Tuesday, November 24, 2020

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: Eighteenth century

Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 to the present
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
© Stephen E. Jones
[1]

This is part #23, "Eighteenth century" of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see the Index #1. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated. This page was initially based on Ian Wilson's 1996, "Highlights of the Undisputed History: 1700."

[Index #1] [Previous: 17th century #22] [Next: 19th century #24]


18th century (1701-1800).

1701a 27 April. Birth of future King Charles Emmanuel III (r. 1730–73) to King Victor Amadeus II (r. 1675–1730) and Duchess Anne Marie d'Orléans (1669-1728)[2].

1701b July. The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14), is triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain (r. 1665-1700)[3] and France's King Louis XIV (1643-1715), whose mother Anne of Austria (1601-66) was a daughter of King Philip III of Spain (1598–1621)[4] and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain (1638-83) was the eldest daughter of King Philip IV (r. 1621-65)[5], claimed the title of King of Spain[6].

1701c November. Victor Amadeus II forms an alliance with France against the Austrian Holy Roman Empire[7], which is sealed by giving his daughter Maria Luisa Gabriella of Savoy (1688-1714) in marriage to King Philip V of Spain (1700-24)[8].

1703a An engraving of this year shows an exposition of the Shroud in front of the Bertola altar in the new Chapel of the Holy Shroud[9].

[Right (enlarge)[10]. Engraving dated 1703 by Bartolomeo Giuseppe Tasnière (c. 1675-1752) based on a drawing by Giulio Cesare Grampin[11]]

1703b October. Victor Amadeus II switches sides in the War of the Spanish Succession from France to the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire[12] and declares war on France[13].

1704-5 In 1704 French troops under Marshall Louis de La Feuillade (1673-1725) capture Savoy territories and by the end of 1705 Victor Amadeus controlled only his capital Turin[14].

1706a 12 April. The Shroud is exhibited in Turin[15], not on the usual 4 May, in anticipation of an impending French attack.

1706b 12 May. Marshall de La Feuillade and 48,000 French troops arrived at Turin but the blockade of the city will not be completed until 19 June[16].

1706c 23 May. The Grand Alliance – Austria, England, and the Dutch Republic – under the command of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722a), won a decisive victory over the French in the Battle of Ramillies in the Netherlands[17].

1706d 2 June. The Siege of Turin begins under de la Feuillade but makes little progress against Turin's hardened defences[18].

1706e 16 June. The Shroud is in Cherasco[19], about 50 km (31 mi)

[Above (enlarge): Route (marked by red `diamonds') by which the Shroud was taken from Turin in June 1706 via Cherasco (16th June), Mondovì (24th), Ceva (25th), Ormea (26th), Caravonica (not shown), to Albenga. From Albenga the Shroud was then sailed via Savona to Genoa arriving on 16th July[02May15].]

southeast of Turin, enroute to the seaport of Genoa[20], about 169 km (105 mi) south east of Turin. The Shroud had been taken from Turin by Duchess Anne Marie, accompanied by her two youngest children, the 2 year-old Victor Amadeus (1699-1715) and the 1 month-old Charles Emmanuel (1701-73)[21], as well as Victor Amadeus II's mother, Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours (1644-1724)[22].

1706f 8 July. Louis Joseph, Duke of Vendôme (1654-1712), one of France's best generals and any available forces, were sent to reinforce France's northern frontier after the defeat at Ramillies[23].

1706g 17 June. Victor Amadeus escapes from the city with 7,000 cavalry. He spends the next two months attacking French supply lines, while de La Feuillade continues siege operations with little success[24].

1706h Mid July. Prince Eugene of Savoy (1663-1736) [Left (enlarge)[25]], Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Army, whose attempts to move west towards Turin had been previously thwarted by Vendôme's skillful manoeuvres, crosses the River Po from where he can at last move west towards Piedmont and relieve Turin[26].

1706i 16 July. The Shroud arrives safely in Genoa by a circuitous route (see map above)[27].

1706j 15 August, Prince Eugene begins his advance on Turin[28].

1706k 29 August. Prince Eugene reaches Carmagnola only 29 km (18 mi) south of Turin, where he is joined by Victor Amadeus[29].

1706l 7 September. Prince Eugene orders a general assault which

[Above (enlarge): "The Allied relief force breaks the French lines, lifting the siege of Turin"[30].]

finally forces the French to retreat with heavy loss of life, casualties, captures and loss of equipment. Victor Amadeus re-enters his capital the same day[31].

1706m October. The Shroud is returned to Turin[32].

1708 Victor Amadeus gains the bordering Duchy of Montferrat[33].

1713 April. Under the Treaty of Utrecht, Victor Amadeus II receives the kingdom of Sicily and parts of the Duchy of Milan[34].

1715 22 March. Death from smallpox at age 15 of Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont (1699-1715), the eldest son of King Victor Amadeus II and Duchess Anne Marie and heir apparent[35]. His younger brother Charles Emmanuel III (1701-1773) inherited the title Prince of Piedmont as the new heir apparent[36].

1718 2 August. Beginning of the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718-20) in which Spain sought to recover territorial losses it had agreed to in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht[37].

1720a 17 February. The Treaty of The Hague was signed on 17 February 1720 between Spain and the Quadruple Alliance of Britain, France, the Dutch Republic and Austria[38]. Its terms included that Victor Amadeus II [Right (enlarge)[39]] exchange his title of King of Sicily for the more geograph-ically practical King of Sardinia[40].

1720b Exposition of the Shroud to celebrate the union of Sardinia with the Savoy states[41].

1722a 15 March. Charles Emmanuel III marries Anne Christine of Sulzbach (1704-23)[42].

1722b On 4 May there is a showing of the Shroud in Turin and on 3 June another showing[43].

1723 7 March. Anne Christine gave birth to a son, Prince Victor Amadeus Theodore (1723–25), the Duke of Aosta[44]. But she died a few days later on 12 March at the age of nineteen in Turin[45].

1724a 15 March. Death of Victor Amadeus II's mother, Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours[46].

1724b 23 July. Marriage of Charles Emmanuel III to Princess Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg (1706–35)[47].

1725 11 August. Death of Prince Victor Amadeus Theodore (1723–25) at the age of 2[48].

1726 26 June. Birth of Victor Amadeus III (1726–96) who was to become Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia in 1773[49].

1727 Discovery by Johann Heinrich Schulze (1687-1744) "that the darkening in sunlight of various substances mixed with silver nitrate is due to the light, not ... heat" [50]. Contrast Nicholas Allen's claim that photography was invented ~4 centuries previously in the 13th-early 14th century [07Aug16, 16Jun19 & 15Nov20]!

1728 26 August. Death of King Victor Amadeus II's wife Duchess Anne Marie d'Orléans[51].

1730a 12 August. Marriage of King Victor Amadeus II to his mistress Anna Canalis di Cumiana (1680–1769)[52].

1730b 3 September. Abdication of King Victor Amadeus II[53]. Beginning of the long reign of his eldest son, King Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia (r. 1730– 73) [Left (enlarge)[54]][55].

1731 Having suffered a stroke and under the influence of his wife Anna, Victor Amadeus II informs his son King Charles Emmanuel III that he was going to resume his tenure on the throne[56]. Therefore King Charles Emmanuel III has his father confined to Moncalieri Castle and Anna was separated from her husband until April 1732 when she was allowed to rejoin him in Rivoli Castle[57].

1732 31 October. Death of Victor Amadeus II[58].

1735 13 January. Death of King Charles Emmanuel III's second wife Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg[59].

1736 21 September. The Shroud is exhibited in Turin to celebrate the engagement of King Charles Emmanuel III to Princess Elisabeth Teresa of Lorraine (1711-41) [60].

1737a 1 April. Marriage of King Charles Emmanuel III to Princess Elisabeth Teresa of Lorraine[61].

1737b 4 May. Public showing of the Shroud to mark the royal

[Above (enlarge): Engraving by Filippo Juvarra (1678–1736) of the 1737 exposition of the Shroud from a pavilion in Turin's Piazza Castello to mark the marriage of King Charles Emmanuel III and Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine[62].]

marriage, commemorated by print showing vast crowd in front of the Royal Palace, as the Shroud is displayed from a balcony[63].

1750a A handwritten anonymous document (MS 826) is placed in the Besançon City Library, and claims that Othon de la Roche (c.1170-1234) sent the Shroud from Athens [see 11Nov17] to his father, Pons in Burgundy, who gave it to the Bishop Amadeus de Tramelay 1197–1220 of Besançon, and names three medieval writers (no longer extant) who stated this[64].

1750b 31 May. Prince Victor Amadeus III marries Maria Antonia Ferdinanda (1729-85), a daughter of King Philip V of Spain (r. 1700-24)[65]. They had three surviving sons, each of whom would become Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia: Charles Emmanuel IV (1751-1819), Victor Emmanuel I (1759–1824) and Charles Felix (1765-1831)[66].

1750c 29 June. Showing of the Shroud to celebrate the marriage of Prince Victor Amadeus III and Infanta Maria Antonia[z].

1751 24 May. Birth of Charles Emmanuel IV (1751-1819), who would be King of Sardinia from 1796 to 1802[68].

1758 3 May. Death of Pope Benedict XIV (r. 1740-58), "... one of the best scholars to sit on the papal throne"[69], who had written of the Shroud:

"The Holy Shroud, that outstanding relic, is preserved at Turin. Popes Paul II (1464-71); Sixtus IV (1471-84); Julius II (1503-13) and Clement VII (1523-34) all bear witness that this is the same in which our Lord was wrapped"[70].

1759 24 July. Birth of Victor Emmanuel I (1759–1824), who would be King of Sardinia from 1802-21[71].

1765 Birth of Charles Felix (1765-1831), who would be King of Sardinia from 1821-31[72].

1769 16 June. Private showing of the Shroud for Emperor Joseph II (r. 1765-90) of Hapsburg-Lorraine and then the Shroud is displayed from the balcony of the Royal Chapel for large crowd gathered in the cathedral below[73].

1770 Discovery of the Pray Codex (1192-95)[74] by Hungarian Jesuit

[Above (enlarge)[75]: "The Entombment of Christ (above) and Three Marys [sic] at the tomb (below). The images are claimed as one of the evidences against the radiocarbon 14 dating of the Shroud of Turin"[76]. There are at least "eight telling correspondences between the Shroud and the drawings on a [this] single page of the Pray Codex"[77]. And by my count there are twelve - see 27May12. See also 26Oct14, 02Dec14, 23Jul15, 15Oct15, 27Dec15, 07May16, 07Aug16, 14Jul18, 15July18, 21Aug18, 20Dec18, 24May20 & 14Oct20]

archivist Gyorgy Pray (1723-1801)[78]. Even Wikipedia has had to admit, "This illustration shows remarkable similarities with the Shroud of Turin":

"One of the five illustrations within the Codex shows the burial of Jesus. This illustration shows remarkable similarities with the Shroud of Turin: that Jesus is shown entirely naked with the arms on the pelvis, just like in the body image of the Shroud of Turin; that the thumbs on this image appear to be retracted, with only four fingers visible on each hand, thus matching detail on the Turin Shroud; that the supposed fabric shows a herringbone pattern, identical to the weaving pattern of the Shroud of Turin; and that the four tiny circles on the lower image, which appear to form a letter L, `perfectly reproduce four apparent "poker holes" on the Turin Shroud', which likewise appear to form a letter L. The Codex Pray illustration may serve as evidence for the existence of the Shroud of Turin prior to 1260–1390 AD, the fabrication date established [sic] in the radiocarbon-14 dating of the Shroud of Turin in 1988"[79].
1773 20 February. Death of King Charles Emmanuel III[80] and beginning of the reign of his eldest son, King Victor Amadeus III (r. 1773-96)[81].

1775a 30 September. Marriage of Prince Charles Emmanuel IV to Princess Marie Clotilde of France (1759–1802), a sister of King Louis XVI (r. 1774-92) but their marriage would be childless[82].

1775b 15 October. Exposition of the Shroud in Turin to mark the royal marriage[83].

1789a 21 April. Marriage of Prince Victor Emmanuel I to Archduchess Maria Teresa of Austria-Este (1773-1832)[84].

1789b 5 May. Beginning of the French Revolution (1789-99)[85].

1792a Revolutionaries break into the French royal relic collection in the Sainte Chapelle, Paris and a fragment of the Shroud is destroyed[86].

1792b The Kingdom of Sardinia and other Savoy states under Victor Amadeus III join the First Coalition against the French First Republic[87].

1793 21 January. King Louis XVI, Queen Clotilde's brother, is executed by guillotine[88], followed on 16 October by his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette (1755-1793)[89].

1794 24 May. French Revolutionaries destroy the painted copy of the Shroud at Besançon[90] [Above (enlarge): A 1634 depiction of the Besançon copy of the Shroud[91].]

1795 December. The Holy Face of Laon (Sainte Face de Laon) is taken

[Above (enlarge): "Icon of the Holy Face (Mandylion), bought in 1249 in Bari (Italy) by Jacques Pantaléon, archdeacon of the cathedral of Laon who later became Pope Urban IV. Exhibited in the cathedral of Laon"[92].]

out of hiding and placed in Laon cathedral[93]. The icon had been in Laon's Montreuil Abbey before the latter's destruction by French revolutionaries in December 1793[94]. Before that the icon had been given in 1249 by Jacques Pantaleon (c. 1195-1264), archdeacon of Laon Cathedral, but living in Rome as chaplain to Pope Innocent IV (r. 1243-54), and future Pope Urban IV (r. 1261-64)[95], to the Cistercian Abbey in Montreuil-en-Thiérache[96], via his sister Sybille who was Abbess of the Abbey's convent[97]. However, in 1636 a Spanish invasion compelled the Cistercian sisters to leave their abbey and in 1650 they and their precious treasure relocated to nearby Montreuil-sous-Laon[98] which became Montreuil Abbey. The Laon icon is a glazed panel[99], nearly square, 44 cm (17.3 in) high and 40 cm (15.7 in) wide[100]. It bears the inscription in Serbian, OBRAZ GSPDN NAUBRUSJE, "the image of the Lord on the cloth"[101]. Moreover it has at least thirteen (and by my count fourteen - see 23Apr12) of the fifteen Vignon markings[102] [see 25Jul07, 11Feb12, 18Mar12, 22Sep12, etc], more than any other known icon[103]. The Laon Face evidently came from Bari in southeastern Italy, where there was an Orthodox monastery with Serbian monks[104]. After the sack of Constantinople in 1204 by the Fourth Crusade, the Serbian Orthodox Church had been liberated from the Byzantine Empire and sought a closer relationship with the Roman Catholic Church[104a]. Jacques Pantaleon carried out diplomatic missions on behalf of Pope Innocent so it would have been normal for him to visit the Orthodox Serbian monks of Bari which is not far from Rome[105]. It was on one of these missions that Pantaleon presumably received a gift of the Holy Face from the monks of Bari[106]. The icon's disembodied head[107], circular `halo'[108], fringe [109], trellis pattern[110] and sepia/brown monochrome colour[111], reveal that the Laon Face is a depiction of the Mandylion[112], that is the Image of Edessa[113]. Which was the Shroud "four-doubled" (Greek tetradiplon)[114] - see 15Sep12]! That the Laon icon contains more Vignon markings than any other known icon, together with the artist's statement that the portrait is that of "the Lord on the cloth" must mean that he was working directly from the Image of Edessa/Shroud[115]! In the upper left and upper right corners of the icon (see above) are the Greek letters "I C" (Iota and final sigma) and "X C" (Chi and final sigma)[116], which are the first and last letters of the words 'Iesous Xristos - "Jesus Christ" in Greek[117]. The icon was therefore likely painted in Greek-speaking Constantinople after the transfer of the Image of Edessa/Shroud from Edessa to Constantinople in 944[see "944b"][118]. Between 1094 and 1149 Serbia was a vassal state within the Byzantine Empire[119], so it is likely the icon was painted by a Serbian in Constantinople between those dates. So the Holy Face of Laon alone (and it is not alone! - see for example the Pray Codex above) is proof beyond reasonable doubt that it is a depiction of the face of the Shroud[120] even at 1249 predating by 11 years the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud[121]. But to be a worthy gift from the Serbian Orthodox Church to the Roman Catholic Church, the Laon icon must have been painted many years, if not decades, before 1249[122]. Indeed, as we saw above, the Greek and Serbian letters on the icon indicate, it was most likely painted directly from the Shroud in Constantinople between 1094 and 1249, which is between 111 and 166 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date!

1796a April. The First Coalition is beaten by the 26 year-old general Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821) in northern Italy[123] and Victor Amadeus III is forced to sign the disadvantageous Treaty of Paris, which gives the French army free passage through Piedmont[124].

1796b 16 October. Victor Amadeus III dies[125] and is succeeded as King of Sardinia and Duke of Savoy by his eldest son, Charles Emmanuel IV (r. 1796-1802)[126].

1798a 2 October. Birth in Paris of the untitled Charles Albert of Savoy (1798–1849), a great-great-great-great-great-grandson of Duke Charles Emmanuel I (r. 1580-1630), and who due to a lack of surviving male heirs in the royal line,would become King of Sardinia and Duke of Savoy in 1831[127].

1798b 6 December. Napoleon's general Barthélemy Joubert (1769-99) occupies Turin and forces Charles Emmanuel IV to abdicate all his territories on the Italian mainland and to withdraw to the island of Sardinia, without the Shroud[128]. On 9 December Charles Emmanuel IV with the rest of the royal family privately venerate the Shroud and then depart for Sardinia[129]. From then on the Shroud would be effectively under the control of the Roman Catholic Church[130].

1799 9 November 1799. End of the French Revolution[131].

Notes
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page. [return]
2. "Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 17 November 2020. [return]
3. Wilson, I., 2010, "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, p.271. [return]
4. "Anne of Austria," Wikipedia, 17 November 2020. [return]
5. "Louis XIV: War of the Spanish Succession," Wikipedia, 22 November 2020. [return]
6. Wilson, 2010, p.271. [return]
7. "War of the Spanish Succession: Savoy," Wikipedia, 23 November 2020. [return]
8. "Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia: War of the Spanish Succession," Wikipedia, 27 November 2020. [return]
9. Wilson, I., 1997, "A Calendar of the Shroud for the Years 1694-1898," BSTS Newsletter, No. 45, June/July; Wilson, I., 1998, "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, p.296. [return]
10. Scott, J.B., 2003, "Architecture for the Shroud: Relic and Ritual in Turin," University of Chicago Press: Chicago & London, p.111. [return]
11. Scott, 2003, pp.111, 369 n.53. [return]
12. "War of the Spanish Succession: Savoy," Wikipedia, 23 November 2020. [return]
13. "War of the Spanish Succession: Italy," Wikipedia, 23 November 2020. [return]
14. "Siege of Turin: Background," Wikipedia, 19 September 2020. [return]
15. Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.296. [return]
16. "Siege of Turin: Background," Wikipedia, 19 September 2020. [return]
17. "Battle of Ramillies," Wikipedia, 22 November 2020. [return]
18. "Siege of Turin," Wikipedia, 19 September 2020. [return]
19. Oddone, A., n.d., "THE_HOLY_SHROUD_files/OSTENSION_ENGLISH 5.doc," Accademia Vis Vitalis, Turin (no longer online). [return]
20. Morgan, R., 1980, "Perpetual Miracle: Secrets of the Holy Shroud of Turin by an Eye Witness," Runciman Press: Manly NSW, Australia, p.47; Wilson, 2010, p.306; Cassanelli, A., 2002, "The Holy Shroud," Williams, B., transl., Gracewing: Leominster UK, p.14; Wilson, 2010, p.271. [return]
21. "Anne Marie d'Orléans: Duchess and Queen," Wikipedia, 27 November 2020 & "Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia: War of the Spanish Succession," Wikipedia, 27 November 2020. [return]
22. "Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours: Retirement and later life," Wikipedia, 27 May 2020 & "Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia: War of the Spanish Succession," Wikipedia, 27 November 2020. [return]
23. "War of the Spanish Succession: Military campaigns 1701–1708," Wikipedia, 23 November 2020. [return]
24. "Siege of Turin: Siege," Wikipedia, 19 September 2020. [return]
25. "File:Prinz Eugene of Savoy.PNG," Wikimedia Commons, 30 November 2020. [return]
26. "Prince Eugene of Savoy: Turin and Toulon," Wikipedia, 29 November 2020. [return]
27. Oddone, n.d. [return]
28. "Siege of Turin: Siege," Wikipedia, 19 September 2020. [return]
29. Ibid. [return]
30. "File:BattleofTurin.JPG," Wikimedia Commons, 27 July 2020. [return]
31. "Siege of Turin: Battle," Wikipedia, 19 September 2020. [return]
32. Oddone, n.d. [return]
33. "Duchy of Montferrat," Wikipedia, 5 July 2020. [return]
34. Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.81; "Peace of Utrecht," Wikipedia, 9 November 2020. [return]
35. "Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont," Wikipedia, 19 November 2019. [return]
36. "Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 19 November 2019. [return]
37. "War of the Quadruple Alliance," Wikipedia, 26 November 2020. [return]
38. "Treaty of The Hague (1720)," Wikipedia, 10 July 2020. [return]
39. "File:Vittorio Amedeo II in Maestà - Google Art Project.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 27 September 2020. [return]
40. Oxley, 2010, p.81; Wilson, 2010, p.271; Treaty of The Hague (1720)," Wikipedia, 10 July 2020. [return]
41. Oddone, n.d. [return]
42. "Anne Christine of Sulzbach, Princess of Piedmont," Wikipedia, 24 October 2020. [return]
43. Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.296. [return]
44. "Prince Vittorio Amedeo Teodoro, Duke of Aosta," Wikipedia, 24 October 2020. [return]
45. "Anne Christine of Sulzbach, Princess of Piedmont," Wikipedia, 24 October 2020. [return]
46. "Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours," Wikipedia, 27 May 2020. [return]
47. "Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg," Wikipedia, 7 August 2020. [return]
48. Prince Vittorio Amedeo Teodoro, Duke of Aosta," Wikipedia, 24 October 2020. [return]
49. "Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 13 December 2020. [return]
50. "Johann Heinrich Schulze," Wikipedia, 11 September 2020. [return]
51. "Anne Marie d'Orléans," Wikipedia, 27 November 2020. [return]
52. "Anna Canalis di Cumiana," Wikipedia, 27 August 2020. [return]
53. "Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia: Abdication and later years," Wikipedia, 27 November 2020. [return]
54. "File:Clementi - Charles Emmanuel III in armour.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 13 March 2020. [return]
55. Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.296; "Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 26 November 2020. [return]
56. "Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia: Abdication and later years," Wikipedia, 27 November 2020. [return]
57. Ibid. [return]
58. "Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 27 November 2020. [return]
59. "Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg," Wikipedia, 7 August 2020. [return]
60. Oddone, n.d.; Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.296; "Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine: Queen," Wikipedia, 10 December 2020. [return]
61. Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.296; "Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine: Queen," Wikipedia, 10 December 2020. [return]
62. "Palazzo Reale, già Palazzo Ducale o Palazzo Novo Grande," Museo Torino, 2010. [return]
63. Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.296; Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., 2000, "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, p.11; Wilson, 2010, p.306. [return]
64. Scavone, D.C., 1989, "The Shroud of Turin: Opposing Viewpoints," Greenhaven Press: San Diego CA, p.98; Ruffin, C.B., 1999, "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, p.62. [return]
65. "Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain: Duchess of Savoy," Wikipedia, 8 December 2020. [return]
66. "Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain: Issue," Wikipedia, 8 December 2020. [return]
67. Oddone, n.d.; Morgan, 1980, p.48; Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.296; Guerrera, V., 2001, "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, p.21; Wilson, 2010, p.306. [return]
68. "Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 6 July 2020. [return]
69. "Pope Benedict XIV," Wikipedia, 10 December 2020. [return]
70. Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.297; Guerrera, 2001, p.26; Oxley, 2010, p.84. [return]
71. "Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 6 November 2020. [return]
72. "Charles Felix of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 8 October 2020. [return]
73. Oddone, n.d.; Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.297. [return]
74. Berkovits, I., 1969, "Illuminated Manuscripts in Hungary, XI-XVI Centuries," Horn, Z., transl., West, A., rev., Irish University Press: Shannon, Ireland, p.19; Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, pp.114-115; Wilson, I., 1991, "Holy Faces, Secret Places: The Quest for Jesus' True Likeness," Doubleday: London, pp.150-151; Iannone, J.C., 1998, "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, p.154; Scavone, D.C., 1998, "A Hundred Years of Historical Studies on the Turin Shroud," Third International Congress on the Shroud of Turin, 6 June 1998, Turin, Italy, in Minor, M., Adler, A.D. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, pp.58-70, 63-64; Wilson, 1998, pp.146-147; Guerrera, 2001, p.104; de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.288G. [return]
75. "File:Hungarianpraymanuscript1192-1195.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 2 March 2019. [return]
76. "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 23 January 2020. [return]
77. de Wesselow, 2012, p.180. [return]
78. Fanti, G. & Malfi, P., 2015, "The Shroud of Turin: First Century after Christ!," Pan Stanford: Singapore, p.59; "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 23 January 2020 (footnotes omitted). [return]
79. "Pray Codex," Wikipedia, 23 January 2020. [return]
80. Wilson, 1998, p.297; "Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 26 November 2020. [return]
81. "Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 13 December 2020. [return]
82. "Clotilde of France: Marriage," Wikipedia, 29 October 2020. [return]
83. Oddone, n.d.; Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.297; Wilson, 2010, p.271. [return]
84. "Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Queen of Sardinia," Wikipedia, 16 June 2020. [return]
85. "French Revolution," Wikipedia, 25 December 2020. [return]
86. Wilson, 1997; Wilson, 1998, p.297; Wilson, 2010, p.271. [return]
87. "Kingdom of Sardinia: Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna," Wikipedia, 15 December 2020. [return]
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Posted: 24 November 2020. Updated: 30 December 2020.

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