
10. Wilson, 1979, p.260; Antonacci, 2000, p.151; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.13; Wilson, 2010, p.230. [return]
11. Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, p.97; Wilson, 1979, pp.206, 260; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.43; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.129; Wilson, 1998, p.120; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.65; Guerrera, 2001, p.13; Whiting, 2006, p.44; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.83. [return]
12. Oxley, 2010, p.82; Wilson, 2010, p.230. [return]
13. Ruffin, 1999, p.64. [return]
14. Whiting, 2006, p.44. [return]
15. Thurston, H., 1903, "The Holy Shroud and the verdict of history," The Month, CI, pp.17-20, in Whiting, 2006, p.44. [return]
16. Wilson, 1979, pp.206-207; Wilson, 1991, p.16; Wilson, 1998, p.121. [return]
17. Wilson, 1979, p.206; Wilson, 1991, p.16; Wilson, 1998, p.121. [return]
18. Wilson, 1991, pp.16-17; Wilson, 1998, p.120; Whiting, 2006, pp.44,46. [return]
19. Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, p.98; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.102; Wilson, 1998, p.280; Wilson, 2010, p.303. [return]
20. Humber, 1978, p.98; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.102; Wilson, 1998, p.280; Wilson, 2010, p.303. [return]
21. Wilson, 1998, p.280. [return]
22. Ibid. [return]
27. Wilson, 1979, p.260. [return]
28. Wilson, 1998, p.281. [return]
29. "La Sindone di Torino: Il memoriale del vescovo Pierre d'Arcis del 1389," n.d. [return]
30. Wilson, 1998, p.121; Antonacci, 2000, p.151; Oxley, 2010, p.56. [return]
31. Bonnet-Eymard, B., "Study of original documents of the archives of the Diocese of Troyes in France with particular reference to the Memorandum of Pierre d'Arcis," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, pp.233-260, 236; Antonacci, 2000, p.152. [return]
32. Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, pp.236-237; Wilson, 1991, p.17; Iannone, 1998, p.129; Wilson, 1998, p.121; Antonacci, 2000, pp.151-152; Guerrera, 2001, p.15; Whiting, 2006, p.57; Oxley, 2010, p.56. [return]
33. McNair, P., "The Shroud and History: Fantasy, Fake or Fact?," in Jennings, P., ed., "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud ," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, 1978, p.28; Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, p.24; Wilson, 1998, p.299; Wilcox, R.K., 2010, "The Truth About the Shroud of Turin: Solving the Mystery," [1977], Regnery: Washington DC, p.7. [return]
34. Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, p.236; Antonacci, 2000, pp.151-152; Markwardt, J., 2001, "The Conspiracy Against the Shroud," BSTS Newsletter, No. 55, June 2002; Oxley, 2010, p.58. [return]
35. Markwardt, 2001; Oxley, 2010, p.58. [return]
36. Wilson, 1979, p.266; McNair, 1978, p.28; Guerrera, 2001, p.15; Oxley, 2010, pp.57-58. [return]
37. Antonacci, 2000, p.152; Guerrera, 2001, p.15; Oxley, 2010, p.56. [return]
38. Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, p.32; Wilson, 1991, p.17. [return]
39. Scavone, D.C., "The History of the Turin Shroud to the 14th C.," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, pp.171-204, 174. [return]
40. Wilson, 1979, p.267; Wilson, 1998, p.111. [return]
41. Humber, 1978, p.96; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.14; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.180; Wilson, 1998, p.111; Guerrera, 2001, p.14; Oxley, 2010, p.52; de Wesselow, 2012, p.182. [return]
42. Wilson, 1979, p.267; Guerrera, 2001, p.13. [return]
43. Wilson, 1979, p.271; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.42. [return]
44. Wilson, 1979, p.267; Adams, 1982, p.32; Drews, 1984, pp.23-24; Currer-Briggs, 1988, pp.40-41; Antonacci, 2000, p.151; Guerrera, 2001, p.13; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.19. [return]
45. Antonacci, 2000, pp.152, 158; Guerrera, 2001, p.14. [return]
46. Antonacci, 2000, p.152. [return]
47. Iannone, 1998, p.129; Guerrera, 2001, p.14. [return]
48. Guerrera, 2001, p.14. [return]
49. Antonacci, 2000, p.152. [return]
50. Antonacci, 2000, p.152. [return]
51. Wilson, 2010, p.229. [return]
52. Wilson, 1979, p.90; Scavone, 1989, p.16; Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, p.242; Antonacci, 2000, p.152; Guerrera, 2001, p.14; Oxley, 2010, p.59; Wilson, 1998, p.278. [return]
53. Bonnet-Eymard, 1991, p.247; Oxley, 2010, p.52. [return]
54. Drews, 1984, p.24. [return]
55. McNair, 1978, p.34; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, pp.104-105; Meacham, W., 1983, "The Authentication of the Turin Shroud: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology," Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3, June, pp.283-311, 289; Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.99; Antonacci, 2000, p.153; Zugibe, F.T., 2005, "The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry," M. Evans & Co.: New York NY, p.204. [return]
56. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.7; Wilson, 1979, pp.210, 260; Walsh, 1963, p.54; Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.43; Scavone, 1989, p.14; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.29; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.181; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.15, 182. [return]
57. Wilson, 1979, p.260. [return]
58. Wilson, 1991, p.18. [return]
59. Wilson, 1979, p.206; Wilson, 1991, p.18. [return]
60. Wilson, 1979, p.206; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.43. [return]
61. de Wesselow, 2012, pp.182-183. [return]
62. Wilson, 2010, p.216. [return]
63. "Troyes Cathedral: Building history and description," Wikipedia, 2 March 2018. [return]
64. Wilson, 1991, p.17; Hoare, R., 1998, "The Turin Shroud Is Genuine: The Irrefutable Evidence Updated," [1984], Souvenir Press: London, p.47; Wilson, 1998, p.281; Antonacci, 2000, p.150; Oxley, 2010, p.59; Wilson, 2010, p.234. [return]
65. Antonacci, 2000, p.150; Oxley, 2010, p.59. [return]
66. "File:Cathédrale de Troyes 2006.JPG," Wikimedia Commons, 18 February 2016. [return]
67. "Troyes Cathedral: Building history and description," Wikipedia, 2 March 2018. [return]
68. Antonacci, 2000, p.150; Oxley, 2010, p.59. [return]
69. Hoare, 1998, p.47. [return]
70. Oxley, 2010, pp.58-59. [return]
71. Walsh, 1963, p.57; Wilson, 1979, p.260; Wilson, 1991, pp.17-18; Iannone, 1998, p.129; Guerrera, 2001, p.15; Oxley, 2010, p.58; Wilson, 2010, pp.234, 281. [return]
72. Damon, P.E., et al., 1989, "Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin," Nature, Vol. 337, 16 February, pp.611-615, 611. [return]
73. Wilson, 2010, p.230; Jones, S.E., 2015, "de Charny Family Tree," Ancestry.com.au (members only). [return]
74. Wilson, 1979, pp.88, 205; Morgan, 1980, p.42; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.22; Crispino, D.C., 1990, "Kindred Questions," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 34, March, pp.43-44, 44; Crispino, D.C., 1990, "The Charny Genealogy," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 37, December, pp.19-25, 20; Guerrera, 2001, p.12; Whiting, 2006, p.44; Wilson, 2010, p.230. [return]
75. Wilson, 1979, p.205; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.104; Crispino, D.C., in Fossati, L., 1983, "The Lirey Controversy," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 8, September, pp.24-34, 32; Whiting, 2006, p.44; Wilson, 2010, p.230. [return]
76. Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.35; Jones, S.E., 2015, de Charny Family Tree," Ancestry.com.au. [return]
77. Wilson, 1979, p.260; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.44; Wilson, 1998, p.281; Guerrera, 2001, p.15; Oxley, 2010, p.61; Wilson, 2010, pp.235, 303. [return]
78. Wilson, 1979, p.211; Wilson, 2010, p.235. [return]
79. Wilson, 1979, p.86; Currer-Briggs, 1988, p.44; Currer-Briggs, 1995, p.220; Brucker, E., 1998, "Thy Holy Face: My 39 Years of Lecturing on the Shroud of Turin," Brucker: Tucson AZ, p.16; Guerrera, 2001, p.15; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, pp.46-47; Wilson, 2010, p.303. [return]
80. Morgan, 1980, pp.43-44; Whiting, 2006, p.49; Oxley, 2010, p.61; Wilson, 2010, p.235. [return]

Posted: 3 July 2018. Updated: 14 July 2018.

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