Sunday, December 21, 2014

Index "L": Turin Shroud Encyclopedia

Turin Shroud Encyclopedia
© Stephen E. Jones

Index "L"

This is the index page, "L", entry #12, of my "Turin Shroud Encyclopedia." For more information about this series, see the Main Index "A-Z", and sub-indexes "S", "C," and "D." This entry will be followed by entry #13, "Lirey," which is why I am posting this sub-index "L." Also, to make these sub-index pages interesting, I will briefly cover a topic in it, in this case lepton, which will eventually be part of a full page entry on that topic.

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[Above right[2]: A Roman minted Jewish lepton coin[3] (the "widow's mite" of Mark 12:42 & Luke 21:2 KJV[4]).]

Roman coins, including leptons, with the prominent `shepherd's crook,' called in Latin a lituus[5], were only ever minted during the rule of the Roman Governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate (see Lk 3:1; Acts 4:27; 1Tim 6:13), between AD 29-32[6]. That is, covering the period of Jesus' death, which was either AD 30 or AD 33[7], but most likely AD 30[8].

[Above left. The right eye of the Man on the Shroud in the Enrie 1931 sepia print in Paul Vignon's "Le Saint Suaire de Turin"[9], scanned and then magnified[10].]

As can be seen, the image over the right eye of the Man on the Shroud clearly shows a tiny letter "A" to the left of the lituus (red arrow), and near its top. Also can be seen is the curled top of the lituus (orange arrow) and its tail (yellow arrow). The bottom half of a letter "K" above and to the right of the "A" and a letter "I" to the left and below the "A" can also be seen, each in the correct relative position to the lituus on a Pontius Pilate lepton[11]. The letters are part of the coin's original inscription, transliterated into English, "TIBERIOUKAICAROC" ("Tiberiou Kaisaros"), which is Greek for "Of Tiberius Caesar"[12]. Tiberius Caesar (42 BC–37 AD) was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD[13]. Because Enrie's 1931 photograph is a negative, the lituus and letters and lituus are a mirror image[14] of those on the actual lepton (above right). This is proof beyond reasonable doubt that the Man on the Shroud died (having been flogged, crowned with thorns, crucified and speared in the side[15]) in Judea soon after AD 29, as Jesus did! In future I will post an entry on the coins over the Man on the Shroud's eyes, where I will give further evidence that He can only have been Jesus. See also my "The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (5): Coins over eyes."

Click on an entry's hyperlink below to go to that entry. If an entry is not hyperlinked, it is a planned future entry in this Encyclopedia.

[lepton] [limestone] [linen] [Linick, T.W.] [Lirey]

1. This post is copyright. No one may copy from it or any of my posts on this my The Shroud of Turin blog without them first asking and receiving my written permission. Except that I grant permission, without having to ask me, for anyone to copy the title and one paragraph only (including one graphic) of any of my posts, provided that they include a reference to the title of, and a hyperlink to, that post from which it came. [return]
2. From my post, "The Shroud of Turin: 2.6. The other marks (5): Coins over eyes," May 10, 2013. [return]
3. Whanger, M. & Whanger, A.D., 1998, "The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure of Discovery," Providence House Publishers: Franklin TN, p.24. [return]
4. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus?," [1978], Image Books: New York NY, Revised edition, p.231. [return]
5. Filas, F.L., 1980, "The Dating of the Shroud of Turin from Coins of Pontius Pilate," Cogan Productions: Youngtown AZ, p.4. [return]
6. Ibid. [return]
7. Doig, K.F., 2013, "New Testament Chronology: Part IV, The Crucifixion of Jesus," 11 August. [return]
8. Doig, K.F., 2013, "New Testament Chronology Chapter 24. The 30 CE Crucifixion," 11 August. [return]
9. Vignon, P., 1939, "Le Saint Suaire de Turin: Devant La Science, L'archéologie, L'histoire, L'iconographie, La Logique," Masson et Cie. Éditeurs: Paris, Second edition, plate 1. [return]
10. This photo is not Photoshopped (I don't own Photoshop, nor do I know how to use it), nor has the photo been processed in any way. I have only scanned the image from Vignon's 1939 book, enlarged it and added arrows with Windows 7 standard software. The letters really are there in the correct relative positions, as anyone can prove for themselves by looking at the above photos and/or doing what I did. [return]
11. Moroni, M., 1991, "Pontius Pilate's Coin on the Right Eye of the Man in the Holy Shroud, in the Light of the New Archaeological Findings," in Berard, A., ed., 1991, "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, p.286. [return]
12. Filas, 1980, p.4. [return]
13. "Tiberius," Wikipedia, 15 December 2014. [return]
14. Moroni, 1991, p.286. [return]
15. de Wesselow, T., 2012, "The Sign: The Shroud of Turin and the Secret of the Resurrection," Viking: London, p.192. [return]

Created: 21 December, 2014. Updated: 27 December, 2014.

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