Wednesday, September 9, 2020

The Shroud is consistent with the Bible #34: The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!

Copyright © Stephen E. Jones[1]

This is part #34, "The Shroud is consistent with the Bible" of my series, "The evidence is overwhelming that the Turin Shroud is authentic!" For more information about this series, see the "Main index #1" and "Other marks and images #26." See also "The Shroud of Turin: 3. The Bible and the Shroud." Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.

[Main index #1] [Previous: The Bible and the Shroud #33] [Next: The Shroud is consistent with the man being Jesus #35]

  1. The Bible and the Shroud #33
    1. The Shroud is consistent with the Bible #34

The Shroud must be consistent with the Bible If the Shroud of Turin is the burial shroud of Jesus Christ, then it must be consistent with what the Bible says about Him, and particularly about His suffering, crucifixion, death and burial:

"If the Shroud is the actual burial garment of Jesus, then it should be consistent with the New Testament texts. This condition must be satisfied before anyone can identify the cloth as Jesus' burial garment"[2].

[Right (enlarge): "Anatomy of the Shroud"[3], showing wounds and bloodstains on the Shroud man's image which match the Gospels' accounts of the beatings (Mt 26:67-68; 27:30; Lk 22:64; Jn 18:22; 19:3), scourging (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; Lk 23:16; Jn 19:1), crowned with thorns (Mt 27:29; Mk 15:17; Jn 19:2,5), crucifixion (Mt 27:35,38,44; Mk 15:24-27,32; Lk 23:33; Jn 19:16-18), death (Mt 27:50; Mk 15:37,39; Lk 23:46; Jn 19:30), legs not broken (Jn 19:32-33), speared in the side (Jn 19:34) of Jesus[4].]

Because, as Stevenson and Habermas' second sentence above implies, if the image on the Shroud was not consistent with what the Bible says about Jesus, and particularly about His suffering, crucifixion, death, burial and resurrection, then that would be sufficient reason to believe that the Shroud image is that of another crucifixion victim[5].

The Shroud is consistent with the Bible The Shroud has wounds and bloodstains consistent with those of Jesus Christ described or implied in the Gospels[6]. There is no injury sustained by the man on the Shroud that does not correspond to the injuries to Christ described or implied in the Gospels[7]. Some of the parallels between the Gospel evidence and the Shroud evidence are summarised below in table form[8]:

Gospel evidenceVersesShroud evidence
Jesus was scourged.Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; Jn 19:1The body is covered with the wounds of a severe scourging.
Jesus was struck blows to the face.Mt 27:30; Mk 15:19; Lk 22:63; Jn 19:3There is a severe swelling below the right eye and other face wounds.
Jesus was crowned with thorns.Mt 27:29; Mk 15:17; Jn 19:2Bleeding from the scalp indicates that a `cap' of thorns was thrust upon the head.
Jesus was made to carry a heavy crossbeam.Jn 19:17Scourge wounds on the shoulders are blurred, as if by the chafing of a heavy burden.
Jesus' cross had to be carried for him, suggesting He fell under its weight.Mt 27:32; Mk 15:21; Lk 23:26The knees are severely damaged, as if from repeated falls.
Jesus was crucified by nails in His hands and feet.Jn 20:25-27; Lk 24:39; Col 2:14There are blood flows as from nail wounds in the wrists and at the feet.
Jesus' legs were not broken, and a spear was thrust into His side to check that He was dead.Jn 19:31-37The legs are not broken, and there is a large wound in the right side.

The Bible does not exclude the man on the Shroud being Jesus Nothing in the Bible rules out the man on the Shroud being Jesus[9]. There is nothing in the Gospels' account of the suffering, crucifixion, death and burial of Jesus that contradicts the witness of the Shroud[10].

Shroud sceptics concede that the Shroud image matches the Gospels' description of Jesus The late Fr. Herbert Thurston (1856-1939), a leading early Roman Catholic Shroud sceptic, admitted that:

"As to the identity of the body whose image is seen on the Shroud, no question is possible. The five wounds, the cruel flagellation, the punctures encircling the head ... If this is not the impression of the Body of Christ, it was designed as the counterfeit of that impression. In no other personage since the world began could these details be verified"[11].
Modern day sceptics Steven Schafersman (quoted approvingly by Joe Nickell), agreed that, "the man imaged on the shroud must be Jesus Christ and not someone else":
"As the (red ochre) dust settles briefly over Sindondom, it becomes clear there are only two choices: Either the shroud is authentic (naturally or supernaturally produced by the body of Jesus) or it is a product of human artifice. Asks Steven Schafersman: `Is there a possible third hypothesis? No, and here's why. Both Wilson[12] and Stevenson and Habermas[13] go to great lengths to demonstrate that the man imaged on the shroud must be Jesus Christ and not someone else. After all, the man on this shroud was flogged, crucified, wore a crown of thorns, did not have his legs broken, was nailed to the cross, had his side pierced, and so on. Stevenson and Habermas even calculate the odds as 1 in 83 million that the man on the shroud is not Jesus Christ (and they consider this a very conservative estimate)[14]. I agree with them on all of this. If the shroud is authentic [i.e. not "a product of human artifice"], the image is that of Jesus'"[15].
Professor Harry E. Gove (1922-2009), co-inventor of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating[16], the unofficial leader of the Shroud radiocarbon dating project[17] and an agnostic[18], noted that:
"It [the Shroud] bears the faint front and back imprint of a naked crucified man with hands folded modestly over his genitals. The image depicts all the stigmata of the crucifixion [of Jesus] described in the Bible including a large blood stain from the spear wound in the side"
Problem for the forgery theory. (See previous three: #30, #31 and #32). While the Shroud is consistent with the Bible, a medieval forger, working from the Gospels, would not have produced the image of Jesus on the Shroud. The late Anglican New Testament scholar, Bishop John A.T. Robinson (1919–83), pointed this out:
"One of the things that shook my natural predisposition to scepticism about the Turin shroud was precisely that it could not at all easily be harmonized with the New Testament account of the grave-clothes. I am not saying that it is incompatible with them but simply that no forger starting, as he inevitably would, from the details of the Gospels, and especially that of the fourth, would have created the shroud we have"[19].
The Shroud's flax is claimed to have been harvested in c. 1325 According to the 1988 radiocarbon dating, the Shroud's flax was harvested between 1260-1390[20]. The midpoint of 1260-1390 is 1325[21]. But see my 22Feb16 that this date was the result of a computer hacking.

The Shroud is claimed to have been painted in France in c. 1355 The c.1325 radiocarbon date seemingly confirmed the claim of the Bishop of Troyes Bishop Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-1395), that one of his predecessors, Bishop Henri de Poitiers (r. 1354–1370), had in c.1355 discovered that the Shroud had been "cunningly painted" and moreover had obtained the confession of the artist who had painted it[22]. But see 11Jul16 that the Shroud image is not painted, 03Jul18 that Bishop de Poitiers did not discover that the Shroud was painted and 14Jan19 that de Poitiers did not have a problem with the Shroud!

Linen shroud A medieval forger working from the Gospels would have read in Mt 27:59; Mk 15:46 & Lk 23:53 that Jesus' body was "wrapped in a linen shroud." So he would have done what Oxford radiocarbon dating laboratory's Prof. Edward Hall (1924-2001) said that that a medieval forger of the Shroud did, "... just got a bit of linen, faked it up and flogged [sold] it"[23]. That is, a medieval forger would have used a piece of linen that was readily available and inexpensive. But the Shroud's weave is 3:1 herringbone twill [see 16Jul15] which is both rare[24] and expensive[25]. Moreover the Shroud's 438 x 113 centimetres (14.4 x 3.6 feet) [see 08Apr20] dimensions do not equate to any medieval European unit of length. But they do closely approximate the Assyrian

[Left (enlarge)[26]: Shroud photograph with an 8 x 2 grid overlay showing that the Shroud divides evenly into 8 x 2 squares, each 438/8 = 54.75 cm (~21.6 in.) by 113/2 = 56.5 cm (~22.2 in.). The slightly longer (1.75cm = 0.7 in.) width unit is readily explained by the attachment of the sidestrip [see 24Aug15]. These units are too close to the Assyrian cubit of Jesus' day, 21.6 inches, to be a coincidence.]

Standard Cubit of 21.6 inches which was the international unit of length in Jesus' day[27] [see 10Jul15]! A medieval forger working from the Bible would not know the length of the cubit in Jesus' day, because although the Bible mentions cubits (e.g. Gn 6:15; Ex 25:10; Mt 6:27, etc), it does not say how long they were[28].

Image. There is no mention in the Gospels of there being an image on the Shroud[29]. Shroud sceptics claim that this is a big problem for the Shroud's authenticity[30]. But there are several good reasons why the image of Jesus on the Shroud is not mentioned in the New Testament [see 15Aug20]. And it's an even bigger problem for the forgery theory - why would a medieval forger go to all the trouble of depicting an image of the dead Jesus on His burial Shroud when that image is not mentioned in the Gospels? Let alone as a photographic negative [22Dec16], three-dimensional [05Feb17] and with x-rays of Jesus' teeth and bones [20Apr17a], etc!

Blood. The gospels' accounts of Jesus' suffering, crucifixion and death (Mt 26:67-27:60; Mk 14:55-15:46; Lk 22:63-23:54; Jn 18:22-19:42) surprisingly only once mentions Jesus' shed blood (Jn 19:34). However in the gospels Jesus predicted His bloody death (Mt 26:28; Mk 14:24; Lk 22:20) and elsewhere in the New Testament (Rom 3:25; 5:9; Eph 1:7; 2:13; Col 1:20; Heb 9:11-14, 19; 13:12, 20; 1Pet 1:2, 19; 1Jn 1:7; Rev 5:9; 7:14; 12:11) Jesus' shed blood is not only mentioned but emphasised. So it is reasonable that a medieval forger would depict blood on the image of Jesus' dead body on the Shroud. But it is not reasonable that a forger would use real blood, which the Shroudman's blood is [03Jun17a]. Let alone with blood clot retraction serum halos (synerisis) which are only clearly visible under ultraviolet light (discovered in 1801) [15Jul13] and distinguishing between arterial and venous bloodflows (discovered in 1628) [03Jun17b]!

Scourging [see 15Jul13] A medieval forger could have read in the Gospels that Jesus was scourged (Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15)[31]. But neither the Gospels nor the rest of the New Testament has a description of Jesus' scourging[32]. Working from the Bible a forger would have assumed that Jesus received no more than 40 lashes of a scourge (Dt 25:2-3; 2Cor 11:24)[33]. But there are over 100 scourge wounds on the Shroudman's body[34], because Jesus was scourged by Romans for whom there was no legal maximum to the scourge strokes[35].

Crown of thorns A medieval forger, working from the Gospels, would have read, "the soldiers twisted [Gk. plexantes "plaited"] together a crown [stephanon "wreath, crown"] of thorns[36] and put it on [epethekan] his head" (Jn 19:2; Mt 27:29; Mk 15:17)[37]. He would have assumed what all

[Right (enlarge): "Christ Carrying the Cross as portrayed by El Greco (1541–1614), 1580"[38]. Note that even in 1580, more than two centuries after the Shroud had indisputably first appeared at Lirey in 1355, this leading European artist was still depicting Jesus wearing a traditional circlet, or wreathlet, crown of thorns.]

Christian artists like El Greco (above) did, that the crown of thorns on Jesus' head was a wreath-like circlet[39]. But the pattern of puncture bloodstains over the Shroudman's scalp shows that a cap or helmet of thorns had been forced down over the top of his head [08Sep13] [40].

Nails [See 13Apr16] A medieval forger starting from the New Testament would have read that Jesus was crucified by nails (Col 2:14) in his hands (Jn 20:24-27) and feet (Lk 24:39)[41]. Therefore the forger would have depicted Jesus on the Shroud with nail wounds clearly in his

[Left (enlarge): "Gero Cross, late 10th century, Cologne Cathedral, Germany"[42]. As can be seen, the nails in Jesus' hands and feet are clearly visible, and those in His hands are in the palms, not the wrists as on the Shroud.]

hands and feet, as medieval artists did[43]. [See Wikipedia]. Even if the forger knew the original Greek for "hands" (cheir) includes the wrists[44], he would have conformed to medieval tradition and depicted both nail wounds in the palms of Jesus' hands[45] (as for example in the 10th century Gero Cross (above), not only one nail wound in the one wrist as on the Shroud (see below)[46].

[Right (enlarge)[47]: The Shroudman's hands. Only one nail wound is visible in the back of the Shroudman's wrist, because the man's left hand (which appears to be right because of lateral inversion[48]) covers his right wrist[49]. The man's fingers seem too long because they are x-rays of his finger bones [see 20Apr17b]!]

And the nail wounds in Jesus' feet the forger would have depicted clearly, not indistinctly as they are on the Shroud (see below) [50].

[Left (enlarge)[51]: The Shroudman's feet. The nail wound in the man's right foot is more distinct than that in his left foot (clearer in the back view[52]) because the man's left knee was bent so that his left foot was forced over his right and a single nail transfixed both feet, with his right foot (due to rigor mortis) touching more fully the under surface of the Shroud[53].]

Fell A forger could have read that after Jesus was sentenced by the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, to be crucified "Jesus ... went out, bearing his own cross, to the place called ... Golgotha" and "There they crucified him" (Jn 19:16-18)[54]. The forger also could have read that as Jesus was carrying His cross to Golgotha, the Romans "compelled a passerby, Simon of Cyrene ... to carry his cross ... behind Jesus" (Mt 27:32; Mk 15:21 & Lk 23:26)[55]. There is no mention in the New Testament that Jesus stumbled and fell[56], but it is implied that He did in that Jesus started out carrying his cross (presumably the patibulum or crossbeaml[57] which could have weighed 100 pounds (45 kgs)[58]) and part-way the Roman soldier execution squad compelled Simon of Cyrene to carry Jesus' cross for the remainder of His journey to Golgotha[59]. The man on the Shroud has dirt in his nose and knees, as well as the scratches and cuts on his nose, cheek, knees, and legs[60]. These are consistent with Jesus having been weakened by His scourging[61] and having His hands tied to the crossbeam[62], repatedly falling forward and being unable to break His fall with His hands[63]. But a medieval forger working from the Gospels would have no reason to include on the Shroud such realistic evidence that Jesus did stumble and fall carrying His cross.

Tomb A medieval forger could have read in the Gospels that Joseph of Arimathea took Jesus' body, wrapped it in a linen shroud and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut in the rock (Mt 27:59-60; Mk 15:46; Lk 23:53; Jn 19:38-41)[64]. A medieval forger in France, working from the Bible, would not likely have known that the rock that Joseph of Arimathea's Jerusalem tomb was cut out of was limestone[65]. But if he did, the forger might have dusted the underside of the Shroud with local limestone, which presumably was ordinary calcite. The forger would not have taken the trouble to fetch limestone from Jerusalem's tombs to Troyes, France, 4450 kms (2765 miles) away! Because the limestone on the underside of the Shroud, which would have been in contact with the tomb, is the comparatively

[Above: Dr Ricardo Levi-Setti (1927–2018)'s scanning ion microprobe comparisons of the chemical signatures of Jerusalem's Damascus Gate limestone (grey) and the limestone on the Shroud (red)[66]. As can be seen, they are a very close match! [see 22Mar13].]

rare travertine aragonite[67], which is the type of limestone that Jerusalem's rock tombs are made of[68], and moreover the Shroud limestone is a very close chemical match to that of Jerusalem's cave tombs[69]!

Again, Shroud sceptics could resort to the fall-back position of Walter McCrone (1916-2002), that "a first century cloth could have been found and used by a 14th century artist to paint the image"[70]. But that would be to abandon the twin pillars of anti-authenticism: the 1389 claim by Bishop Pierre d'Arcis (r. 1377-1395) that the Shroud had been painted in 1355[71] (but see 11Jul16 & 03Jul18), and the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud as 1260-1390[72] (but see 23Jul15, 15Jul18 & 04Oct18)!

To be continued in the next part #35 of this series.

1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of it (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1981, "Verdict on the Shroud: Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ," Servant Books: Ann Arbor MI, p.43. [return]
3. Weaver, K.F., 1980, "Science Seeks to Solve ... The Mystery of the Shroud," National Geographic, Vol. 157, June, pp.736-737. [return]
4. Antonacci, M., 2000, "Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New York NY, pp.119-120. [return]
5. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.124ff. [return]
6. Hynek, R.W., 1951, "The True Likeness," [1946], Sheed & Ward: London, p.5; Wuenschel, E.A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, p.55; Robinson, J.A.T., "The Shroud and the New Testament," in Jennings, P., ed., 1978, "Face to Face with the Turin Shroud ," Mayhew-McCrimmon: Great Wakering UK, pp.69-81, 78; Heller, J.H. & Adler, A.D., 1981, "A Chemical Investigation of the Shroud of Turin," in Adler, A.D. & Crispino, D., ed., 2002, "The Orphaned Manuscript: A Gathering of Publications on the Shroud of Turin," Effatà Editrice: Cantalupa, Italy, pp.34-57, 35; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, pp.52, 157; Heller, J.H., 1983, "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, p.220; Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., 1990, "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, pp.34-35, 84-85; Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 1996, "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, p.229; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, pp.8-9, 48, 64; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.161; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, pp.118, 239; Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, pp.43-44. [return]
7. Wilcox, R.K., 1977, "Shroud," Macmillan: New York NY, p.170; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.4, 124; Cruz, J.C., 1984, "Relics: The Shroud of Turin, the True Cross, the Blood of Januarius. ..: History, Mysticism, and the Catholic Church," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.53; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, pp.44; Ruffin, 1999, p.49; Antonacci, 2000, p.265; Tribbe, F.C., 2006, "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, p.231. [return]
8. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, pp.51-52; Wilson, 1986, pp.44-45. [return]
9. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.53. [return]
10. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.52; Cruz, 1984, p.54; Ruffin, 1999, p.49. [return]
11. Thurston, H., 1903, "The Holy Shroud and the Verdict of History," The Month, CI, p.19, in Wilson, 1979, p.52. [return]
12. Wilson, 1979, pp.51-53. [return]
13. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, pp.121-129. [return]
14. Stevenson. & Habermas, 1981, p.128. [return]
15. Schafersman, S.D., 1982, "Science, the public, and the Shroud of Turin," The Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 6, No. 3, Spring, pp.37-56, p.42; in Nickell, J., 1987, "Inquest on the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Prometheus Books: Buffalo NY, Revised, Reprinted, 2000, p.141. [return]
16. Gove, H.E., 1996, "Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud," Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol UK, p.314. [return]
17. Sox, H.D., 1988, "The Shroud Unmasked: Uncovering the Greatest Forgery of All Time," Lamp Press: Basingstoke UK, p.95; Antonacci, 2000, pp.192-193. [return]
18. Gove, 1996, p.14. [return]
19. Robinson, J.A.T., " The Shroud of Turin and the Grave-Clothes of the Gospels," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 1977, "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, p.23; Wilson, 1979, p.61; Foley, C., 1984, "In Memoriam: John Arthur [Thomas] Robinson (1919-1983)," Shroud Spectrum International, No. 10, March, pp.34-38, 38; Tribbe, 2006, p.73. [return]
20. Gove, 1996, p.264; Hulse, T.G., 1997, "The Holy Shroud," Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London, p.28; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.7; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, pp.160, 301. [return]
21. Wilson, 1998, p.7; Tribbe, 2006, p.169. [return]
22. Hynek, 1951, p.10; Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, p.99; Wilson, 1979, pp.266-267; Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.14; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.181; Wilson, 1998, p.126; Ruffin, 1999, p.64; Antonacci, 2000, p.152; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.14. [return]
23. Hulse, T.G., 1997, "The Holy Shroud," Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London, pp.31-32; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.10; Wilson, 1998, p.7; Oxley, 2010, p.87; de Wesselow, 2012, p.167; Wilson, 2010, pp.2, 83. [return]
24. Murphy, C., 1981, "Shreds of evidence: Science confronts the miraculous - the Shroud of Turin," Harper's, Vol. 263, November, pp.42-68, 57; Wilson, 1998, p.68; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.25; Wilson, 2010, pp.74-75; de Wesselow, 2012, p.108. [return]
25. Drews, R., 1984, "In Search of the Shroud of Turin: New Light on Its History and Origins," Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD, p.12; Antonacci, 2000, p.98; Iannone, 1998, p.13, p.98; Wilson, 2010, pp.74, 76; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.108-109. [return]
26. Extract from Latendresse, M., 2010, "Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Vertical," [return]
27. Dickinson, I., 1990, "The Shroud and the Cubit Measure," BSTS Newsletter, No. 24, January, pp.8-11; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, p.181; Hoare, R., 1995, "The Turin Shroud Is Genuine: The Irrefutable Evidence," [1984], Souvenir Press: London, p.16; Ruffin, 1999, p.11; Antonacci, 2000, p.115; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.42; Oxley, 2010, p.3. [return]
28. Unger, M.F., "Metrology," in "Unger's Bible Dictionary," [1957], Moody Press: Chicago IL, Third edition, 1966, Fifteenth printing, 1969, p.720; Wiseman, D.J., 1982, "Weights and Measures," in Douglas, J.D., et al., eds., "New Bible Dictionary," [1962], Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester UK, Second edition, Reprinted, 1988, pp.1247, 1249. [return]
29. Scavone, 1989, p.70; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.149; Borkan, M., "Ecce Homo?: Science and the Authenticity of the Turin Shroud," Vertices, Duke University, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter 1995, pp.18-51, 45; Ruffin, 1999, p.48; Wilson, 2010, pp.106-107; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.157-158. [return]
30. Walsh, J.E., 1963, "The Shroud," Random House: New York NY, p.55; Brent, P. & Rolfe, D., 1978, "The Silent Witness: The Mysteries of the Turin Shroud Revealed," Futura Publications: London, p.76; McNair, P., "The Shroud and History: Fantasy, Fake or Fact?," in Jennings, 1978, p.30; Humber, T., 1978, "The Sacred Shroud," [1974], Pocket Books: New York NY, pp.98-99; Wilson, 1979, pp.61, 87, 267; Morgan, R.H., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, pp.143-144; Drews, 1984, p.24; Maher, R.W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.98; Wilson, 1986, p.11; Currer-Briggs, N., 1988, "The Shroud and the Grail: A Modern Quest for the True Grail," St. Martin's Press: New York NY, pp.40-41; Borkan, 1995, p.50; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.181; Ruffin, 1999, pp.66-67; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, pp.46-47; Nickell, J., 2007, "Relics of the Christ," The University Press of Kentucky: Lexington KY, pp.124-125; Oxley, 2010, p.181; Wilson, 2010, pp.99-100, 102, 106. [return]
31. Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, pp.44, 122; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, pp.84-85; Antonacci, 2000, p.119; Guerrera, 2001, p.37. [return]
32. Reference(s) to be provided. [return]
33. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," McKenna, S. & Galvin, J.J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.48; Robinson, 1978, p.78; Morgan, 1980, p.89; Guerrera, 2001, pp.38, 81; Oxley, 2010, pp.125, 172; Wilson, 2010, p.46. [return]
34. Murphy, 1981, p.57; Morgan, 1980, p.89; Adams, F.O., 1982, "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, pp.70, 81; Cruz, 1984, p.51; Scavone, 1989, p.8; Stevenson & Habermas, 1990, p.85; Case, T.W., 1996, "The Shroud of Turin and the C-14 Dating Fiasco," White Horse Press: Cincinnati OH, pp.20, 39-40; Petrosillo & Marinelli, 1996, p.228; Antonacci, 2000, p.27; Oxley, 2010, p.172. [return]
35. Bulst, 1957, p.48; Guerrera, 2001, pp.38, 81; Oxley, 2010, p.125; Wilson, 2010, p.46. [return]
36. Marshall, A., 1966, "The Interlinear Greek-English New Testament," Samuel Bagster & Sons: London, p.448. [return]
37. Barbet, P., 1953, "A Doctor at Calvary," [1950], Earl of Wicklow, transl., Image Books: Garden City NY, Reprinted, 1963, p.93; Stevenson & Habermas, 1981, p.44; Iannone, 1998, p.54; Antonacci, 2000, pp.119-120. [return]
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Posted: 9 September 2020. Updated: 28 July 2021.

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